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Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dr Claude Jolicoeur.

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Présentation au sujet: "Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dr Claude Jolicoeur."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dr Claude Jolicoeur

2 Oppositional Defiant Disorder Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV), 4th edition, 1994, American Psychiatric Association Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV), 4th edition, 1994, American Psychiatric Association (update, and soon to be published ) (update DSM IV-TR, and soon to be published , DSM V) DSM IV-TR , DSM V

3 Criterion A Diagnostic Features The essential feature of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least 6 months Diagnostic Features The essential feature of Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a recurrent pattern of negativistic, defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior toward authority figures that persists for at least 6 months

4 Next 1 - and is characterized by the frequent occurrence of at least four of the following behaviors:

5 Criteria A1- losing temper A1- losing temper A2- arguing with adults A2- arguing with adults A3- actively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adults A3- actively defying or refusing to comply with the requests or rules of adults A4- deliberately doing things that will annoy other people A4- deliberately doing things that will annoy other people

6 Next 1 A5- blaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehavior A5- blaming others for his or her own mistakes or misbehavior A6- being touchy or easily annoyed by others A6- being touchy or easily annoyed by others A7- being angry and resentful A7- being angry and resentful A8- being spiteful or vindictive A8- being spiteful or vindictive

7 Criterion B To qualify for Oppositional Defiant Disorder, the behaviors must occur more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level and must lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning To qualify for Oppositional Defiant Disorder, the behaviors must occur more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level and must lead to significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning

8 Criterion C - The diagnosis is not made if the disturbance in behavior occurs exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder - The diagnosis is not made if the disturbance in behavior occurs exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder

9 Negativistic and defiant behaviors are expressed by. persistent stubbornness,. resistance to directions,. unwillingness to compromise, give in,. or negotiate with adults or peers.. persistent stubbornness,. resistance to directions,. unwillingness to compromise, give in,. or negotiate with adults or peers.

10 Next 1 Defiance may also include. deliberate or persistent testing of limits, usually by ignoring orders, arguing, and failing to accept blame for misdeeds.

11 Next 2 Hostility can be directed at adults or peers and is shown by deliberately - annoying others or by verbal aggression (usually without the more serious physical aggression seen in Conduct Disorder). Hostility can be directed at adults or peers and is shown by deliberately - annoying others or by verbal aggression (usually without the more serious physical aggression seen in Conduct Disorder).

12 Diagnostic criteria A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present: (1) often loses temper (2) often argues with adults (3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adultsrequests or rules (4) often deliberately annoys people A. A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present: (1) often loses temper (2) often argues with adults (3) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adultsrequests or rules (4) often deliberately annoys people

13 next (5) often blames other for his or her mistakes or behavior (6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others (7) is often angry and resentful (8) is often spiteful or vindicative (5) often blames other for his or her mistakes or behavior (6) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others (7) is often angry and resentful (8) is often spiteful or vindicative

14 Associated Features and Disorders to be more prevalent among those who, in the preschool years, have problematic temperaments (e.g., high reactivity, difficulty being soothed) or to be more prevalent among those who, in the preschool years, have problematic temperaments (e.g., high reactivity, difficulty being soothed) or high motor activity. During the school years, there may be low self- esteem, mood lability, low frustration tolerance, swearing, and the precocious use of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs. high motor activity. During the school years, there may be low self- esteem, mood lability, low frustration tolerance, swearing, and the precocious use of alcohol, tobacco, or illicit drugs.

15 next There are often conflicts with parents, teachers, and peers. There may be a vicious cycle in which the parent and child bring out the worst in each other. There are often conflicts with parents, teachers, and peers. There may be a vicious cycle in which the parent and child bring out the worst in each other. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more prevalent in families in which child care is disrupted by a succession of different caregivers or in families in which harsh, inconsistent, or neglectful child­ rearing practices are common. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more prevalent in families in which child care is disrupted by a succession of different caregivers or in families in which harsh, inconsistent, or neglectful child­ rearing practices are common.

16 Specific Age and Gender Features Because transient oppositional behavior is very common in preschool children and in adolescents, caution should be exercised in making the diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder especially during these developmental periods. The number of oppositional symptoms tends to increase with age. Because transient oppositional behavior is very common in preschool children and in adolescents, caution should be exercised in making the diagnosis of Oppositional Defiant Disorder especially during these developmental periods. The number of oppositional symptoms tends to increase with age.

17 next The disorder is more prevalent in males than in females before puberty, but the rates are probably equal after puberty. Symptoms are generally similar in each gender, except that males may have more confrontational behavior and more persistent symptoms. The disorder is more prevalent in males than in females before puberty, but the rates are probably equal after puberty. Symptoms are generally similar in each gender, except that males may have more confrontational behavior and more persistent symptoms.

18 Prevalence Rates of Oppositional Defiant Disorder from 2% to 16% have been reported, depending on the nature of the population sample and methods of ascertainment. Rates of Oppositional Defiant Disorder from 2% to 16% have been reported, depending on the nature of the population sample and methods of ascertainment.

19 Course Oppositional Defiant Disorder usually becomes evident before age 7 years and usually not later than early adolescence. Oppositional Defiant Disorder usually becomes evident before age 7 years and usually not later than early adolescence. The oppositional symptoms often emerge in the home setting but over time may appear in other settings as well. The oppositional symptoms often emerge in the home setting but over time may appear in other settings as well.

20 Next 1 Onset is typically gradual, usually occurring over the course of months or years. Onset is typically gradual, usually occurring over the course of months or years.

21 Next 2 In a significant proportion of cases, Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a developmental antecedent to Conduct Disorder In a significant proportion of cases, Oppositional Defiant Disorder is a developmental antecedent to Conduct Disorder

22 Familial Pattern Oppositional Defiant Disorder appears to be more common in families in which at least one parent has a history of a Mood Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, or a Substance- Related Disorder. Oppositional Defiant Disorder appears to be more common in families in which at least one parent has a history of a Mood Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder, or a Substance- Related Disorder.

23 Next 2 In addition, some studies suggest that mothers with a Depressive Disorder are more likely to have children with oppositional behavior, but it is unclear to what extent maternal depression results from or causes oppositional behavior in children. In addition, some studies suggest that mothers with a Depressive Disorder are more likely to have children with oppositional behavior, but it is unclear to what extent maternal depression results from or causes oppositional behavior in children.

24 Next 3 Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more common in families in which there is serious marital discord. Oppositional Defiant Disorder is more common in families in which there is serious marital discord.

25 Differential Diagnosis The disruptive behaviors of individuals with Oppositional Defiant Disorder are of a less severe nature than those of individuals with Conduct Disorder and typically do net include aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, or a pattern of theft or deceit The disruptive behaviors of individuals with Oppositional Defiant Disorder are of a less severe nature than those of individuals with Conduct Disorder and typically do net include aggression toward people or animals, destruction of property, or a pattern of theft or deceit

26 Next 1 Because ail of the features of Oppositional Defiant Disorder are usually present in Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder is not diagnosed if the criteria are met for Conduct Disorder. Because ail of the features of Oppositional Defiant Disorder are usually present in Conduct Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder is not diagnosed if the criteria are met for Conduct Disorder.

27 Next 2 Oppositional behavior is a common associated feature of Mood Disorders and Psychotic Disorders presenting in children and adolescents and should not be diagnosed separately if the symptoms occur exclusively during the course of a Mood or Psychotic Disorder Oppositional behavior is a common associated feature of Mood Disorders and Psychotic Disorders presenting in children and adolescents and should not be diagnosed separately if the symptoms occur exclusively during the course of a Mood or Psychotic Disorder

28 Next 3 Oppositional behaviors must also be distinguished from the disruptive behavior resulting from inattention and impulsivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Oppositional behaviors must also be distinguished from the disruptive behavior resulting from inattention and impulsivity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. When the two disorders co-occur, both diagnoses should be made. When the two disorders co-occur, both diagnoses should be made.

29 Disruptive Behavior disorder Not Otherwise Specified, This category is for disorders characterized by conduct or oppositional defiant behaviors that do not meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder. This category is for disorders characterized by conduct or oppositional defiant behaviors that do not meet the criteria for Conduct Disorder or Oppositional Defiant Disorder.

30 next For example, include clinical presentations that do not meet full criteria either for Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder, but in which there is clinically significant impairment. For example, include clinical presentations that do not meet full criteria either for Oppositional Defiant Disorder or Conduct Disorder, but in which there is clinically significant impairment.

31 Melissa, 7 y.o. Mélissa se refuse aux routines, dès le matin, Mélissa se refuse aux routines, dès le matin, de shabiller, de shabiller, de préparer sa toilette, de préparer sa toilette, de déjeûner, de déjeûner, mais veut seulement jouer, mais veut seulement jouer, regarder la télé regarder la télé

32 Suite 1 La jeune mère de 27 ans se dévalorise, au point de menacer de quitter la maison et tout laisser au père seul, La jeune mère de 27 ans se dévalorise, au point de menacer de quitter la maison et tout laisser au père seul, Pour lui, cest surtout la mère qui aurait du mal à se faire écouter, trop douce, incapable de tenir son bout comme lui. Pour lui, cest surtout la mère qui aurait du mal à se faire écouter, trop douce, incapable de tenir son bout comme lui.

33 Suite 2 Dans la crise, « la chaise revolle, Dans la crise, « la chaise revolle, elle donne des coups de pieds, de poings », à la mère surtout. elle donne des coups de pieds, de poings », à la mère surtout. Le soir, ne veut pas aller au lit Le soir, ne veut pas aller au lit Exige sur le champ, sans délai dattente Exige sur le champ, sans délai dattente

34 Suite 3 Elle aime grimper, sauter. Elle aime grimper, sauter. Elle na « peur de rien », Elle na « peur de rien », Mélissa bouge pas mal, depuis la tendre enfance: elle aurait même déboulé les escaliers destrade du Parc Jarry à 3 ans, par imprudence Mélissa bouge pas mal, depuis la tendre enfance: elle aurait même déboulé les escaliers destrade du Parc Jarry à 3 ans, par imprudence

35 Conners- parents, (enseigants) Évaluation questionnaire Conners parents : père (mère) : Opposition : 85 (126); inattention : 72 (63) ; hyperactivité : 86 (101); anxiété : 47 (86); Évaluation questionnaire Conners parents : père (mère) : Opposition : 85 (126); inattention : 72 (63) ; hyperactivité : 86 (101); anxiété : 47 (86); perfectionnisme : 55 (69); manque de sociabilité : 62 (55 ); psychosomatique : 65 (nil); perfectionnisme : 55 (69); manque de sociabilité : 62 (55 ); psychosomatique : 65 (nil); ADHD index : 79 (97); ADHD index : 79 (97); CGI impulsivité : 84 (97); CGI labilité émotive : 57 (113); CGI total : 77 (110) CGI impulsivité : 84 (97); CGI labilité émotive : 57 (113); CGI total : 77 (110) DSM-IV : parents (prof). inattention: 72 (75); hyperactivité- impulsivité: 84 (96); DSM-IV total : 83 (93) DSM-IV : parents (prof). inattention: 72 (75); hyperactivité- impulsivité: 84 (96); DSM-IV total : 83 (93)

36 Suite 4 En classe, elle dérange, mais serait influencée par une autre gamine très active qui lexcite, selon le père qui est contre la médication. En classe, elle dérange, mais serait influencée par une autre gamine très active qui lexcite, selon le père qui est contre la médication. Lui-même était turbulent, opposant, Lui-même était turbulent, opposant, Abandonne lécole en sec. 1 Abandonne lécole en sec. 1 Se fait expulsé de chez lui à 15 ans Se fait expulsé de chez lui à 15 ans

37 Suite 5 Mais reprend les études à 23 ans Mais reprend les études à 23 ans Termine secondaire Termine secondaire Fait cours des matériaux composites Fait cours des matériaux composites Travaille dans fibre de verrs Travaille dans fibre de verrs Mère fait actuellement le sec. 2. Mère fait actuellement le sec. 2.

38 Jonathan, 11 ans Il a beaucoup de misère à se concentrer, selon la jeune. Il a beaucoup de misère à se concentrer, selon la jeune. Il a de la misère à comprendre; il ne peut accorder ses verbes. Il a de la misère à comprendre; il ne peut accorder ses verbes. Et de plus, il refuse de faire des exercices. Et de plus, il refuse de faire des exercices.

39 Suite 1 Jonathan Pour les devoirs, « cest la guerre ». Pour les devoirs, « cest la guerre ». Cette année, il se fait expulser de laide aux devoirs, après lécole, pour induscipline. Cette année, il se fait expulser de laide aux devoirs, après lécole, pour induscipline. Dans la classe, « il parle, il rie fort, il lit un libre, il fait des blagues », et devient ainsi populaire parmi ses pairs. Dans la classe, « il parle, il rie fort, il lit un libre, il fait des blagues », et devient ainsi populaire parmi ses pairs.

40 Suite 2 Jonathan Le prof le place à lavant et lui demande de ne pas bouger, de cesser sa danse constante du pied. Le prof le place à lavant et lui demande de ne pas bouger, de cesser sa danse constante du pied.

41 Suite 3 Jonathan Excelle dans le sport, comme hockey Excelle dans le sport, comme hockey Récemment il refuse dalterner, aux minutes, son temps de glace comme les autres. Récemment il refuse dalterner, aux minutes, son temps de glace comme les autres. Il est très mauvais perdant Il est très mauvais perdant

42 Suite 4 Jonathan Jonathan est peu organisé dans ses affaires, et manifeste un grand désordre dans sa chambre. Jonathan est peu organisé dans ses affaires, et manifeste un grand désordre dans sa chambre. Le patient fait des oublis à répétition; il perd des chandails, souliers, des tuques, mitaines, crayons, etc. Il égare ses jeux favoris dans la maison. Il ne remplit pas son agenda et il ne connaît pas les devoirs à faire. Le patient fait des oublis à répétition; il perd des chandails, souliers, des tuques, mitaines, crayons, etc. Il égare ses jeux favoris dans la maison. Il ne remplit pas son agenda et il ne connaît pas les devoirs à faire. À la maison, il envahit vite la conversation des adultes, et donne son opinion sur tout, sans retenue. « Lui À la maison, il envahit vite la conversation des adultes, et donne son opinion sur tout, sans retenue. « Lui

43 Suite 5 Jonathan En classe, il se distrait, dérange les autres, parle fort, fait des blagues, refuse de travailler, de suivre les consigne. En classe, il se distrait, dérange les autres, parle fort, fait des blagues, refuse de travailler, de suivre les consigne. Il fait des erreurs dattention, il ne se donne pas la peine de corriger ses fautes. Il perd facilement le fil des idées du prof. ne peut suivre la dictée et saute des lignes Il fait des erreurs dattention, il ne se donne pas la peine de corriger ses fautes. Il perd facilement le fil des idées du prof. ne peut suivre la dictée et saute des lignes

44 Suite 1 Jonathan, fabulation Il change facilement sa version des faits, à quelques minutes de distance Il change facilement sa version des faits, à quelques minutes de distance

45 Suite 1 Jonathan: Insomnie, immaturité Il sendort mal le soir et se réveille souvent en pleine nuit, puis soccupe jusquau matin ou se lève tôt vers 5-6 heures. Alimentation limitée sur les légumes. Il sendort mal le soir et se réveille souvent en pleine nuit, puis soccupe jusquau matin ou se lève tôt vers 5-6 heures. Alimentation limitée sur les légumes. Petit, il pleurait souvent et ne fait pas ses nuits avant 24 mois. Petit, il pleurait souvent et ne fait pas ses nuits avant 24 mois.

46 Conners parents (enseigants) Évaluation questionnaire Conners parents (ens) : Opposition : 80 (88); inattention : 85 (78) ; hyperactivité : 100 (79); anxiété : 74 (75); Évaluation questionnaire Conners parents (ens) : Opposition : 80 (88); inattention : 85 (78) ; hyperactivité : 100 (79); anxiété : 74 (75); perfectionnisme : 54 (59); manque de sociabilité : 76 (48); psychosomatique : 66 ( nil ); perfectionnisme : 54 (59); manque de sociabilité : 76 (48); psychosomatique : 66 ( nil ); ADHD index : 83 (80); ADHD index : 83 (80); CGI impulsivité : 87 (80); CGI labilité émotive : 70 (91); CGI total : 85 (89) CGI impulsivité : 87 (80); CGI labilité émotive : 70 (91); CGI total : 85 (89) DSM-IV : parents (prof). inattention: 81 (78); hyperactivité- impulsivité: 97 (83); DSM-IV total : 90 (84) DSM-IV : parents (prof). inattention: 81 (78); hyperactivité- impulsivité: 97 (83); DSM-IV total : 90 (84)


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