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Gesture and late speech development Colloque AFLiCo « Typologie, gestes et signes », Lille, 10-12 mai 2007 Jean-Marc Colletta Lidilem IUFM et université

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Présentation au sujet: "Gesture and late speech development Colloque AFLiCo « Typologie, gestes et signes », Lille, 10-12 mai 2007 Jean-Marc Colletta Lidilem IUFM et université"— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Gesture and late speech development Colloque AFLiCo « Typologie, gestes et signes », Lille, mai 2007 Jean-Marc Colletta Lidilem IUFM et université Stendhal, Grenoble

2 Language acquisition is far from achieved when the child enters primary school, and the development of discourse abilities is a major issue in later language acquisition. 1. Discourse is a complex form of language built at the textual level, and the current adult use of language relies on the ability to understand and generate linguistic information organised at this level (Fayol, 1997) 2. Discourse displays specific properties of cohesion and coherence which have no equivalent in the course of dialogue built out of the sequencing of short speech turns (Halliday & Hasan, 1976 ; Heydrich & al., 1989 ; Adam, 1992, 1999) 3. Discourse is language which relies both on reference displacement, decontextualization and cognitive decentration, and which allows the speaker either to talk about facts that are not experienced in the context of the present social interaction, or to talk about supposed, past or fictionous facts (Karmiloff-Smith, 1979 ; Hickmann, 2003) 4. All these features define the written use of langage, so that later speech development is directly related to the acquisition of writing and reading abilities (Golder, 1996 ; Fayol, 2000 ; Hickmann, 2003) 5. As a consequence, the study of discourse development in oral communication may shed some light on the way children acquire literacy abilities and its milestones Late speech development is discourse development

3 Two basic uses of language Karmiloff-Smith, 1979 Roulet et al, 1985 Dialogal useMonologal use Speech behaviour Plural wordingIndividual wording Grounding discourse co- constructed by speakers throughout their exchange(s) discourse constructed by single speaker/writer within his speech turn / written text Cognitive constraints Minimum constraints due to joint attention and shared context Maximum constraints due to contextualisation and planification of discourse

4 Dialogal use (two children argue about work and play at school) : Raph 0on peut s'amuser quand on a fini not travail Kev 1non - non - non - non non Raph 2-::- ben si s'amuser ça peut êt' lire un livre Kev 3 oui mais dans la cou:r - dans la cour Raph 4-:- oui: dans la cour (et pas d samu) - s'amuser -i- s'amus Kev 3 et pas de faire de bruit - en chuchotant - oui mais en chuchotant Raph 4s'amuser ça peut êt' (x) - lire un livre hein Kev 5ben oui mais en chuchotant Raph 6ou alo:rs avan:t faire heu: (comment ça sappelle) Kev 7(ben:) Raph 6l'imprimerie Lego Kev 7ben oui Raph 6ça c'est jouer l'imprimerie Lego Kev 7oui Raph 6c'est pas travailler hein Kev 7ben oui Raph 6quand même Kev 8si - cest pour - a:apprend' (des) mots Raph 9oui c'est pour apprend' (des) mots mais c'est aussi pour jouer Kev 10-:::- oui un peu - (m) c'est pour apprend' (des) mots Raph 11-:- oui -::- mais c'est quand même un peu pour jouer Kev… Kev 12-:- oui

5 Monologal use (one child briefly recounts a lived event): moi cé -i- (cest) que j'avais - sans arrêt toujours joué au cutter – et pis un jour [interr.23s] et puis je j'arrêtais pas d' m'amuser -i- et puis - un jour et ben: j'ai: - j' voulai:s frotter contre où c'est li:sse et puis j' me suis coupé en même temps -i- et: après heu -i- fallait qu'on m' mette un pansement tout ça alors (cette fois j'ai compris) qu'i' fallait plus toucher au cutter sans demander la permission

6 From oral to written language = from dialogal to monologal use Lentin, 1973 François, 1993, 1994 Dialogal useMonologal use Speech behaviour Plural wordingIndividual wording Grounding discourse co- constructed by speakers throughout their exchange(s) discourse constructed by single speaker within his speech turn(s) or written text Cognitive constraints Minimum constraints due to joint attention and shared context Maximum constraints due to contextualisation and planification of discourse Learning/teaching practices : hearing stories, performing fictionous stories in symbolic play, scaffolded reading, « dictée à ladulte » and scaffolded oral texts, transcription of oral language, scaffolded writing…

7 The investigation of communication behaviour from a multimodal perspective (verbal language + body movements) has been extensively developed within the past 20 years (Kendon, 1980, 1990 ; Cosnier & Brossard, 1984) Today, researchers who deal with language and language development begin to be aware of the relevance and significance of such an investigation A substantial volume of observation concerning adult speakers and social interaction between adults in various languages is now available (Poggi & Magno Caldognetto, 1997 ; Bouvet, 2001 ; Calbris, 2003 ; Kendon, 2004) The multimodal study of child language is not so far advanced, but the available data suggest that the gestural system associated with speech undergoes considerable development after the age of two years (Montagner, 1978 ; McNeill, 1992 ; Iverson & Goldin- Meadow, 1998 ; Guidetti, 2003) The statement that new gestural behaviour (pointing, representational gestures) arises at the same time as new lexical and syntactic abilities in young children is consistent with this hypothesis (Capirci et al., 1996, 2002 ; Goldin-Meadow & Butcher, 2003 ; Özçaliskan & Goldin-Meadow, 2005) Thus, the use of gestures, postures and facial expressions directly linked to speech should develop as the child acquires new cognitive and linguistic abilities Late speech development and gesture development

8 Two corpus collected in two distinct settings « Corpus Jean Macé » (6h30) Colletta, 2000, 2001, video recorded interviews of 60 children aged from 6 to 11 years in a primary school. - Groups of 3-4 children with the same age interviewed by an adult on family and social topics. The goal was priorily to elicit verbal explanations, eventually to elicit other discourse forms such as narratives, verbal depictions, arguing sequences. « Corpus Maternelle » (6h00) Colletta, Simon & Lachnitt, video recorded nursery classroom interactions during which teachers try to elicit explanations from their young pupils. - 3 to 6 years old children from 12 classes perform verbal explanations during experiments on air and on water themes, art workshops, sessions involving logical reasoning and language sessions.

9 Data analysis in both studies Corpus Jean Macé (primary school) was used to: - identify and class coverbal body movements of children performing discourse (Colletta, 2000, 2004) - study the categorisation of childrens coverbal gestures (Colletta, 2000) - study childrens multimodal narratives and test the effect of age on narrative behaviour (Colletta, 2001, 2004) - study childrens multimodal explanations and test the effect of age on explanation behaviour (Colletta, 2004, Colletta & Pellenq, 2005) Corpus Maternelle (nursery school), was used to: - study young childrens multimodal explanations and test the effect of age on explanation behaviour (Colletta, Simon & Lachnitt, 2005 ; Colletta & Pellenq, 2005) Next slides present: 1. Information about childrens coverbal gestures 2. Results from the study of their narratives 3. Results from the study of their explanations

10 Deixis: identify referents with direct pointing Representation: depict concret objects and places, mime concrete actions, symbolise abstracts objects and relations with gestural metaphors and abstract pointing Framing and expressivity: express speech acts (salutation, congratulation, invitation, request, refusal, etc.), mental states (reflection, word searching, connotation of speech with evidence, possibility, doubt, etc.) and emotions (joy, sadness, anger, fear, etc.) Segmentation and cohesion: marks syntactic units (syllable, word, group, clause, sentence) and discourse structure (text sequences, connectors, anaphoras) Interactive: marks speech-turn alternance and synchronisation (head nods and feedbak signals, contact behavior and phatic signals) Main functions of communicative body movements Ekman & Friesen, 1969 ; Cosnier, 1982 ; Scherer, 1984 ; McNeill, 1992 ; Calbris, 1997 ; Kendon, 2004 ; ANR Multimodality project, 2007

11 Childrens pointing and representational gestures (ex.) : Childrens framing, rythmic and interactive gestures (ex.) : Regarde… des matelasune couvertureun plat Ben… (évidence)Beats rythmiquesEt voilà !

12 Childrens abstract representational gestures (ex.) : sque - les parents - les parents heu: - avant is connaissent pas si moi chus fait - chus bien fait par quelquun Puisqui zont une mère – elle sappelle Martin Et le père Martinez Et ben le nom d famille ce sra Martinez

13 The effect of discourse on coverbal gesture at primary school (Corpus Jean Macé) : Paraverbal gestures (abstract beats, cohesive) Expressive gesture Concrete Referential gesture Other Coverbal gesture Explanation Description Narrative Argumentation

14 (6)Ama : Et aussi son frère il est mort heu - pasqu'il avait - il avait un casque sur la tête - 'fin c'est - (a) gesture representing earpieces on ears c'est une heu - famille un peu barjot quoi - (peut) dire ça - 'fin si vous lui montrez pas la cassette (b) symbol of madness same gesture (b) indicates the camcorder which is recording her (c) (d) ……… {interr.2s} et ben il avait mis un casque sur la tête et il est mort à cause de - parce qu'il (e) ……… ……… était allé chercher l' pain - et c'était pas un le jour c'était la nuit chais pas pourquoi il était allé - (e) face expresses astonishment and incomprehension (f) …… 'm'a raconté ça pas'que mon père il était présent - et i' voulait traverser il écoutait d' la musique (g) et tout et au moment où i' ferme les yeux pour traverser y a un train qui passe - R hand traces a straight line on the table ……………….. … et il avait deux trous dans la tête - aaahhh (h) R hand points to temple symbol of disgust

15 Translation : and his brother too he's dead um, because he had, he was wearing headphones on his head, but, it's a bit of a loony family you could say, well if you don't show him the videotape […] well he put headphones on his head and he got killed because, um, because he went to fetch the bread, and it wasn't daylight it was very dark, I don't know why he went there, someone told me that because my dad was there, and he wanted to cross and he was listening to music and just when he closed his eyes to cross there was a train going past, and he had two holes in his head, aaahhh (Ama, a 10-year-old French girl, tells of the circumstances surrounding the death of an adolescent from her district) Ama. announces: recounts: explains: comments : recounts: explains: comments : recounts the continuation: comments :

16 (6) Ama : Et aussi son frère il est mort heu - pasqu'il avait - il avait un casque sur la tête - 'fin c'est - (a) gesture representing earpieces on ears c'est une heu - famille un peu barjot quoi - (peut) dire ça - 'fin si vous lui montrez pas la cassette (b) symbol of madness same gesture (b) indicates the camcorder which is recording him (c) (d) ……… {interr.2s} et ben il avait mis un casque sur la tête et il est mort à cause de - parce qu'il (e) ……… ……… était allé chercher l' pain - et c'était pas un le jour c'était la nuit chais pas pourquoi il était allé - (e) face expresses astonishment and incomprehension (f) …… 'm'a raconté ça pas'que mon père il était présent - et i' voulait traverser il écoutait d' la musique (g) et tout et au moment où i' ferme les yeux pour traverser y a un train qui passe - R hand traces a straight line on the table ……………….. … et il avait deux trous dans la tête - aaahhh (h) R hand points to temple symbol of disgust Referential gestures which complement speech Emblem which reinforces speech No phatic look while narrating the events Posture change marks backtracking in event frame Voice & face marks metanarrative comments No phatic look while narrating the events Multimodal final expressive comment

17 (b) < … higher voice ………………………………... …………………… ……………………… …… (4) Ju.ben moi j' l'ai dit à mon - à ma mère - ma mère elle a dit oui:: oui:: dis le surtout pas à papa pas'que (a) facial expression meaning "catastrophe!"») (b) mimics mother's attitudes and voice ……… > ……… sinon - sss e t:: ÷ et moi j' l'ai dit à mon père ÷ et - il a et - j'- j'- j' lu' ai montré (c) symbol indicating "catastrophe! " amused expression (d) < voix + élevée et + forte ……………………………………. ………. ……. ……… …….. …………….. comment on faisait - il a dit - mais c'est pas vrai c'est pas comme ça qu'i' faut faire hè (d) mimics father's voice and attitudes …………………………………………… > ……………………………. ……… - moi j' vais t'apprendre autrement heu j'ai dit ouais ouais jai tout compris j'avais rien compris (d) (continued) (f) - cest ça laisse moi faire tranquille heu (f) amused expression Translation : well, me, I told my mum, my mum said please don't tell daddy otherwise, sss, and I told daddy… and he, and I, I showed him how to do it, he said, but it isn't true, you don't do it like that, well, me I'll show you a different way to do it, I said I'd understood I hadn't understood anything, that's it leave me in peace (Ju., a 9-year-old French girl, who tells what happened when she told her parents how her teacher taught her how to do division sums using a modern method)

18 (b) < … higher voice ………………………………... …………………… ……………………… …… (4) Ju. ben moi j' l'ai dit à mon - à ma mère - ma mère elle a dit oui:: oui:: dis le surtout pas à papa pas'que (a) facial expression meaning "catastrophe!"») (b) mimics mother's attitudes and voice ……… > ……… sinon - sss e t:: ÷ et moi j' l'ai dit à mon père ÷ et - il a et - j'- j'- j' lu' ai montré (symbol indicating "catastrophe!" then amused expression (d) < voix + élevée et + forte ……………………………………. ………. ……. ……… …….. …………….. comment on faisait - il a dit - mais c'est pas vrai c'est pas comme ça qu'i' faut faire hè (d) mimics father's voice and attitudes …………………………………………… > ……………………………. ……… - moi j' vais t'apprendre autrement heu j'ai dit ouais ouais jai tout compris j'avais rien compris (d) (continued) (f) - cest ça laisse moi faire tranquille heu (f) amused expression Emblems adding information to speech Role taking through voice & body movements Voice change marks faster processing of the event frame Multimodal final evaluative comment Ju. recounts: comments: Ju. recounts: facial comment: recounts what follows: facial comment: recounts what follows: comments: WRONG !!!

19 Discourse constructionVoice and prosody Body movementsGaze 1 narrative short, linear and elliptical, hesitant when longer undifferentiated prosodic contours fixed posture and facial expression, no representational gestures avoidance or continuous eye contact 2 level 1 narrative including at least one distinctive feature of a level 3 narrative (recap, parenthetical statement, final comment, etc.) sparsely differentiated prosodic contours sparse changes in posture, facial expression and gestures phatic eye looks 3 detailed narrative with possible recapitulation of initial situation, descriptive, explanatory, evaluative or other parenthetical interruptions, final comment, use of reported speech technique, may include verbalisation of emotions and the use of modalities prosodic contours differentiated as a function of narrative value of utterance (event level, parenthetical digression, comment), voice mimicking individuals involved in reported speech interactive and representational gestures, various facial expressions, dramatisation of narrative through localisation of objects and characters in available space, acting out of roles phatic eye looks + patterns differentia ted as a function of narrative value of the utterance Three levels in narrative behaviour in children aged from 6 to 11 years

20 Development of narrative behaviour as a function of age: French children To summarise our observations on 32 narratives : 1.At 6-7 years, the monologue-type narrative still constitutes a cognitively costly task; children give short, hesitant accounts and make little use of prosodic and kinesic resources. 2.Subsequently, childrens event reports become more substantial and they comment on the recounted events, thus starting to adopt the role of narrator. 3. Later, as of 9-11 years, the event reports become more detailed and are accompanied by backtracking through the event frame and various types of parenthetical statement and comments. Children commonly use bodily resources to mark transitions and various aspects of their narrative, and they recount events by positioning themselves as narrator.

21 Expository discourse and verbal explanations Explanation might be defined as a written expository text or an oral expository discourse which links an explanandum (P) to an explanans (Q) (Grize, 1990 ; Veneziano & Sinclair, 1995 ; Adam, 1992) : But the interactive properties of social interaction often lead to a separate formulation of P and Q : Speaker 1 : « why P ? » Speaker 2 : « because Q » Simple explanation contains either one proposition, or a few which are not bound logically or chronologically : « parce quelle est punie » « parce que cest rouge et ça sent la fraise » Complex explanation contains two or more propositions which are bound to each other logically or chronologically (Colletta, Simon, Lachnitt, 2005) : « parce que si tu lances en arrière ça tombe sur la tête et après tes mort »

22 Why study the evolution of explanation behaviour in children ? The childs first « explanations » occur before the end of the second year of age, as justifications for requests, refusals or behaviour of the young child, and they are closely related to their context (Veneziano et Sinclair, 1995; Dubost, 1998 ; Gauthier, 1998) By the end of primary school, children are able to perform expository discourse i.e. give reasons or causes for physical or natural phenomenons, and motives for social events, decisions or behaviour (Golder, 1996) From the first embedded justifications to proper expository discourse, the child learns to use language as a decontextualisation device, and learns linguistic (and prosodic and kinesic) means of coherence and cohesion Studying childrens explanations at various ages may proove to be a nice window into discourse development

23 Studying childrens explanations Two empirical studies based on data collected in nursery and primary schools From « corpus Jean Macé » (primary school) 268 monologal explanations were extracted. Results showed an age effect on lenght, linguistic information (syllables, connectives, clauses) and coverbal information From « corpus Maternelle » (nursery school) 232 monologal explanations were extracted. Results showed an age effect on lenght, number of connectives and number of clauses The contexts in which those explanations were verbalised are too different to allow comparison of their content, but we were interested in their form rather than in their content. We joined our two sets of data and completed the missing informations to allow comparison (Colletta & Pellenq, 2005)

24 Main results (children aged from 3 to 11 years) Ps 3-4 Ms 4-5 Gs 5-6 Cp 6-7 Ce 7-9 Cm 9-11 Time lengh (s) syllables (n) clauses (n) connectives (n) Coverbal gestures (n)

25

26 Structures type ps ms.gs cp.ce cm

27 Use of abstract referential gestures in multimodal explanation Substitution pointing CE1.3.Van.3408 (Rsubst).movCE1.3.Van.3408 (Rsubst).mov Representing absent referents CE1.3.Yv.3006 (Rfig).movCE1.3.Yv.3006 (Rfig).mov Anaphoric pointing CM2.3.Mad.0148 (Ranaph).movCM2.3.Mad.0148 (Ranaph).mov Localization of abstract referents CP1.Flo.3048 (Rfig).movCP1.Flo.3048 (Rfig).mov Oppositions CM1.1.Ja.0047 (Rfig).movCM1.1.Ja.0047 (Rfig).mov Metaphoric content CE1.3.Yv.3006 (Rfig).movCE1.3.Yv.3006 (Rfig).mov Representing time and aspect CM1.1.Ja.1828 (Rfig).movCM1.1.Ja.1828 (Rfig).mov Representing abstract actions CM2.3.Mad.0145 (Rfig).mov CM2.3.Emi.1438 (Rfig).movCM2.3.Mad.0145 (Rfig).mov CM2.3.Emi.1438 (Rfig).mov Representing quantities CM1.1.Ja.1828 (Rfig).mov CM2.3.Jér.2022 (Rfig).movCM1.1.Ja.1828 (Rfig).movCM2.3.Jér.2022 (Rfig).mov Representing negation and other modal attitudes CM1.3.Lau.1207 (Rfig).mov CE1.5.Si.1845 (Rfig).movCM1.3.Lau.1207 (Rfig).mov CE1.5.Si.1845 (Rfig).mov

28 Explanations gesture in nursery chool and primary school Direct pointings and gestures of the concrete Gestures of the abstract Expressive gesture Nursery school Primary school

29 Typical explanations gestures in nursery school Pointing gestures : Representational gestures : 1. « elle penche la tête comme ça » 2. « et le chien i fait comme ça » 12

30 Further questions on late speech development Discourse development and gesture development seem to be closely related to each other. But we need other studies to confirm our present results and get a more precise picture of the whole process Do gesture paves the way for discourse development as it seems to do for prior lexical and syntactic abilities (gestural connexity and anaphora emerging before their linguistic marking) ? What is the effect of language on gestural acquisitions ? (languages code variously for space, time, social identity…) What is the effect of culture on multimodal acquisitions ? (discourse and the use of gesture vary in form and content from one culture to another) Would the observation of coverbal gesture bring any information about SLI childrens conceptualisation and linguistic abilities ?

31 Further questions on cognitive and social development Abstract concepts involve analogical reasoning and spatial cognition (Lakoff & Johnson, 1985 ; Johnson, 1987 ; Fauconnier, 1997, 2001) Abstract concepts are expressed in gestural languages as well as in oral languages (Armstrong, Stokoe & Wilcox, 1995 ; Emmorey & Reilly, 1995 ; Bloom & al., 1999). Relying on metaphors and image schemata, representational gestures are usefull to express abstract concepts (Johnson, 1987 ; McNeill, 1992 ; Gentner, Holyoak & Kokinov, 2001 ; Calbris, 2003) Would the observation of gesture+speech abilities be a window into cognitive development ? The expression of mental states and the expression of emotions also seem to be related with age Would the observation of coverbal expressivity be a window into social-cognitive development ? And what about interindividual differences ?

32 Merci de votre attention !


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