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Recherches internationales sur le Qi Gong

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1 Recherches internationales sur le Qi Gong
Novembre 2013 Etudes réunies par l'IEQG-YS pour le Dr Yves Réquéna

2 Groundbreaking review of the "evidence base" for Qigong and Tai Chi
77 Medical Studies confirm the health benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi. Groundbreaking review of the "evidence base" for Qigong and Tai Chi The Most Comprehensive Review of the Health Benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong Published August 31, 2010 – The Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi (, a training division of Health Action Inc in Santa Barbara, California, in collaboration with Arizona State University and the University of Arizona just released a comprehensive review of the health benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong, Chinese wellness practices, published in the prestigious American Journal of Health Promotion (AJHP). The Chinese have had no need to prove that Qigong and Tai Chi are relevant, medically or scientifically as it is widely believed in Asia that these practices have great physical, mental and even spiritual benefits. The Asian societies have performed Qigong and Tai Chi consistently for millennia, i.e. these wellness practices are “tried and true." However, in the Western world Qigong and Tai Chi are not familiar. The norm is to hesitate to grant that a concept or process has relevance and credibility until it has been proven to have quantifiable benefits. In the past, when asked about the “evidence base” for Qigong and Tai Chi, most advocates would simply respond, “The Chinese have been doing these practices for thousands of years.  That is plenty of evidence of their value.” Now, a bona fide “evidence base” for Qigong and Tai Chi is emerging from within the scientific framework of the Western world. This recent collaboration to review the Qigong and Tai Chi literature has resulted in the most comprehensive review of the research literature on Qigong and Tai Chi that has ever been produced. Dr. Roger Jahnke, OMD and his colleague Dr. Linda Larkey, applied a rigorous criterion wherein only the best randomized controlled trials were considered in the review. The total of such research between 1993 and the end of 2007 was an impressive 77 trials. This review presents the entire Qigong and Tai Chi “evidence base” in one comprehensive presentation.

3 77 Medical Studies confirm the health benefits of Qigong and Tai Chi (suite).
The importance of the article is so significant that it was reviewed on ABC News. The total number of study participants was 6410 with the highest number of studies, 27, addressing psychological issues. Cardiac studies numbered 23 and falls prevention trials numbered 19. Other areas of positive influence included bone density, immune capacity, quality of life and physical function. The authors concluded that, “with the mounting evidence for health benefits and the current progress in research methodology, it is likely that Tai Chi and Qigong will play a strong role in the emerging integrative medicine system as well as in prevention based interventions in the evolving health care delivery system.” The researchers added, “The substantial potential for achieving health benefits, the minimal cost incurred by this form of self-care, the potential cost efficiencies of group delivered care, and the apparent safety of implementation across populations, points to the importance of wider implementation and dissemination of Qigong and Tai Chi.”   When asked what he felt was the most important aspect of the findings lead author, Dr. Jahnke stated, “This highly visible review of the research literature on the wellness practices of Asian medicine demonstrates that there is a profoundly rich “evidence base” for the efficacy and safety of Qigong and Tai Chi. In addition, it demonstrates that Qigong and Tai Chi have similar health benefits, clarifying that Qigong and Tai Chi are essentially equivalent forms of wellbeing enhancement practice. This is an historic and immense contribution to the research base of integrative medicine, wellness, gentle excise, mindfulness, health promotion, health-self reliance, self-care, stress mastery, mind-body practice and energy medicine.” Dr. Jahnke’s co-investigator and co-writer, Dr. Linda Larkey, commented, “based on the findings, our recommendations are that, with the magnitude of the research demonstrating the relevance of Qigong and Tai Chi, future research should  investigate more of the component aspects of these mind-body and meditative movement practices such as the amount of time required to gain benefit, the  frequency of practice, the mix of the key components (movement, breath, meditation), the depth of the mind focus, etc.” To request a copy of the article, Dr. Roger Jahnke For information on the Institute of Integral Qigong and Tai Chi visit Health Action Inc, founded in 1985, empowers people worldwide, through trainings, workshops, and information products to create healthy individuals, families, and communities.

4 1/ A Review of Qigong Therapy for Cancer Treatment
Kevin Chen Ph.D. and Raphael Yeung Originally Published in: Journal of the International Society of Life Information Science,20 (2) 2002. Abstract Research studies of Qigong therapy for cancer for the past 20 years in China were reviewed from three different categories: clinical study on human cancer patients, in- vitro study of cancer cells, and in-vivo study of cancer with Qigong therapy, in an attempt to understand the role Qigong therapy plays in cancer treatment. There is a lot of evidence suggesting that Qigong therapy has an inhibitory effect on can-cer growth, both in vitro and in vivo studies, as well as in clinical observation (often there was room for improvement in these studies and some studies require replication in order to verify their findings). Qigong therapy for cancer is an area that is often neglected by mainstream medicine and research, and it should be seriously examined and considered as an important supplement to conventional cancer treatment.

5 1/ Une analyse du Qi Gong thérapeutique dans le traitement du cancer
Résumé Des études sur le Qi Gong thérapeutique pour le traitement du cancer au cours des 20 dernières années en Chine ont été examinées à partir de trois catégories différentes : étude clinique sur des sujets humains atteints de cancer, étude in vitro de cellules cancéreuses, et étude in vivo du cancer avec utilisation du Qi Gong thérapeutique, pour essayer de comprendre le rôle du Qi Gong thérapeutique dans le traitement du cancer. Il existe beaucoup de preuves indiquant que le Qi Gong thérapeutique a un effet inhibiteur sur la croissance du cancer, à la fois dans les études in vitro et in vivo, ainsi que dans l'observation clinique (ces études pourraient souvent être améliorées, et certaines nécessitent d’être reproduites afin de vérifier leurs résultats). Le Qi Gong thérapeutique contre le cancer est un domaine qui est souvent négligé par la médecine traditionnelle et par la recherche. ll devrait être sérieusement analysé et considéré comme un complément important aux traitements classiques du cancer.

6 2/ Qigong for cancer treatment: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.
Lee MS, Chen KW, et al. Acta Oncol. 2007;46(6): Source: Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter & Plymouth, Exeter, UK. Abstract: Qigong is a mind-body integrative exercise or intervention from traditional Chinese medicine used to prevent and cure ailments, to improve health and energy levels through regular practice. The aim of this systematic review is to summarize and critically evaluate the effectiveness of qigong used as a stand-alone or additional therapy in cancer care. We have searched the literature using the following databases from their respective inceptions through November 2006: MEDLINE, AMED, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycInfo, The Cochrane Library 2006, Issue 4, four Korean Medical Databases, Qigong and Energy Medicine Database from Qigong Institute and four Chinese Databases. Randomised and non-randomised clinical trials including patients with cancer or past experience of cancer receiving single or combined qigong interventions were included. All clinical endpoints were considered. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Jadad score. Nine studies met our inclusion criteria (four were randomised trials and five were non-randomised studies). Eight of these trials tested internal qigong and one trial did not reported details. The methodological quality of these studies varies greatly and was generally poor. All trials related to palliative/supportive cancer care and none to qigong as a curative treatment. Two trials suggested effectiveness in prolonging life of cancer patients and one failed to do so. We conclude that the effectiveness of qigong in cancer care is not yet supported by the evidence from rigorous clinical trials.

7 3/ Impact of medical Qigong on quality of life, fatigue, mood and inflammation in cancer patients: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Oncol. 2010 Mar;21(3): doi: /annonc/mdp479. Epub 2009 Oct 30. Oh B, Butow P, Mullan B, Clarke S, Beale P, Pavlakis N, Kothe E, Lam L, Rosenthal D. Source: Department of Medicine, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, University of Sydney, Concord, New South Wales, Australia. Abstract BACKGROUND: Substantial numbers of cancer patients use complementary medicine therapies, even without a supportive evidence base. This study aimed to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial, the use of Medical Qigong (MQ) compared with usual care to improve the quality of life (QOL) of cancer patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred and sixty-two patients with a range of cancers were recruited. QOL and fatigue were measured by Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue, respectively, and mood status by Profile of Mood State. The inflammatory marker serum C-reactive protein (CRP) was monitored serially. RESULTS: Regression analysis indicated that the MQ group significantly improved overall QOL (t(144) = , P < ), fatigue (t(153) = , P < 0.001), mood disturbance (t(122) =2.346, P = 0.021) and inflammation (CRP) (t(99) = 2.042, P < 0.044) compared with usual care after controlling for baseline variables. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that MQ can improve cancer patients' overall QOL and mood status and reduce specific side-effects of treatment. It may also produce physical benefits in the long term through reduced inflammation.

8 3/ Impact du Qi Gong médical sur la qualité de la vie, la fatigue, l’humeur et les inflammations chez les patients atteints de cancer : un test aléatoire contrôlé. Résumé Contexte : un nombre important de patients atteints de cancer utilise les thérapies de médecine complémentaire, même sans base de données à l’appui. Cette étude avait pour but d’évaluer, lors d’un test contrôlé randomisé, l’utilisation du Qi Gong médical (MQ) comparativement aux soins habituels destinés à améliorer la qualité de vie (QOL ) des patients atteints de cancer. Résultats : L’analyse de régression a montré que le groupe MQ a amélioré de façon significative la qualité de vie globale (t(144) = , P < 0.001), la fatigue (t(153) = , P < 0.001), les troubles de l’humeur (t(122) =2.346, P = 0.021) et l’inflammation (CRP) (t(99) = 2.042, P < 0.044) par rapport aux soins habituels, après contrôle des variables de base. Conclusions : Cette étude indique que le Qi Gong médical peut améliorer la qualité de vie globale et l’état de l’humeur des patients cancéreux, et réduire les effets secondaires spécifiques du traitement. Des bénéfices physiques peuvent aussi être produits dans le long terme, par une réduction de l’inflammation.

9 4/ Qigong ameliorates symptoms of chronic fatigue: a pilot uncontrolled study.
Craske NJ, Turner W, et al. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2009;6(2): Source: Researcher & Lecturer in Qigong & Shiatsu, Room D001, University of Derby, Chevin Road, Mickleover, DERBY, DE3 9GX, UK. Abstract Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners consider that chronic fatigue reflects a disharmony and depletion in the supply of qi in the body. Qigong is one of the traditional complementary interventions used to strengthen qi through self-practice, and to manage the state of qi to prevent and cure disease. The aim of this study is to assess whether qigong could be used to manage the symptoms of chronic fatigue. Eighteen Caucasian, British female participants were recruited, taught a qigong routine during weekly classes over 6 months, and asked to practice it daily for 15 min. Participants completed the core set of the RAND Medical Outcomes Study questionnaire (RAND MOS) and a sleep diary during the 2- week baseline control period, and at 3 and 6 months following the start of the trial. The qigong intervention resulted in significant changes in sleep rate score and in the following subscales of the RAND MOS: SF36 Vitality, Sleep Problems, Social Activity, Social Activity Limitation due to Health, Health Distress, Mental Health Index and Psychological Well-being. Qigong seems to improve factors related to chronic fatigue such as sleep, pain, mental attitude and general mobility after 3 and 6 months. Qigong's positive effects indicate that it represents a potentially safe method of treatment for chronic fatigued patients. However, we cannot completely discount the possible influence of placebo effects, and more objective clinical measures are needed to reproduce our findings with long-term follow-up in a randomized, controlled study involving a larger number of subjects.

10 4/ Le Qi Gong remédie aux symptômes de la fatigue chronique : une étude pilote non contrôlée.
Résumé Les praticiens de médecine traditionnelle chinoise considèrent que la fatigue chronique reflète un manque d’harmonie et une diminution de la quantité de Qi dans le corps. Le Qi Gong est une des pratiques complémentaires traditionnelles utilisées pour renforcer le Qi, à travers l’auto-pratique, et pour gérer l’état du Qi afin de prévenir et guérir la maladie. L’objectif de cette étude est de déterminer si le Qi Gong pourrait être utilisé pour gérer les symptômes de la fatigue chronique. Dix-huit participants de sexe féminin, des britanniques de type caucasien, ont été recrutés. Un enchainement de Qi Gong leur a été enseigné lors de cours hebdomadaires pendant 6 mois, et il leur a été demandé de le pratiquer quotidiennement pendant 15 minutes. Les participantes ont rempli l’ensemble du questionnaire RAND Medical Outcomes Study (RAND MOS), ainsi qu’un agenda de sommeil durant la période de contrôle initiale de 2 semaines, et à 3 et 6 mois suivant le début du test. L’intervention du Qi Gong a donné lieu à d’importants changements dans le score du taux de sommeil ainsi que dans les sous-échelles suivantes du RAND MOS : Vitalité SF36, troubles du sommeil, activité sociale, limitation des activités sociales en raison de la santé, détresse de la santé, indice de la santé mentale et bien-être psychologique. Le Qi Gong semble améliorer les facteurs liés à la fatigue chronique tels que le sommeil, la douleur, l'attitude mentale et la mobilité générale après 3 et 6 mois. Les effets positifs du Qi Gong indiquent qu'il représente une méthode potentiellement sûre de traitement pour les patients fatigués chroniques. Cependant, nous ne pouvons pas écarter complètement la possible influence de l'effet placebo, et des mesures cliniques plus objectives sont nécessaires pour reproduire nos résultats avec un suivi à long terme, au cours d’une étude contrôlée randomisée, impliquant un plus grand nombre de sujets.

11 5/ The effect of Qigong on depressive and anxiety symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Wang CW, Chan CL, Ho RT, Tsang HW, Chan CH, Ng SM. Epub 2013 May 20 Source : Centre on Behavioral Health, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Abstract Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist. Results. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms when compared to waiting-list controls or usual care only (SMD = -0.75; 95% CI, to -0.06), group newspaper reading (SMD = -1.24; 95% CI, to -0.84), and walking or conventional exercise (SMD = -0.52; 95% CI, to -0.19), which might be comparable to that of cognitive- behavioral therapy (P = 0.54). Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted.

12 5/ L'effet du Qi Gong sur les symptômes de la dépression et de l'anxiété : une analyse méthodique et une méta-analyse de tests contrôlés randomisés. Objectif : Evaluer les preuves du test clinique de l'efficacité des exercices de Qi Gong sur les symptômes de la dépression et de l’anxiété. Méthodes : Treize bases de données ont été examinées depuis leur création respective jusqu’à fin décembre Des tests contrôlés randomisés (RCTs) pertinents ont été inclus. Les effets du Qi Gong au cours des essais ont été regroupés. Des différences moyennes standardisées (SMDs) ont été calculées pour les effets communs. L'hétérogénéité a été évaluée en utilisant le test I(2). La qualité des études a été évaluée en utilisant la liste de contrôle Wayne. Résultats : Douze RCTs ont satisfait aux critères d'inclusion. Les résultats des méta-analyses ont indiqué un effet bénéfique des exercices de Qi Gong sur les symptômes de dépression par rapport aux témoins en liste d'attente ou aux seuls soins habituels (SMD = -0.75, IC 95%, -1,44 à - 0,06), au groupe de lecture de journaux (SMD = -1.24, IC -1,64 à -0,84), et à la marche ou à l’exercice conventionnel (SMD = -0.52; 95% CI, to -0.19), ce qui pourrait être comparable à celui de la thérapie cognitivo-comportementale (P = 0,54). Les données disponibles n’indiquaient pas un effet bénéfique du Qi Gong sur les symptômes de l'anxiété. Conclusion : Le Qi Gong peut être potentiellement bénéfique pour la gestion des symptômes de la dépression, mais les résultats doivent être interprétés avec prudence en raison du nombre limité de tests cliniques aléatoires et des faiblesses méthodologiques associées. D’autres RCTs rigoureusement conçus sont attendus.

13 6/ Effects of scheduled qigong exercise on pupils' well-being, self-image, distress, and stress.
Terjestam Y, Jouper J, Johansson C. J Altern Complement Med. 2010;16(9): Source : School of Education, Psychology and Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden. Abstract OBJECTIVES: Psychologic problems is increasing among pupils and has become a major problem in Sweden as well as in other Western countries. The aim of this study was to explore whether scheduled qigong exercise could have an effect on well-being at school, psychologic distress, self-image, and general stress. SUBJECTS: Pupils, years, were assigned to either a qigong group or a control group. INTERVENTION: The qigong group had scheduled qigong 2 times a week for 8 weeks. MEASURES: Self-reported well-being at school, psychologic distress, self-image, and stress were measured pre- and postintervention. RESULTS: The control group had reduced well-being at school during the semester and the qigong group was stable. The qigong group reduced psychologic distress and stress, and had a tendency to improved self-image, whereas no changes were found in the control group. Self-image explains 47% (R(2) = 0.47) of well-being at school, and stress explains 29% (R(2) = 0.29) of psychologic distress. CONCLUSIONS: Scheduled qigong, meditative movement, is a possible way to improve well-being at school.

14 6/ Effets des exercices réguliers de Qi Gong sur le bien-être, l'image de soi, l’angoisse et le stress des élèves. Résumé Objectifs : Les troubles psychologiques sont en augmentation chez les élèves et sont devenus un problème majeur en Suède, ainsi que dans d'autres pays occidentaux. L'objectif de cette étude était d'examiner si la pratique régulière du Qi Gong pouvait avoir un effet sur le bien-être à l'école, la détresse psychologique, l'image de soi, et le stress en général. Sujets : Les élèves de ans ont été assignés soit à un groupe de Qi Gong soit à un groupe de contrôle (groupe témoin). Application: Le groupe de Qi Gong avait prévu de pratiquer 2 fois par semaine pendant 8 semaines. Mesures : Le bien-être auto-déclaré à l'école, la détresse psychologique, l'image de soi et le stress ont été mesurés avant et après intervention. Résultats : Le bien-être à l'école avait été réduit chez le groupe contrôle au cours du semestre et avait été stable pour le groupe de Qi Gong. La détresse psychologique et le stress ont été réduits pour le groupe de Qi Gong, et l'image de soi présentait une tendance à l'amélioration, alors qu'aucun changement n'avait été constaté dans le groupe témoin. L'image de soi explique 47% (R (2) = 0,47) du bien-être à l'école, et le stress explique 29% (R (2) = 0,29) de la détresse psychologique. Conclusion : La pratique régulière de Qi Gong, mouvement méditatif, est une voie possible pour améliorer le bien-être à l'école.

15 7/ Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.
J Hypertens. 2007 Aug;25(8): Lee MS, Pittler MH, Guo R, Ernst E. Source : Complementary Medicine, Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth, Exeter, UK. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To assess systematically the clinical evidence of qigong for hypertension. METHODS: Databases were searched up to August All randomized clinical trials (RCTs) testing qigong in patients with hypertension of any origin and assessing clinically relevant outcomes were considered. Trials using any type of control intervention were included. The selection of studies, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by at least two reviewers. Methodological quality was evaluated using the Jadad score. RESULTS: A total of 121 potentially relevant articles were identified and 12 RCTs were included. Seven RCTs tested qigong in combination with antihypertensive drugs compared with antihypertensive drugs alone. The meta-analysis of two trials reporting adequate data suggested beneficial effects in favour of qigong [weighted mean difference, systolic blood pressure (SBP) mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) to -7.0; diastolic blood pressure -8.5 mmHg, 95% CI to -4.4]. Qigong was compared with waiting list control in two RCTs and was found to reduce SBP significantly (weighted mean difference mmHg, 95% CI to ). In three further RCTs the comparisons made were: qigong combined with conventional therapy versus muscle relaxation combined with conventional therapy; qigong as a sole treatment versus exercise. All reported positive results in at least some of the relevant outcome measures. The methodological quality of the studies was low. CONCLUSION: There is some encouraging evidence of qigong for lowering SBP, but the conclusiveness of these findings is limited. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to confirm these results.

16 7/ Le Qi Gong contre l'hypertension: une analyse méthodique de tests cliniques randomisés.
Résumé Objectif : évaluer systématiquement les preuves cliniques du Qi Gong contre l'hypertension. Méthodes : les bases de données ont été examinées jusqu'à Août Tous les tests cliniques randomisés (RCTs) testant le Qi Gong chez les patients souffrant d'hypertension de toute origine, et évaluant les résultats cliniquement pertinents, ont été pris en compte. Les tests utilisant n'importe quel type d'intervention de contrôle ont été inclus. La sélection des études, l'extraction des données et l'évaluation de la qualité ont été réalisées indépendamment par au moins deux examinateurs. La qualité méthodologique a été évaluée en utilisant le score de Jadad. Résultats : Un total de 121 articles potentiellement pertinents ont été identifiés, et 12 RCTs ont été inclus. Sept RCTs ont testé le Qi Gong combiné à des médicaments antihypertenseurs par rapport aux médicaments antihypertenseurs seuls. La méta-analyse de deux essais rendant compte de données adéquates suggéra des effets bénéfiques en faveur du Qi Gong [ différence moyenne pondérée , la pression artérielle systolique (SBP) -12,1 mmHg, intervalle de confiance à 95 % (IC ) de -17,1 à -7,0 ; pression artérielle diastolique -8.5 mmHg , IC -12,6 à -4,4 ] . Le Qi Gong a été comparé à la liste d’attente de contrôle dans deux RCTs et a été reconnu pour avoir réduit considérablement la SBP (différence moyenne pondérée mmHg , IC -23,1 à -13,9 95%). Dans trois autres RCTs les comparaisons effectuées étaient : Le Qi Gong combiné à la thérapie conventionnelle par rapport à la relaxation musculaire associée à la thérapie conventionnelle ; le Qi Gong comme unique traitement par rapport à l'exercice. Tous ont indiqué des résultats positifs dans au moins quelques-uns des indicateurs de résultats pertinents. La qualité méthodologique des études était faible. Conclusion : Il existe des preuves encourageantes indiquant que le Qi Gong puisse abaisser la SBP, mais la valeur probante de ces résultats est limitée. Des tests rigoureusement élaborés sont nécessaires pour confirmer ces résultats.

17 8/ Internal qigong for pain conditions: a systematic review.
Lee MS, Pittler MH, Ernst E. J Pain. 2009;10(11): e14. Source: Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea. Abstract: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of internal qigong as a treatment option for pain conditions. Nineteen databases were searched through to February Controlled clinical trials testing internal qigong in patients with pain of any origin assessing clinical outcome measures were considered. Trials using any type of internal qigong and control intervention were included. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validation were performed independently by 2 reviewers. Four randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and 3 controlled clinical trials met all inclusion criteria. One RCT suggested no significant difference for low back pain compared with electromyographic biofeedback. Two RCTs failed to show effects of internal qigong in neck pain compared with exercise therapy and waiting list control. One RCT suggested that qigong is inferior to aerobic exercise in patients with fibromyalgia. There are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of internal qigong in the management of pain conditions. Collectively, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management. PERSPECTIVE: This review of controlled clinical trials focused on the effects of internal qigong, a self- directed energy healing intervention involving movement and meditation. Collectively, the existing trial evidence is not convincing enough to suggest that internal qigong is an effective modality for pain management. Future studies should be of high quality with particular emphasis on designing an adequate control intervention.

18 9/ Effects of Qi-therapy on premenstrual syndrome.
Jang HS, Lee MS, et al. Int J Neurosci. 2004;114(8): Source: Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan, Korea. Abstract This study investigated the effects of Qi-therapy (nine sessions over two menstrual cycles) on pain and other symptoms in women with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Forty-six women who were attending college were randomly allocated to receive Qi- therapy (Qi-therapy group: n = 23) or placed on a waiting list as controls (n = 22: 1 dropped out). Qi-therapy had a significant effect on pain and water retention. In addition, there were significant short-term effects on pain, mental depression, and anxiety. These results suggested that Qi-therapy might be useful as a nursing intervention for women who suffer from PMS to maintain or restore a balance of Qi.

19 10/ Modulation of neuroendocrinological function by psychosomatic training
ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Ryu H, Lee MS, et al. Psychoneuroendocrinology Jul;25(5): Modulation of neuroendocrinological function by psychosomatic training: acute effect of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in men Abstract The neuroendocrine system is regarded as the major link between the psychological state and the immune system in man. The present study was undertaken to examine the acute effect of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training, a traditional psychosomatic training, on the plasma level of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and insulin like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in young men. To characterize the plasma level of hormones and the pattern of IGFBP-3 at pre- (-10 min), mid-time (40 min), and immediately after (post-time, +10 min) Qi-training, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and western ligand blot (WLB) analysis were used. The plasma level of GH at the mid-time was significantly increased (P<0.05) compared to the level at pre-time of Qi-training. The plasma level of IGF-I was also increased at mid-time (P<0.05) and immediately after Qi-training. There was a significant correlation between the levels of GH and IGF-I immediately after Qi-training (r=0.69, P<0.01). In this study, the change of IGFBP-3 among the several IGFBPs was determined. There was a relative shift in IGFBP-3 for the 43-kDa fraction during mid-time of Qi-training (P<0.05). These results suggest that Qi-training influences the growth hormone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 status via brain-target organ axis in men.

20 10/ Modulation de la fonction neuroendocrinienne par l’entrainement psychosomatique
La modulation de la fonction neuroendocrinienne par l’entrainement psychosomatique : effet aigu du ‘ChunDoSunBup Qi-training’ sur l'hormone de croissance, facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline (IGF)-I et le facteur de croissance liant les protéines analogue à l’'insuline (IGFBP) -3 chez les hommes Résumé  Le système neuroendocrinien est considéré comme le lien principal entre l'état psychologique et le système immunitaire chez l’homme. La présente étude a été entreprise pour examiner l'effet aigu du ‘ChunDoSunBup Qi-training’, une pratique psychosomatique traditionnelle, sur la concentration plasmatique de l'hormone de croissance (GH), facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline (IGF ) -I et le facteur de croissance liant les protéines analogue à l’'insuline (IGFBP) -3 chez les jeunes hommes. Pour caractériser la concentration plasmatique des hormones et le schéma de l'IGFBP -3 au préalable (10 min), à mi-temps (40 min), et immédiatement après (post-temps, +10 min) le Qi-training, l’essai radio-immunologique (RIA) et l’analyse occidentale Western Ligand Blot (WLB) ont été utilisés. Le taux plasmatique de GH à mi-temps a été augmenté de façon significative (P <0,05 ) par rapport au niveau pré-temps de Qi-training. Le taux plasmatique d'IGF -I a été également augmenté à mi-temps (P <0,05) et immédiatement après le Qi-training. Il y avait une corrélation significative entre les niveaux de GH et d'IGF -I immédiatement après le Qi-training (r = 0,69, P <0,01). Dans cette étude, le changement de l'IGFBP-3 parmi les différents IGFBP a été déterminé. Il y avait un décalage par rapport à l'IGFBP-3 pour la fraction de 43 kDa au milieu du Qi-training (P <0,05). Ces résultats suggèrent que le Qi-training influe sur l'hormone de croissance, l'IGF- I et IGFBP-3, via l’axe organe – cerveau chez les hommes.

21 11/ Qi-training (qigong) enhanced immune functions: what is the underlying mechanism?
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Lee MS, Kim MK, Ryu H. Int J Neurosci Aug;115(8): Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract The authors observed that Qi-training enhances immune function and modulates neurohormone concentrations. The exact signal and priming mechanism for enhanced neutrophil function by Qi- training has not yet been demonstrated. This study investigated the effect of Qi-training on intracellular signaling leading to the enhancement of immune function. The growth hormone (GH) concentrations and O2- production by neutrophils (PMNs) was significantly increased after 1 h of Qi-training compared with the basal state. To verify that endogenous GH mediates the priming of PMNs, serum obtained from elderly subjects in the basal state and after Qi-training was incubated with neutrophils isolated from young subjects for 60 min and triggered with N-formyl-1-methionyl-1-leucyl-1-phenylalanine (fMLP). Significant O2- production was observed in the PMNs incubated with serum collected after a Qi-training (p < .05). On the other hand, the priming effect on the PMNs was abolished in Qi-training sera depleted of endogenous GH with anti-human GH polyclonal antibody (p < .01) and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein (p < .01). The authors suggest that the endogenous GH released during and immediately after Qi-training mediates the priming events through tyrosine kinase activation in PMNs.

22 11/ Le Qi-training (Qi Gong) améliore les fonctions immunitaires : quel est le mécanisme sous-jacent ? Résumé Les auteurs ont observé que le Qi-training améliore la fonction immunitaire et module les concentrations de neurohormones. Le signal exact et le mécanisme d'amorçage pour améliorer la fonction des neutrophiles par Qi- training n'a pas encore été démontré. Cette étude a examiné l'effet du Qi-training sur la signalisation intracellulaire conduisant à l' amélioration de la fonction immunitaire. Les concentrations d'hormone de croissance (GH) et la production d’O2 par les neutrophiles (PMNs) ont été augmentés de façon significative après 1 h de Qi-training par rapport à l'état de base. Pour vérifier que la GH endogène sert d’intermédiaire à l'amorçage du PMN, le sérum provenant de sujets âgés dans l'état de base et après le Qi-training a été incubé avec des neutrophiles isolés de jeunes sujets pendant 60 min et déclenché avec la N- formyl- 1 -méthionyl -1- leucyl -1- phénylalanine ( fMLP ) . Une production significative d’O2 a été observée dans les PMN incubées avec du sérum prélevé après un Qi-training (p < .05 ). D'autre part, l'effet d'amorçage sur les PMN été aboli en Qi-training sérum appauvri endogène de GH avec l'anticorps polyclonaux anti- GH humaine ( p < .01 ) et l'inhibiteur de tyrosine kinase , génistéine (p < .01 ) . Les auteurs suggèrent que l' hormone de croissance endogène libéré pendant et immédiatement après la médiation Qi- formation les événements d'amorçage via l'activation de la tyrosine kinase dans les PMN .

23 12/ Endocrine and immune effects of Qi-training.
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Kang CW, et al. Int J Neurosci Apr;114(4): Source: Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine and Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract Psychoneuroimmunological approaches have shown that Qi-training influences the holistic health state in men. We found that Qi-training increased the plasma level of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I. In addition, the respiratory function and adhesion capacity of neutrophil was increased after Qi-training. In an in vitro analysis, GH primed and increased the respiratory function and adhesion of neutrophils through tyrosin kinase passway. Taken together, in vivo and in vitro data suggest that the beneficial effects of Qi-training on immunological functions are mediated via neuroendocrine responses.

24 12/ Les effets endocriniens et immunitaires du Qi-training.
Résumé Les approches psychoneuroimmunologiques ont montré que le Qi-training influe sur l'état de santé globale chez les hommes. Nous avons constaté que le Qi-training a augmenté la concentration plasmatique de l'hormone de croissance (GH) et du facteur de croissance analogue à l'insuline (IGF)-I. En outre, la fonction respiratoire et la capacité d'adhésion des neutrophiles a augmenté après le Qi-training. Dans une analyse in vitro, la GH a amorcé et a augmenté la fonction respiratoire et l'adhésion des neutrophiles à travers la tyrosine kinase . Prises dans leur ensemble, les données in vivo et in vitro suggèrent que les effets bénéfiques du Qi-training sur les fonctions immunologiques sont provoqués par les réponses neuroendocriniennes.

25 13/ Effects of Qigong on immune cells.
Lee MS, Huh HJ, et al. Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(2): Source: Department of Qi-Medicine, Institute of Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of two acute Qigong interventions (Qi- training and Qi-therapy) on immune cells. The Qigong interventions were compared with placebo training and placebo therapy in which no attempt was made to gather or move Qi. Immune cell numbers were measured pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention and 1 or 2 hours post-intervention. White blood cells increased significantly 2 hours after actual Qi- training (p < 0.05) but not sham training compared with pre-intervention There were significant increases in lymphocytes 2 hours after actual but not sham Qi-training (p < 0.05) and monocyte numbers were significantly increased immediately after both actual Qi-training (p < 0.01) and sham training (p < 0.05). NK cell numbers decreased significantly both immediately after Qi- training and after sham movements done without concomitant Qi-training (p < 0.01). There were no significant effects on neutrophils. Actual Qi-therapy but not sham therapy increased monocyte numbers immediately after Qi-therapy, and lymphocytes increased more after real than after sham therapy. Neutrophils were again little changed The data indicate that a single Qigong intervention can increase the monocyte and lymphocyte numbers.

26 13/ Les effets du Qi Gong sur les cellules immunitaires.
Résumé Le but de cette étude était d'étudier l'influence de deux interventions de Qi Gong de courte durée ( Qi-training et Qi-therapy) sur les cellules immunitaires . Les interventions de Qi Gong ont été comparées à une pratique et à un traitement placebo dans lesquels aucune tentative n'a été faite pour rassembler ou faire circuler le Qi. Le nombre de cellules immunitaires a été mesuré avant l'intervention, immédiatement après l'intervention, et 1 ou 2 heures après l'intervention. Les globules blancs ont augmenté de manière significative 2 heures après un Qi- training réel (p < 0,05), mais après pas le simulacre de pratique, par rapport aux pré- interventions. Il y a eu des augmentations significatives de lymphocytes 2 heures après la pratique réelle mais pas après le simulacre (p < 0,05) ; et le nombre de monocytes a considérablement augmenté immédiatement après les deux pratiques, la réelle (p < 0,01) et la fausse (p < 0,05). Le nombre de cellules NK a diminué de manière significative à la fois immédiatement après le Qi-training et après les mouvements fictifs effectués sans Qi-training concomitant (p < 0,01). Il n'y a pas eu d'effets significatifs sur les neutrophiles. Le nombre de monocytes a augmenté immédiatement après la Qi-thérapie, et pas après la thérapie placebo ; et les lymphocytes ont davantage augmenté après le traitement réel, par rapport au traitement factice. Les neutrophiles ont encore une fois peu évolué. Les données indiquent qu'une intervention seule de Qi Gong peut augmenter le nombre de monocytes et de lymphocytes.

27 14/ Qi-training and immunological parameters: a cross-sectional study.
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Kim MK, et al. Int J Neurosci Aug;116(8):921-6. Source: Center for Integrative Medicine Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract This article examined the effects of qi-training on peripheral T lymphocyte concentrations in a cross-sectional study involving three groups of subjects: normal healthy subjects (n = 22) and two groups of qi trainees (group Q1: qi-training for 1-12 months, n = 52; and group Q2: qi- training for >12 months, n = 63). Nonparametric statistical tests revealed significant differences between the groups in TH/TS/C ratio (p < .001) and in the ratio of memory TH lymphocytes (CD45RA-) to naïve TH lymphocytes (CD45RA+) (p < .001). These findings suggest that qi-training modulates peripheral T lymphocyte concentrations. However, the functional modulation of T helper lymphocytes should be tested in a larger population and compared with other interventions.

28 15/ Acute effect of qi-training on natural killer cell subsets and cytotoxic activity.
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee M, Kang CW, Ryu H. Int J Neurosci Feb;115(2): Source: Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine and Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract This study assesses the effects of Qi-training on natural killer cell cytotoxicity. Nine experimental subjects did 1 h of Qi-training, and 9 control subjects relaxed during the same time. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity increased 60% immediately after Qi-training (p<.01) and returned to the basal level within 2 h after training. Natural killer cell subset number did not change after Qi-training. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity and cell number were not significantly correlated. These data suggest that Qi-training has an acute stimulatory effect on natural killer cell activity, but has no effect on phenotypical changes in the natural killer cell subset.

29 15/ Effet aigu du Qi-training sur les sous-ensembles de cellules tueuses naturelles et l'activité cytotoxique. Résumé Cette étude évalue les effets du Qi-training sur la cytotoxicité des cellules tueuses naturelles. Neuf sujets expérimentaux ont pratiqué 1 h de Qi- training, et 9 sujets témoins se sont détendus pendant le même temps. La cytotoxicité des cellules tueuses naturelles a augmenté de 60% immédiatement après le Qi-training (p <.01) et a retrouvé son niveau de base dans les 2 h après la pratique. Le nombre de cellules tueuses naturelles du sous-groupe n'a pas changé après le Qi-training. La cytotoxicité des cellules tueuses naturelles et le nombre de cellules n'étaient pas significativement corrélés. Ces données suggèrent que le Qi- training a un effet stimulant aigu sur ​​l'activité des cellules tueuses naturelles, mais n'a aucun effet sur ​​les variations phénotypiques dans le sous-ensemble de cellules tueuses naturelles.

30 16/ Changes in cytokine production in healthy subjects practicing Guolin Qigong : a pilot study.
=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Jones BM. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2001;1:8. Epub 2001 Oct 18. Source: Division of Clinical Immunology, Pathology Department, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Abstract BACKGROUND: Guolin Qigong is a combination of meditation, controlled breathing and physical movement designed to control the vital energy (qi) of the body and consequently to improve spiritual, physical and mental health. Practice of Qigong has been reported to alter immunological function, but there have been few studies of its effects on cytokines, the key regulators of immunity. METHODS: Numbers of peripheral blood cytokine-secreting cells were determined by ELISPOT in 19 healthy volunteers aged , before they were taught the practice of Qigong and after 3, 7 and 14 weeks of daily practice. The effect of Qigong on blood cortisol was also examined. RESULTS: Numbers of IL4 and IL12-secreting cells remained stable. IL6 increased at 7 weeks and TNFalpha increased in unstimulated cultures at 3 and 7 weeks but decreased at these times in LPS and SAC-stimulated cultures. Of particular interest, IFNgamma-secreting cells increased and IL10-secreting cells decreased in PHA-stimulated cultures, resulting in significant increases in the IFNgamma:IL10 ratio. Cortisol, a known inhibitor of type 1 cytokine production, was reduced by practicing Qigong. CONCLUSION: These preliminary studies in healthy subjects, although not necessarily representative of a randomized healthy population and not including a separate control group, have indicated that blood levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol may be lowered by short-term practice of Qigong and that there are concomitant changes in numbers of cytokine-secreting cells. Further studies of the effect of Qigong in patients with clinical diseases known to be associated with type 2 cytokine predominance are merited.

31 16/ Évolution de la production de cytokine chez des sujets sains pratiquant le Guolin Qi Gong : une étude pilote. Résumé Contexte : Le Guolin Qi Gong est une combinaison de méditation, de respiration contrôlée et de mouvements physiques, conçue pour contrôler l'énergie vitale (Qi) du corps et par conséquent pour améliorer la santé spirituelle, mentale et physique. On a montré que la pratique du Qi Gong modifie la fonction immunologique, mais peu d'études concernant ses effets sur les cytokines, les régulateurs clés de l'immunité, ont été effectuées. Méthodes: Le nombre de cellules sécrétant des cytokines a été déterminé par ELISPOT chez 19 volontaires sains âgés de 27 à 55 ans, avant que l’on leur enseigne la pratique de Qi Gong, et après 3, 7 et 14 semaines de pratique quotidienne. L'effet du Qi Gong sur le cortisol sanguin a également été examiné. Résultats : Le nombre de cellules sécrétrices IL4 et IL12 est resté stable. IL6 a augmenté à 7 semaines et TNFalpha a augmenté dans les cultures non stimulées à 3 et 7 semaines, mais a diminué à ces moments dans les cultures stimulées par SAC et LPS. De façon intéressante, les cellules sécrétrices d'IFNgamma ont augmenté et les cellules sécrétrices d' IL10 ont diminué dans les cultures stimulées par PHA , résultant en une augmentation significative d’IFNgamma : ratio IL10 . Le cortisol, un inhibiteur connu de la production de cytokines de type 1, a été réduit par la pratique du Qi Gong. CONCLUSION : Ces études préliminaires chez des sujets sains, bien que non nécessairement représentatives d'une population en bonne santé randomisée, et ne comportant pas de groupe de contrôle séparé, ont indiqué que les taux sanguins de cortisol, l’hormone liée au stress, peuvent être réduits par la pratique du Qi Gong à court terme, et qu’il y a des changements concomitants au niveau du nombre de cellules sécrétant des cytokines. Des études complémentaires sur l'effet du Qi Gong chez les patients atteints de maladies cliniques connues pour être associées avec la prédominance de cytokine de type 2 sont nécessaires .

32 17/ Electrodermal measurements for monitoring the effects of a Qigong workshop
Kenneth M. Sancier PhD. Originally Published in: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2003) Vol 9, No. 2 Abstract Objectives: Electrodermal measurements with a Ryodoraku instrument were used to monitor the effects of a 2-day qigong workshop on the body energy of participants. Methods: Measurements were made of the relative electrical conductivity of 24 acupuncture points on the wrists and feet of29 subjects. Each subject was measured in the morning and afternoon of each day, and the subjects served as their own control. Results: the standard deviation of the mean values of the Ryodoraku responses of individuals and of the group were less in the afternoons than in the mornings with p-values of and for the first and second days, respectively. The decreases in the values of the standard deviations indicate that the balance of the body energy of individuals and the group had improved, presumably as a result of the workshop. We also found that all Ryodoraku responses were significantly greater in the afternoons than in the mornings, a result that is attributed to a circadian rhythm. Conclusions: The improved balance of qi energy in the body of the participants indicates that qigong practice has the potential to improve health. Electrodermal measurements for monitoring Eastern and Western therapies are discussed.

33 18/ Therapeutic Benefits of Qigong Exercises in Combination with Drugs
20with%20Drugs.pdf Kenneth M. Sancier PhD. Originally Published in: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (1999) Vol 5, No. 4, pp ABSTRACT The present paper reviews (count number) clinical studies from the Qigong Bibliographic Database, developed by the Qigong Institute, East West Academy of Healing Arts, a non-profit organization. This on-line database was started in 1994 and holds approximately 1,000 references going back to 1986, covering medical applications, scientific and experimental studies on Qigong from China, USA and Europe. Records in English have been compiled from International Qigong conferences and seminars, scientific journals, magazines, dissertations, Medline and other databases. The therapeutic role of qigong exercises combined with drugs is reported for three medical conditions that require drug therapy for health maintenance: hypertension, respiratory disease, and cancer. In these studies, drugs were administered to all patients who were divided into two groups, a group that practiced qigong exercises and a control group that did not. Taken together, these studies suggest that practicing qigong exercises may favorably affect many functions of the body, permit reduction of the dosage of drugs required for health maintenance, and provide greater health benefits than use of drug therapy alone.

34 18/ Therapeutic Benefits of Qigong Exercises in Combination with Drugs (suite)
The reported studies do not necessarily measure up to the strict protocols required for randomized controlled clinical trials. For hypertensive patients, combining qigong practice with drug therapy for hypertensive patients resulted in reduced incidence of stroke and mortality and reduced dosage of drugs required for blood pressure maintenance. For asthma patients, the combination therapy permitted reduction in drug dosage, the need for sick leave, duration of hospitalization, and costs of therapy. For cancer patients, the combination therapy reduced the side effects of cancer therapy. Also reported is a study showing that the practice of qigong helps to rehabilitate drug addicts. SUMMARY There are many clinical studies on the medical benefits of qigong practices but too few are good scientific studies. More scientific research is needed to validate the promising results already reported. Research is required to separate benefits of therapy by qigong exercises alone, qigong exercises with drugs, and drugs alone. Some clinical studies reported such comparisons, but the protocols used or the reported results are not sufficiently well described to allow for evaluation or replication. Not all qigong practice is of equal value for all people or for all health problems. Future research investigators should select the appropriate type of qigong practice, even for healthy people. However, the benefits of qigong exercises are sufficiently well established to provide credibility for physicians who wish to recommend qigong practice to selected patients or patient groups. In China, there are many qigong clinics. To integrate the practice of qigong into Western healthcare, it would be valuable to examine how China uses qigong practice, along with RCM and western medicine in its system of healthcare.

35 19/ A case study of simultaneous recovery from multiple physical symptoms with medical Qigong therapy Kevin Chen, Ph.D. MPH; Originally Published in Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine (2004) Vol 10, No. 1. ABSTRACT Background: It is well known that qigong practice is beneficial to human health, but it is less known, even in China, that qigong may also be an effective therapy to treat various diseases. This report documents the story of a 58-year-old Caucasian male patient with a series of chronic conditions, including high prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mark (but not a confirmed cancer), atrial septal defect, asthma, allergies, multiple injuries by an automobile accident, high blood pressure, and edema in legs. Can medical qigong help such a patient to cure multiple symptoms simultaneously? Method: The intensive qigong workshop involved the training and practice of gathering qi, magnifying qi energy and using it for self-healing with visualization and guided imaginary; plus supervised energetic fasting. The patient practiced qigong 4-plus hours per day during intensive training, and approximately 1 to 2 hours daily thereafter. About 10 sessions of external qi healing were performed by a qigong master for his pain and systematic adjustment. Settings/Location: The intensive medical qigong workshop took place in the World Institute for Self-Healing, Inc. (WISH) office at Middlesex, NJ; and the patient practiced qigong at home for the rest of time.

36 19/ A case study of simultaneous recovery from multiple physical symptoms with medical Qigong therapy (suite) Results: After workshop and qigong therapy, the patient discontinued all medications (8 in total) and lost 35 pounds; his blood pressure dropped from 220/110 with medication to 120/75 without medication (in 2 weeks); pulse rate dropped from 88 beats per minute resting to 68 beats per minute in the mornings and 55 bpm in the evening; the edema in his legs went away; symptoms of asthma or allergies disappeared; PSA level dropped from 11 to 4 (normal), all without any medications. Conclusion: This kind of simultaneous recovery from multiple “incurable” conditions and other documented successes cannot be explained by any known medical theories, and call for formal clinical trials to closely examine the qigong self-healing therapy.

37 20/ Genomic profiling of neutrophil transcripts in Asian Qigong practitioners: a pilot study in gene regulation by mind-body interaction. ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum Li QZ, Li P, et al. J Altern Complement Med Feb;11(1):29-39. Source: Microarray Core, Center for Immunology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA. Abstract BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The great similarity of the genomes of humans and other species stimulated us to search for genes regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as the mind-body interaction. DNA microarray technology offers the advantage of analyzing thousands of genes simultaneously, with the potential to determine healthy phenotypic changes in gene expression. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic profile and function of neutrophils in Falun Gong (FLG, an ancient Chinese Qigong) practitioners, with healthy subjects as controls. SUBJECTS AND DESIGN: Six (6) Asian FLG practitioners and 6 Asian normal healthy controls were recruited for our study. The practitioners have practiced FLG for at least 1 year (range, 1-5 years). The practice includes daily reading of FLG books and daily practice of exercises lasting 1-2 hours. Selected normal healthy controls did not perform Qigong, yoga, t'ai chi, or any other type of mind-body practice, and had not followed any conventional physical exercise program for at least 1 year. Neutrophils were isolated from fresh blood and assayed for gene expression, using microarrays and RNase protection assay (RPA), as well as for function (phagocytosis) and survival (apoptosis).

38 20/ Genomic profiling of neutrophil transcripts in Asian Qigong practitioners (suite)
RESULTS: The changes in gene expression of FLG practitioners in contrast to normal healthy controls were characterized by enhanced immunity, downregulation of cellular metabolism, and alteration of apoptotic genes in favor of a rapid resolution of inflammation. The lifespan of normal neutrophils was prolonged, while the inflammatory neutrophils displayed accelerated cell death in FLG practitioners as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlating with enhanced immunity reflected by microarray data, neutrophil phagocytosis was significantly increased in Qigong practitioners. Some of the altered genes observed by microarray were confirmed by RPA. CONCLUSION: Qigong practice may regulate immunity, metabolic rate, and cell death, possibly at the transcriptional level. Our pilot study provides the first evidence that Qigong practice may exert transcriptional regulation at a genomic level. New approaches are needed to study how genes are regulated by elements associated with human uniqueness, such as consciousness, cognition, and spirituality.

39 20/ Le profilage génomique des transcriptions des neutrophiles chez les pratiquants de Qi Gong asiatique : une étude pilote dans la régulation des gènes par l'interaction corps-esprit. Résumé CONTEXTE ET OBJECTIFS : La grande similitude entre les génomes de l'homme et des autres espèces nous a encouragés à chercher des gènes régulés par des éléments liés à l'unicité de l'homme, tels que l'interaction corps-esprit. La technologie des puces à ADN offre l'avantage d'analyser des milliers de gènes simultanément, avec la possibilité de déterminer les changements phénotypiques sains dans l'expression des gènes. Le but de cette étude était de déterminer le profil génomique et la fonction des neutrophiles chez les pratiquants de Falun Gong (FLG, un ancien Qi Gong chinois), avec des sujets sains comme témoins. SUJETS ET PLAN : Six (6) pratiquants asiatiques de FLG et 6 témoins sains asiatiques ont été recrutés pour cette étude. Les sujets ont pratiqué le FLG pendant au moins une année (intervalle, 1-5 ans). La pratique comprend la lecture quotidienne de livres de FLG et la pratique quotidienne d'exercices d'une durée de 1-2 heures. Les témoins normaux sains sélectionnés n'ont pas effectué de Qi Gong, yoga, tai-chi, ou aucun autre type de pratique corps-esprit, et n’ont pas suivi de programme d'exercice physique conventionnel pendant au moins 1 an. Les neutrophiles ont été isolés du sang frais et analysés pour l'expression des gènes, en utilisant des puces et le « RNase protection assay » (RPA), ainsi que pour la fonction (phagocytose) et pour la survie (apoptose).

40 20/ Le profilage génomique des transcriptions des neutrophiles chez les pratiquants de Qi Gong asiatique : une étude pilote dans la régulation des gènes par l'interaction corps-esprit (suite) RÉSULTATS : Les changements dans l'expression des gènes des pratiquants de FLG, contrairement aux témoins normaux sains, ont été caractérisés par une immunité renforcée, une régulation du métabolisme cellulaire, et une altération des gènes apoptotiques en faveur d'une résolution rapide de l'inflammation. La durée de vie des neutrophiles normaux a été prolongée, alors que les neutrophiles inflammatoires ont affiché une mort cellulaire accélérée chez les pratiquants de FLG, comme déterminé par dosage immuno-enzymatique. En corrélation avec l’immunité renforcée reflétée par les données de biopuces, les neutrophiles phagocytoses ont significativement augmenté chez les pratiquants de Qi Gong. Certains de ces gènes altérés observés par microarray ont été confirmés par l'APR. CONCLUSION : La pratique du Qi Gong peut réguler l'immunité, le métabolisme et la mort des cellules, peut-être au niveau transcriptionnel. Notre étude pilote fournit la première preuve que la pratique du Qi Gong peut exercer une régulation de la transcription au niveau génomique. De nouvelles approches sont nécessaires pour étudier la façon dont les gènes sont régulés par des éléments liés à l'unicité de l'homme, comme la conscience, la connaissance et la spiritualité.

41 21/ Effects of in vitro and in vivo Qi-therapy on neutrophil superoxide generation in healthy male subjects. &ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Jeong SM, et al Am J Chin Med. 2003;31(4):623-8. Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan , Republic of Korea. Abstract The present study investigated the effects of in vitro and in vivo Korean ChunSoo Qi-Energy Healing on neutrophil superoxide generation. Neutrophil superoxide generation was measured by a chemiluminescence assay. Superoxide generation was significantly increased in vitro by emitted Qi-therapy (QT) of 60-second duration and 150-second duration compared to control (1.59-fold for 60 seconds, p < 0.05; 1.50-fold for 150 seconds, p < 0.05). Neutrophil superoxide generation increased significantly immediately after 5 minutes of QT in vivo (1.42-fold, p < 0.05). These results show that QT in vivo and in vitro has an acute stimulatory effect on neutrophil superoxide generation. This study provides direct scientific support that Qi as such may positively affect human innate immunity

42 22/ Qi-training enhances respiratory burst function and adhesive capacity of neutrophils in young adults: a preliminary study. &ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Jeong SM, et alAm J Chin Med. 2003;31(1):141-8. Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University Iksan , Republic of Korea. Abstract The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of Qi-training on the immune system, especially neutrophil bactericidal function. Nine healthy male subjects were studied for the effects of one bout of ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training on superoxide (O2- production and adhesion capacity of neutrophils at times immediately after (Post I) and 2 hours after the Qi- training (Post II). The Qi-training enhanced O2- production, reaction velocity and neutrophil adhesion capacity and there were significant differences at Post I compared to before Qi-training (Pre). In addition, the number of white blood cells (WBC), monocytes and lymphocytes were changed significantly through Qi-training.Therefore, it seems that CDSB Qi-training may increase the resistance of trained individuals against common infection and inflammation.

43 23/ Effect of Qigong training on proportions of T lymphocyte subsets in human peripheral blood.
8089&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVD ocSum Ryu H, Jun CD, et al. Am J Chin Med. 1995;23(1):27-36. Source: Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Republic of Korea. Abstract The effect of Qigong training on proportions of T lymphocyte subsets was investigated in human peripheral blood. We observed that the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes was increased as much as 50% in a trainee group who practiced Qigong training more than 5 months compared to a normal healthy group who did not practice. The absolute number of CD4+ T lymphocytes was also elevated in trainee group with 100 cells/mm3 more than in normal healthy group. The positive correlation between the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+45RA- /CD4+CD45RA+ T lymphocytes was shown in the trainee group. In contrast, there was a negative correlation between the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T lymphocytes and the ratio of CD8+CD57+/CD8+CD57- T lymphocytes in the trainee group. The data indicate that Qigong training affects the profile of lymphocyte subsets in human peripheral blood, especially the proportion of CD4+ T lymphocytes

44 24/ An evaluation of two behavioral rehabilitation programs, qigong versus progressive relaxation, in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients. Hui PN, Wan M, et al. J Altern Complement Med. 2006;12(4):373-8. Source: Occupational Therapy Department, United Christian Hospital, Hospital Authority, Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Abstract OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare two different behavioral rehabilitation programs in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients in Hong Kong. DESIGN AND SETTING: The current study was carried out in the outpatient unit of Occupational Therapy Department in the United Christian Hospital, Hong Kong. Convenience sampling with referral from the cardiac specialty was used in the present study. SUBJECTS: A total of 65 subjects, with a mean age 65 (range, 42 to 76), were recruited in the study. The cardiac diseases included myocardial infarct, postcoronary intervention, valve replacement, and also ischemic heart disease.

45 24/ An evaluation of two behavioral rehabilitation programs, qigong versus progressive relaxation, in improving the quality of life in cardiac patients (suite). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were alternately allocated to the two groups. The first group of patients received instructions and practiced on progressive relaxation. The second group of patients underwent training in qigong. A total of eight sessions were conducted and each session lasted 20 minutes. OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic and clinical data such as gender, age, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded. The psychological and Quality of Life assessment was performed using the Chinese versions of Short Form 36 (C-SF36), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (C-STAI), and General Health Questionnaire (C-GHQ-12). RESULTS: Fifty-nine (59) subjects (44 men and 15 women) completed all eight rehabilitation sessions in the study. Patients allocated to the two treatment groups had comparable baseline characteristics. Progressive relaxation was more effective in reducing blood pressures compared to qigong. Relaxation appeared to be particularly beneficial in somatic domains. qigong group demonstrated greater improvement in psychologic measures in addition to reduction in systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive relaxation and qigong exercise improved the quality of life for cardiac patients with reference to certain physiologic and psychologic measures. The result was supported by previous studies and literature reviews on qigong in terms of its effect on the psychologic dimension.

46 24/ Une évaluation de deux programmes de réadaptation comportementale, Qi Gong et relaxation progressive, pour améliorer la qualité de vie des patients cardiaques. Résumé OBJECTIFS : Le but de l'étude était d'évaluer et de comparer deux programmes différents de réadaptation comportementale destinés à améliorer la qualité de vie des patients cardiaques, à Hong Kong. SCHÉMA ET ENVIRONNEMENT : L’étude a été réalisée dans l'unité de soins ambulatoires du département d'ergothérapie de l'Hôpital Chrétien-Unis, à Hong Kong. Un échantillonnage de commodité avec un ‘appui’ de la spécialité cardiaque a été utilisée dans l’étude. SUJETS : 65 sujets, d’un âge moyen de 65 ans (éventail de 42 à 76 ans), ont été recrutés pour l'étude. Les maladies cardiaques comprennent l'infarctus du myocarde, l’intervention post coronarienne, le remplacement de valve, et aussi la cardiopathie ischémique. MÉTHODES : Les patients ont été répartis alternativement dans les deux groupes. Le premier groupe de patients a reçu des instructions et pratiqué la relaxation progressive. Le deuxième groupe de patients a reçu une formation en Qi Gong. Un total de huit sessions a été réalisé et chaque séance durait 20 minutes.

47 24/ Une évaluation de deux programmes de réadaptation comportementale, Qi Gong et relaxation progressive, pour améliorer la qualité de vie des patients cardiaques (suite). MESURES DE RÉSULTATS : Les données démographiques et cliniques tels que le sexe, l'âge et la pression systolique et diastolique ont été enregistrées. L'évaluation psychologique et de la qualité de vie a été réalisée en utilisant les versions chinoises de Short Form 36 (SF-36 C-), de l’Inventaire State-Trait Anxiety (C- STAI) et du General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-C-12). RÉSULTATS : Cinquante-neuf (59) sujets (44 hommes et 15 femmes) ont réalisé les huit séances de rééducation dans l'étude. Les patients affectés aux deux groupes de traitement comportaient des caractéristiques de base comparables. La relaxation progressive a été plus efficace dans la réduction de la pression artérielle par rapport au Qi Gong. La relaxation a semblée être particulièrement bénéfique dans les domaines somatiques. Le groupe de Qi Gong a montré une plus grande amélioration des mesures psychologiques en plus de la réduction de la pression artérielle systolique. CONCLUSION : La relaxation progressive et les exercices de Qi Gong ont amélioré la qualité de vie des patients cardiaques en référence à certaines mesures physiologiques et psychologiques. Le résultat a été confirmé par des études antérieures et des analyses documentaires sur le Qi Gong concernant son effet sur ​​la dimension psychologique.

48 25/ Functional capacity after traditional Chinese medicine (qi gong) training in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation: a randomized controlled trial. Pippa L, Manzoli L, et al Prev Cardiol. 2007;10(1):22-5. Source: Camillo de Lellis per la Ricera Clinica Applicata, Pescara, Italy. Abstract Evidence indicates that low energy expenditure protocols derived from traditional Chinese medicine may benefit patients with cardiac impairment; therefore, the authors carried out a randomized controlled trial to test a 16-week medically assisted qi gong training program for the physical rehabilitation of patients with stable chronic atrial fibrillation and preserved left ventricular function. Functional capacity variation was evaluated using the 6-minute walk test, which was performed at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and after 16 weeks. Thirty men and 13 women (mean age, 68+/-8 years) were randomized to the intervention protocol or to a wait-list control group. Qi gong training was well tolerated and, compared with baseline, trained patients walked an average 114 meters more (27%) at the end of treatment (P<.001) and 57 meters more (13.7%) 16 weeks later (P=.008). Control subjects showed no variation in functional capacity. These results seem promising and deserve confirmation with further research.

49 26/ Use of qigong therapy in the detoxification of heroin addicts.
Li M, Chen K, Mo Z. Altern Ther Health Med. 2002;8(1):50-4, 56-9. Source : Institute of Qigong Research, Guangzhou University, People's Republic of China. Abstract CONTEXT: Qigong is a traditional Chinese health practice believed to have special healing and recovery power. Little scientific documentation was found on qigong and its effectiveness, and no literature was found on qigong as a treatment of substance addiction. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effectiveness of qigong therapy on detoxification of heroin addicts compared to medical and nonmedical treatment. DESIGN: Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: qigong treatment group (n = 34), medication group (n = 26), and no-treatment control group (n = 26). PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six male heroin addicts, aged 18 to 52 years, who met the substance-dependence criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition Revised, with a history of heroin use from .5 to 11 years. All were residents at a mandatory drug-treatment center in the People's Republic of China.

50 26/ Use of qigong therapy in the detoxification of heroin addicts (suite).
INTERVENTION: The qigong group practiced Pan Gu qigong and received qi adjustments from a qigong master daily. The medication group received the detoxification drug lofexidine-HCl by a 10-day gradual reduction method. The control group received only basic care and medications to treat severe withdrawal symptoms. MEASURES: Urine morphine test, electrocardiogram, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and a withdrawal-symptom evaluation scale were applied before and during the 10-day intervention. RESULTS: Reduction of withdrawal symptoms in the qigong group occurred more rapidly than in the other groups. From day 1, the qigong group had significantly lower mean symptom scores than did the other groups (P <.01). Both the qigong and medication groups had much lower anxiety scores than did the control group (P<.01), and the qigong group had significantly lower anxiety scores than did the medication group (P<.01). All subjects had a positive response to the urine morphine test before treatment. Fifty percent of the qigong group had negative urine tests on day 3, compared to 23% in the control group and 8% in the medication group (P <.01). By day 5 of treatment, all subjects in the qigong group had negative urine tests, compared to day 9 for the medication group and day 11 for the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that qigong may be an effective alternative for heroin detoxification without side effects, though we cannot completely eliminate the possibility of the placebo effect from the current study.

51 27/ Qigong for type 2 diabetes care: a systematic review.
Lee MS, Chen KW, et al Complement Ther Med. 2009;17(4): Source: Division of Standard Research, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon , South Korea. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To summarize and critically evaluate the evidence available from clinical trials (CTs) of qigong for patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We have searched the literature using 15 databases from their respective inceptions through March 2009 without language restrictions. Risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane criteria. RESULTS: Nine CTs, which included three randomized clinical trials (RCTs), one controlled clinical trial (CCT) and five uncontrolled observational studies (UOSs), met our inclusion criteria. Three RCTs compared qigong plus usual care (including drug therapy) with usual care alone. The quality of these RCTs was poor. Their results suggested favorable effects of qigong on glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), 2h plasma glucose (2hPG), insulin sensitivity, and blood viscosity. One CCT compared qigong with no treatment and failed to show favorable effects of qigong on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2hPG, HbA1c and insulin sensitivity. All UOSs reported beneficial effects of qigong on FPG or 2hPG. CONCLUSION: Currently there are few rigorous trials testing the effectiveness of qigong for type 2 diabetes. The studies that are available are of low methodological quality. Collectively this evidence is insufficient to suggest that qigong is an effective treatment for type 2 diabetes. Rigorously designed trials are warranted to answer the many questions that remain open.

52 28/ A preliminary study of the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong medical exercise on indicators of metabolic syndrome, glycaemic control, health-related quality of life, and psychological health in adults with elevated blood glucose. Liu X, Miller YD, et al. Br J Sports Med. 2010;44(10):704-9. Source: University of Queensland, St Lucia Queensland, Australia. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effects of a Tai Chi and Qigong exercise programme in adults with elevated blood glucose. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A single group pre-post feasibility trial with 11 participants (3 male and 8 female; aged years) with elevated blood glucose. INTERVENTION: Participants attended Tai Chi and Qigong exercise training for 1 to 1.5 h, 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and were encouraged to practise the exercises at home.

53 28/ A preliminary study of the effects of Tai Chi and Qigong medical exercise (…) in adults with elevated blood glucose (suite). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Indicators of metabolic syndrome (body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol); glucose control (HbA1c, fasting insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA)); health-related quality of life; stress and depressive symptoms. RESULTS: There was good adherence and high acceptability. There were significant improvements in four of the seven indicators of metabolic syndrome including BMI (mean difference -1.05, p<0.001), waist circumference (-2.80 cm, p<0.05), and systolic ( mm Hg, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (-9.73 mm Hg, p<0.001), as well as in HbA1c (-0.32%, p<0.01), insulin resistance (-0.53, p<0.05), stress (-2.27, p<0.05), depressive symptoms (-3.60, p<0.05), and the SF-36 mental health summary score (5.13, p<0.05) and subscales for general health (19.00, p<0.01), mental health (10.55, p<0.01) and vitality (23.18, p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The programme was feasible and acceptable and participants showed improvements in metabolic and psychological variables. A larger controlled trial is now needed to confirm these promising preliminary results.

54 29/ Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and testosterone in young and elderly subjects. &ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Kang CW, et al. Am J Chin Med. 1999;27(2): Source: Department of Qi-Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea. Abstract We observed the response of plasma growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and testosterone (T) to an acute period of ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training. Although the basal level of GH was not different between the two groups, after the portion of the training in which the subjects were physically active (the mid-training point), plasma GH levels increased by fold (p < 0.05) in the elderly trainees and by 1.66 fold (p < 0.05) in the young. In response to CDSB Qi-training, IGF-I levels in the young increased significantly at mid-training point, but there were no increase in the elderly. Significant correlations existed between GH and IGF-I levels in the young subjects, but not in the elderly. The T level at the mid-training point increased significantly in elderly subjects but not in the young. These results suggest that CDSB Qi-training is a potential method for modulating of the secretion of growth factor in the young and the elderly, but that the elderly IGF-I response does not equal that of the young. In addition, our study suggests CDSB Qi-training may be one mode of therapy applicable to growth factor related disorders such as GH deficiency in children and osteoporosis in the elderly, especially women.

55 29/ Effets du Qi-training ChunDoSunBup sur l'hormone de croissance, le facteur-I de croissance analogue à l’insuline, et la testostérone chez des sujets jeunes et âgés. Résumé Nous avons observé la réaction de l’hormone de croissance (GH) plasmatique, du facteur-I de croissance analogue à l’insuline (IGF- I) et de la testostérone (T ) sur une courte période de Qi- training ChunDoSunBup (BCEI). Bien que le niveau de base de GH n'était pas différent entre les deux groupes, après la partie de pratique dans laquelle les sujets étaient physiquement actifs (le point à mi-formation), les niveaux plasmatiques de GH ont augmenté de 7,26 fois (p <0,05) chez les pratiquants âgées et de 1,66 fois (p <0,05) chez les jeunes. En réaction au Qi-training BCEI, les niveaux d'IGF-I chez les jeunes ont augmenté considérablement en milieu de pratique, mais il n'y avait pas d'augmentation chez les personnes âgées. Des corrélations significatives existent entre GH et IGF- I chez les sujets jeunes, mais pas chez les personnes âgées . Le niveau T en milieu de pratique a augmenté de façon significative chez les sujets âgés, mais pas chez les jeunes. Ces résultats suggèrent que le QI-training BCEI est une méthode potentielle pour moduler la sécrétion du facteur de croissance chez les jeunes et les personnes âgées, mais que la réponse de l' IGF-I chez les personnes âgées n'égale pas celle chez la population jeune. En outre, notre étude suggère que le QI-training BCEI peut être un mode de traitement applicable à des troubles liés à des facteurs de croissance tels que les déficits en hormone de croissance chez l'enfant et l'ostéoporose chez les personnes âgées, surtout chez les femmes .

56 30/ Qigong for the treatment of tinnitus: a prospective randomized controlled study.
Biesinger E, Kipman U, Schatz S, Langguth B. J Psychosom Res. 2010;69(3): Source: ENT-Clinic and Otolaryngology Department, Klinikum Traunstein, Traunstein, Germany. Abstract OBJECTIVE: Tinnitus is a frequent disorder which is very difficult to treat. Qigong is a mindful exercise and an important constituent of traditional Chinese medical practice. Here we performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a Qigong intervention on patients with tinnitus. We hypothesized that especially tinnitus patients with somatosensoric components may benefit from the mind-body technique of Qigong. METHODS: Eighty patients with tinnitus of at least 3 months duration were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n=40) consisting of 10 Qigong training sessions in 5 weeks or a waiting-list control group (n=40). Tinnitus severity was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and with a tinnitus questionnaire (TBF-12) before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 and 3 months after treatment. RESULTS: Qigong did not cause any side effects and was completed by 80% of the assigned patients. Compared with the control group, Qigong participants experienced improvement in tinnitus severity, as reflected by a significant reduction in both the VAS and the TBF-12. In the subgroup of patients with somatosensoric tinnitus, Qigong effects were more pronounced, resulting in a highly significant improvement in both scales compared to the waiting-list group. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that Qigong interventions could be a useful complement to the therapeutic management of patients with tinnitus and especially for those with somatosensoric components. Satisfaction with the intervention, a high degree of completion, and stability of the effects for at least 3 months after the intervention further underscore the potential of Qigong in the treatment of tinnitus. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

57 31/ Effect of qi training on neutrophil function in young and elderly males.
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Kang CW, Ryu H. J Altern Complement Med Aug;10(4):681-3. Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Republic of Korea. Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of qi training on neutrophil bactericidal function (superoxide generation and adhesion). METHODS: We studied the effects of one session of qi training on superoxide generation and adhesion of neutrophils immediately after (Post I), and 2 hours after qi training (Post II), in nine young and nine elderly male subjects. RESULTS: The qi training significantly enhanced the superoxide generation and adhesion of neutrophils, and there were significant differences at Post I compared to before qi training (Pre) in both groups. CONCLUSION: Our current observations show that qi training enhances superoxide generation and adhesion of neutrophils. It is supposed that qi training may increase the resistance of trained individuals against common infection and inflammation.

58 32/ Qigong exercise for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease: a randomized, controlled pilot study.
Schmitz-Hubsch T, Pyfer D, et al. Mov Disord. 2006;21(4):543-8. Source: Department of Neurology, University of Bonn, Germany. Abstract Irrespective of limited evidence, not only traditional physiotherapy, but also a wide array of complementary methods are applied by patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We evaluated the immediate and sustained effects of Qigong on motor and nonmotor symptoms of PD, using an add-on design. Fifty-six patients with different levels of disease severity (mean age/standard deviation [SD], 63.8/7.5 years; disease duration 5.8/4.2 years; 43 men [76%]) were recruited from the outpatient movement disorder clinic of the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn. We compared the progression of motor symptoms assessed by Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor part (UPDRS-III) in the Qigong treatment group (n = 32) and a control group receiving no additional intervention (n = 24). Qigong exercises were applied as 90-minute weekly group instructions for 2 months, followed by a 2 months pause and a second 2-month treatment period. Assessments were carried out at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. More patients improved in the Qigong group than in the control group at 3 and 6 months (P = at 3 months and P = at 6 months; Fisher's exact test). At 12 months, there was a sustained difference between groups only when changes in UPDRS-III were related to baseline. Depression scores decreased in both groups, whereas the incidence of several nonmotor symptoms decreased in the treatment group only.

59 32/ Les exercices de Qi Gong contre les symptômes de la maladie de Parkinson : une étude pilote randomisée et contrôlée. Résumé Malgré les preuves limitées, les patients atteints de la maladie de Parkinson (PD) appliquent non seulement la physiothérapie traditionnelle, mais aussi un large éventail de méthodes complémentaires. Nous avons évalué les effets immédiats et durables du Qi Gong sur les symptômes moteurs et non moteurs de la maladie de Parkinson, en utilisant un schéma supplémentaire. Cinquante- six patients avec différents niveaux de sévérité de la maladie (âge moyen / écart type [ET ] , 63.8/7.5 ans , durée de la maladie 5.8/4.2 ans ; 43 hommes [76 %] ) ont été recrutés dans la clinique ambulatoire des troubles du mouvement, du Département de neurologie de l'Université de Bonn. Nous avons comparé la progression des symptômes moteurs évalués par Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor part (UPDRS-III) dans le groupe de traitement par le Qi Gong (n = 32) et un groupe témoin ne recevant aucune intervention supplémentaire (n = 24) . Les exercices de Qi Gong ont été pratiqués 90 minutes par semaine pendant 2 mois, suivis d'une pause de 2 mois et d’une seconde période de traitement de 2 mois. Des évaluations ont été effectuées au départ, puis à 3, 6 et 12 mois. Davantage de patients ont progressé dans le groupe de Qi Gong que dans le groupe témoin à 3 et 6 mois (p = 0,0080 à 3 mois et P = 0,0503 à 6 mois; test exact de Fisher). À 12 mois, il y avait une différence durable entre les groupes uniquement lorsque des changements dans l’UPDRS III ont été reliés à la ligne de base. Les résultats de dépression ont diminué dans les deux groupes, alors que l'incidence de plusieurs symptômes non moteurs ont diminué dans le groupe de traitement seulement .

60 33/ A randomised controlled cross-over trial of aerobic training versus Qigong in advanced Parkinson's disease. Burini D, Farabollini B, et al. Eura Medicophys. 2006;42(3):231-8. Source: Neurorehabilitation Clinic, Department of Neurosciences, Politecnica University of Marche, Azienda Ospedali Riuniti, Ancona, Italy. Abstract AIM: To investigate the effects of an aerobic training in subjects with Parkinson's disease (PD) as compared to a medical Chinese exercise (Qigong). METHODS: Design: randomized controlled trial with a cross over design. Setting: PD out-patients referred to a Neurorehabilitation facility for the management of motor disability. Subjects: 26 PD patients in Hoehn and Yahr stage II to III under stable medication were randomly allocated to either Group AT1+QG2 (receiving 20 aerobic training sessions followed by 20 ''Qigong'' group sessions with 2 month interval between the interventions), or Group QG1+AT2 (performing the same treatments with an inverted sequence). Main outcome measures: clinical effects of treatment were sought through the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Brown's Disability Scale (B'DS), six- Minute Walking Test (6MWT), Borg scale for breathlessness, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 items (PDQ-39). A spirometry test and maximum cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) were also performed to determine the pulmonary function, the metabolic and cardio-respiratory requests at rest and under exercise. All measures were taken immediately before and at the completion of each treatment phase.

61 33/ A randomised controlled cross-over trial of aerobic training versus Qigong in advanced Parkinson's disease (suite). RESULTS: The statistical analysis focusing on the evolution of motor disability and quality of life revealed a significant interaction effect between group and time for the 6MWT (time x group effect: F: 5.4 P=0.002) and the Borg scale (time x group effect: F: 4.2 P=0.009). Post hoc analysis showed a significant increase in 6MWT and a larger decrease in Borg score after aerobic training within each subgroup, whereas no significant changes were observed during Qigong. No significant changes over time were detected through the analysis of UPDRS, B'DS, BDI and PDQ-39 scores. The analysis of cardiorespiratory parameters showed significant interaction effects between group and time for the Double Productpeak (time x group effect: F: 7.7 P=0.0003), the VO(2peak) (time x group effect: F: 4.8 P=0.007), and the VO(2)/kg ratio (time x group effect: F: 4.3 P=0.009), owing to their decrease after aerobic training to an extent that was never observed after Qigong treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Aerobic training exerts a significant impact on the ability of moderately disabled PD patients to cope with exercise, although it does not improve their self-sufficiency and quality of life.

62 34/ Anti-Aging Benefits of Qigong.
Kenneth M. Sancier PhD. Originally Published in: Journal of the International Society of Life Information Science,14 (1) (1996). Conclusions This review deals with a small fraction of the large collection of clinical research on medical applications of qigong. The information presented is intended to illustrate the potential of qigong exercise for restoring normal body functions in people with chronic conditions, many of which accelerate the aging process. The main conclusion from many studies is that qigong exercise helps the body to heal itself. In this sense, qigong is a natural anti-aging medicine. Two studies indicate that qigong exercise is superior to some physical exercises. Qigong can complement Western medicine in many ways to provide better healthcare. For example, qigong has special value for treating chronic conditions and as a preventive medicine, whereas Western medicine has special value for treating acute conditions. There are many medical applications of qigong that can complement Western medicine to improve health care. Some examples include chronic problems such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, aging, asthma, allergies, neuromuscular problems, and cancer. These areas of public health deserve consideration by the Western medical establishment.

63 35/ Qigong as a therapeutic intervention with older adults.
Kemp CA Dec;22 Source : Swedish Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA. Abstract The use of complementary therapies in the United States is growing. One complementary therapy that has received little attention in the nursing literature is Qigong. Qigong is the cornerstone of traditional Chinese medicine and consists of gentle flowing body movements, breathing, and quieting the mind. Qigong facilitates the movement of qi, the vital life energy, throughout the body, thereby enhancing health and healing disease. Preliminary research indicates that Qigong may be an effective complementary therapy for promoting health and wellness in older adults and an effective adjuvant intervention for managing chronic conditions in older adults. This article provides an overview of Qigong, reviews the English-language research literature on the therapeutic effects of Qigong, discusses the implications of Qigong as a complementary therapy for older adults, and suggests directions for further research on the use of Qigong as a therapeutic approach for older adults.

64 36/ Effects of Qi-therapy on blood pressure, pain and psychological symptoms in the elderly: a randomized controlled pilot trial. Lee MS, Jang JW, et al. Complement Ther Med. 2003;11(3): Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, South Korea. Abstract Recently, we reported that Qi-therapy may be beneficial in reducing negative psychological symptoms and increasing melatonin levels, neutrophil function and natural killer cell cytotoxicity in young subjects. However, there is little scientific evidence of its efficacy in elderly subjects. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of Qi-therapy on anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain and blood pressure in elderly subjects. Ninety-four elderly subjects were randomly assigned to either Qi-therapy (n=47) or mimic therapy (n=47) groups. Both groups received a 10-min intervention period once using similar procedures. The Qi-therapy group exhibited greater reduction in anxiety, depression, fatigue, pain level and blood pressure compared to the placebo group; the difference in anxiety was significant (P=0.014). These results suggest that even a brief application of Qi-therapy may exert a positive psychological and physiological effect. However, further research is necessary in order to fully understand the long- term impact of Qi-therapy on psychological health and the cardiovascular system.

65 37/ Qi-training enhances neutrophil function by increasing growth hormone levels in elderly men.
&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RV DocSum Lee MS, Ryu H. Int J Neurosci Oct;114(10): Source: Center for Integrative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Korea. Abstract This article investigated the effects of Qi-training on the neuroendocrine response and superoxide generation by neutrophils in healthy elderly men. One hour of Qi-training significantly reduced the plasma concentration of cortisol, and increased plasma concentrations of growth hormone and melatonin. Generation of superoxide by neutrophils increased significantly immediately after Qi-training (p < .01). The change in neutrophil superoxide generation was significantly correlated with the change in growth hormone concentration after Qi-training (p < .01). These data indicate that, in elderly men, Qi-training enhances superoxide generation by neutrophils, possibly via the changes in plasma growth hormone concentration.

66 37/ Le Qi-training améliore la fonction neutrophile en augmentant les niveaux d'hormone de croissance chez les hommes âgés. Résumé Cet article a exploré les effets du Qi-training sur la réponse neuroendocrinienne et production de superoxyde par les neutrophiles chez les hommes âgés en bonne santé. Une heure de Qi-training a considérablement réduit la concentration plasmatique de cortisol, et a augmenté les concentrations plasmatiques d'hormone de croissance et de mélatonine. La production de superoxyde par les neutrophiles a augmenté de manière significative, immédiatement après le Qi-training (p <.01). La variation de la production de superoxyde neutrophile est sensiblement corrélée avec la variation de la concentration d'hormone de croissance après Qi-training (p <0,01). Ces données indiquent que, chez les hommes âgés, le Qi-training améliore la production de superoxyde par les neutrophiles, éventuellement via des changements dans la concentration plasmatique de l'hormone de croissance.

67 38/ Cardiac rehabilitation for the elderly: Qi Gong and group discussions.
Stenlund T, Lindstrom B, et al Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2005;12(1):5-11. Source: Heart Centre, University Hospital, SE Umeå, Sweden. Abstract BACKGROUND: Over the last decade several studies have shown that patients with coronary artery disease even above the age of 70 can be successfully treated with advanced medical and surgical methods. Unfortunately, rehabilitation programmes for this group are rarely offered. It is important to develop forms of rehabilitation that are adapted to the specific needs of this increasing group of elderly patients. The aim of this randomized study was to investigate whether the combination of Qi Gong and group discussions would increase physical ability for elderly patients > or =73 years with coronary artery disease. METHODS: A total of 95 patients (66 men and 29 women), with documented coronary artery disease, were randomized to an intervention group (n=48) mean age 77+/-3 (73-82) or to a control group (n=47) mean age 78+/-3 (73-84). The intervention groups met weekly over 3 months. The control group got usual care. Physical ability was assessed at baseline and after the intervention. RESULTS: Patients in the intervention group increased their self-estimated level of physical activity (P=0.011), and their performance in the one-leg stance test for the right leg (P=0.029), co-ordination (P=0.021) and the box-climbing test for right leg (P=0.035). CONCLUSION: A combination of Qi Gong and group discussions appear to be a promising rehabilitation for elderly cardiac patients in terms of improving self-reported physical activity, balance and co- ordination. This could be an option for elderly patients who do not participate in the ordinary cardiac rehabilitation.

68 38 / La réadaptation cardiaque chez les personnes âgées : Qi Gong et discussions de groupe.
Résumé CONTEXTE : Au cours de la dernière décennie, plusieurs études ont montré que les patients atteints de maladie coronarienne , même au-dessus de l’âge de 70 ans peuvent être traités avec succès avec des méthodes médicales et chirurgicales de pointe. Malheureusement, les programmes de réhabilitation pour ce groupe sont rarement offerts . Il est important de développer des formes de réadaptation qui sont adaptés aux besoins spécifiques de ce groupe croissant de patients âgés. Le but de cette étude randomisée était de déterminer si la combinaison de Qi Gong et des discussions de groupe augmenterait la capacité physique chez les patients âgés > ou = 73 ans avec une maladie coronarienne. MÉTHODES : Un total de 95 patients (66 hommes et 29 femmes) , atteints de maladie coronarienne ‘documentée’, ont été aléatoirement affectés à un groupe d'intervention (n = 48) âge moyen de 77 ans + / -3 (73-82) ou à un groupe de contrôle (n = 47) âge moyen de 78 ans + / - 3 (73-84). Les groupes d'intervention se sont réunis chaque semaine pendant 3 mois. Le groupe témoin a reçu les soins habituels. La capacité physique a été évaluée avant et après l'intervention. RÉSULTATS : Les patients du groupe d'intervention ont augmenté leur niveau auto-estimé d'activité physique (p = 0,011), ainsi que leur performance dans le test de position sur une jambe pour la jambe droite (P = 0,029) , la coordination (P = 0,021 ) et le test de l'escalade sur une boite pour la jambe droite (P = 0,035 ). CONCLUSION : Une combinaison de Qi Gong et de discussions de groupe semble être une réhabilitation prometteuse pour les patients cardiaques âgés, en termes d'amélioration de l'activité physique autodéclarée, de l'équilibre et de la coordination. Cela pourrait être une option pour les patients âgés qui ne participent pas à la réadaptation cardiaque normale.

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