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Luf-talkyng in Medieval Literature 10 Thomas Honegger ch.

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1 luf-talkyng in Medieval Literature 10 Thomas Honegger ch

2 db-thueringen.de/ content/top/ index.xmlwww. db-thueringen.de/

3 Jean Renarts Le Lai de lombre Next time: medieval arts of love Last time: transformation of the courtly love tradition

4 Lai de lombre narrativisation of a thematic nucleus found in the troubadours narrativisation of a thematic nucleus found in the troubadours Mais aucun dialogue na autant dampleur, de vivacité et de brio que celui du lai de lOmbre. Avant Jean Renart nul écrivain courtois au XIIe et au XIIIe siècle navait donné à la déclaration amoureuse le caractère dune affrontement, dun véritable duel. Ménard (1969:218) Mais aucun dialogue na autant dampleur, de vivacité et de brio que celui du lai de lOmbre. Avant Jean Renart nul écrivain courtois au XIIe et au XIIIe siècle navait donné à la déclaration amoureuse le caractère dune affrontement, dun véritable duel. Ménard (1969:218)

5 Lai de lombre lines of dialogue vs. 962 lines total length of the poem 509 lines of dialogue vs. 962 lines total length of the poem Les répliques de Jean Renart apparaissent incisives, rapides, appropriées à chaque état du personnage; elles sont si naturelles que nombre de scènes du Lai de lOmbre, de lEscoufle et de Guillaume de Dole pourraient à bon droit passer pour des scènes de théâtre. Rita Lejeune-Dehousse (1935: ) Les répliques de Jean Renart apparaissent incisives, rapides, appropriées à chaque état du personnage; elles sont si naturelles que nombre de scènes du Lai de lOmbre, de lEscoufle et de Guillaume de Dole pourraient à bon droit passer pour des scènes de théâtre. Rita Lejeune-Dehousse (1935: )

6 Lai de lombre 3 written between 1221 and 1222 written between 1221 and 1222 extant in 7 manuscripts (c ) extant in 7 manuscripts (c ) Ni convient mes baer de rien Jean Renart a lor afere. (l. 953) It isnt suitable for that Jean Renart to concern himself further with their relationship. Ni convient mes baer de rien Jean Renart a lor afere. (l. 953) It isnt suitable for that Jean Renart to concern himself further with their relationship.

7 Lai de lombre 4 Guillaume de Dole: Quil entra en religion anagram of ren(e)art Guillaume de Dole: Quil entra en religion anagram of ren(e)art Le roman de la rose ou de Guillaume de Dole (c /1228) Le roman de la rose ou de Guillaume de Dole (c /1228) Escoufle (c. 1202) Escoufle (c. 1202) Plait Renart de Dammartin contre Vairon son roncin Plait Renart de Dammartin contre Vairon son roncin

8 Lai de lombre 5 De Renart et de Piaudoue De Renart et de Piaudoue Auberée Auberée Galeran de Bretagne Galeran de Bretagne Editions of Lai de lombre by Joseph Bédier in 1890 (normalised version based on MS A), 1913 (MS A), and 1929 (MS E) Editions of Lai de lombre by Joseph Bédier in 1890 (normalised version based on MS A), 1913 (MS A), and 1929 (MS E)

9 Lai de lombre 6 mes nus noï onques son non (line 62) mes nus noï onques son non (line 62) but we do not know his name but we do not know his name Guingamor: ne sai, por voir, nomer son non Guingamor: ne sai, por voir, nomer son non

10 Lai de lombre 7 Illustrates the knights ability to use his reson and to influence his interlocutors. Illustrates the knights ability to use his reson and to influence his interlocutors. He is shown as exercising the utmost discretion concerning his true intentions and as being able to keep his feelings and motives secret, even from his own companions He is shown as exercising the utmost discretion concerning his true intentions and as being able to keep his feelings and motives secret, even from his own companions.

11 Lai de lombre 8 Chevaliers ne doit onques / trespasser ne chemin ne voie / ou bele dame ait quil nel voie. (Lecoy 1983:9, ll ) Chevaliers ne doit onques / trespasser ne chemin ne voie / ou bele dame ait quil nel voie. (Lecoy 1983:9, ll ) Knights ought never / to pass by a road or a highway / where a lady dwells without stopping to see her. Knights ought never / to pass by a road or a highway / where a lady dwells without stopping to see her.

12 Lai de lombre 9 Frame of neighbouring knight pays his respects to the lady of the castle who receives him and his companions graciously Frame of neighbouring knight pays his respects to the lady of the castle who receives him and his companions graciously

13 Lai de lombre 10 flattering and polite, form of address => gives positive face flattering and polite, form of address => gives positive face autonomous heart that interferes and dominates his pensser autonomous heart that interferes and dominates his pensser purpose of offering her his service purpose of offering her his service troubadouresque joie as a potential reward troubadouresque joie as a potential reward

14 Lai de lombre 11 appeal to God and His mercy appeal to God and His mercy A) increase the credibility of his protestations of love by linking them with undisputed religious values A) increase the credibility of his protestations of love by linking them with undisputed religious values B) model of repenting sinner and graceful God may (hopefully) inspire the lady to similarly merciful behaviour towards the knight B) model of repenting sinner and graceful God may (hopefully) inspire the lady to similarly merciful behaviour towards the knight

15 Lai de lombre 12 Diex Diex Amors Amors Thus I can attain joy: / since there is no other being that I love so much / as you, if Amors / lets me, repenting, come to his mercy. Thus I can attain joy: / since there is no other being that I love so much / as you, if Amors / lets me, repenting, come to his mercy.

16 Lai de lombre 13 gentelise et pitiez gentelise et pitiez Car ce serait une bonne action si lon priait à léglise pour ceux qui nont dautre intention que daimer loyalement. Car ce serait une bonne action si lon priait à léglise pour ceux qui nont dautre intention que daimer loyalement. For a man who would say prayers in a minster would do well to pray for those who understand nothing of love or who know not how to be a loyal love. For a man who would say prayers in a minster would do well to pray for those who understand nothing of love or who know not how to be a loyal love.

17 Lai de lombre 14 a) the proposed interactional framework is the traditional courtly one of knightly servant and lady a) the proposed interactional framework is the traditional courtly one of knightly servant and lady b) explicit amatory aspects of the hoped-for relationship are subordinated to the service aspects b) explicit amatory aspects of the hoped-for relationship are subordinated to the service aspects

18 Lai de lombre 15 c) the sincerity of the feelings are pointed out yet not unduly stressed c) the sincerity of the feelings are pointed out yet not unduly stressed d) possible doubts as to the moral acceptability of such a liaison are diverted. d) possible doubts as to the moral acceptability of such a liaison are diverted.

19 Lai de lombre 16 Ha! sire, por lame de mi, / fet ele, quavez vous or dit? (Lecoy 1983:12, ll ) Ha! sire, por lame de mi, / fet ele, quavez vous or dit? (Lecoy 1983:12, ll ) Ha! Sir, by my soul, / said she, what have you said? Ha! Sir, by my soul, / said she, what have you said?

20 Lai de lombre 17 Vous me savriiez ja mout bien / par parole et par lueil a trere / la pene, et ce que ne vueil fere / a entendre, par verité! Vous me savriiez ja mout bien / par parole et par lueil a trere / la pene, et ce que ne vueil fere / a entendre, par verité! You know very well, / by means of your words and looks, how to pull / the wool over my eyes / and to make me want to do what I do not want to, truly! You know very well, / by means of your words and looks, how to pull / the wool over my eyes / and to make me want to do what I do not want to, truly!

21 Lai de lombre 18 discourse on a metalevel discourse on a metalevel takes away the knights most powerful weapon: his speech takes away the knights most powerful weapon: his speech Challenges the propositional content condition (the speaker feels love for the hearer) and the sincerity condition (the speaker believes that he feels love for the hearer). Challenges the propositional content condition (the speaker feels love for the hearer) and the sincerity condition (the speaker believes that he feels love for the hearer).

22 Lai de lombre 19 Le Roman de la Rose: Bel Accueil (warm welcome) Le Roman de la Rose: Bel Accueil (warm welcome) Argues that her verbal resistance does not express her true feelings Argues that her verbal resistance does not express her true feelings

23 Lai de lombre 20 retenez moi a chevalier / et, quant vous plera, a ami (Lecoy 1983:13, ll ) retenez moi a chevalier / et, quant vous plera, a ami (Lecoy 1983:13, ll ) retain me as your knight / and, when it pleases you, as your love retain me as your knight / and, when it pleases you, as your love

24 Lai de lombre 21 how to interpret correctly the non- verbal element(s) of an interaction how to interpret correctly the non- verbal element(s) of an interaction framework has been that of courteously welcoming and entertaining a guest framework has been that of courteously welcoming and entertaining a guest vs. framework of opening moves between lovers vs. framework of opening moves between lovers

25 Lai de lombre 22 simultaneous use of (at least) two communicative frameworks (one remains implicit) simultaneous use of (at least) two communicative frameworks (one remains implicit)

26 Lai de lombre 23 Pitié et debonereté Pitié et debonereté nonques ne failli a amie / nus en la fin, qui bien amast (Lecoy 1983:14, ll ) nonques ne failli a amie / nus en la fin, qui bien amast (Lecoy 1983:14, ll ) Never has a beloved lady forsaken, / in the end, one who loved well. Never has a beloved lady forsaken, / in the end, one who loved well.

27 Lai de lombre 24 Tristan wounded during his fight with Morholt Tristan wounded during his fight with Morholt Tristans wounds cannot be healed by the surgeons at King Marks court Tristans wounds cannot be healed by the surgeons at King Marks court only Iseut can heal him only Iseut can heal him the knight wounded by Amor the knight suffers from amor hereos only the lady can heal him

28 Lai de lombre 25 Lady gives an objective reason why it is not possible for her to love him or anyone else: she is married to a husband who cherishes and honours her. Lady gives an objective reason why it is not possible for her to love him or anyone else: she is married to a husband who cherishes and honours her. => departure from arguing on a metalevel => departure from arguing on a metalevel => the knights sincerity as an interactional partner is doubted no more, and the lady no longer refuses to discuss with him matters on a content level. => the knights sincerity as an interactional partner is doubted no more, and the lady no longer refuses to discuss with him matters on a content level.

29 Lai de lombre 26 qui damors chant [et] lise qui damors chant [et] lise les poètes [et] les doctes les poètes [et] les doctes les poètes [et] les théoriciens de lamour les poètes [et] les théoriciens de lamour Ha! dame, fet il, mort mavez! (Lecoy 1983:16, l. 512) Ha! dame, fet il, mort mavez! (Lecoy 1983:16, l. 512) Ah, lady, he said, you have slain me! Ah, lady, he said, you have slain me!

30 Lai de lombre 27 cortoisie et bien (Lecoy 1983:16, l. 514) cortoisie et bien (Lecoy 1983:16, l. 514) Faire cortoisie Faire cortoisie Exchanging tokens of love: joiel – jewel, çainture – girdel or belt, or anel – ring Exchanging tokens of love: joiel – jewel, çainture – girdel or belt, or anel – ring Cf. Guillaume IX, SGGK, Merchant of Venice Cf. Guillaume IX, SGGK, Merchant of Venice

31 Lai de lombre 28 une grant cortoisie (Lecoy 1983:18, l. 565) une grant cortoisie (Lecoy 1983:18, l. 565) plus que mestre / de cest art (Lecoy 1983:19-20, ll ) plus que mestre / de cest art (Lecoy 1983:19-20, ll ) he is a past master / in this art he is a past master / in this art

32 Lai de lombre 29 Jean-Paul Sartre: Lêtre et le néant (1948) Jean-Paul Sartre: Lêtre et le néant (1948) sprezzatura = nonchalance sprezzatura = nonchalance Sir Thomas Hoby (1561 translation of Castigliones Il cortegiano) gives the advice to avoid affectation of manners and (to speak a new word) to use in every thyng a certain Reckelesness, to cover art withall, and seeme whatsoever he doth and sayeth to do it wythout pain, and (as it were) not myndyng it Sir Thomas Hoby (1561 translation of Castigliones Il cortegiano) gives the advice to avoid affectation of manners and (to speak a new word) to use in every thyng a certain Reckelesness, to cover art withall, and seeme whatsoever he doth and sayeth to do it wythout pain, and (as it were) not myndyng it

33 Lai de lombre 30 Si latet ars, prodest; adfert deprensa pudorem / Atque adimit merito tempus in omne fidem (Ovid, Ars amatoria, Book II, ll ; Bornecque 1983:43). Artfulness is useful if it remains unobtrusive/hidden; if it is uncovered, it causes embarrassment and destroys with good cause the trust forever. Si latet ars, prodest; adfert deprensa pudorem / Atque adimit merito tempus in omne fidem (Ovid, Ars amatoria, Book II, ll ; Bornecque 1983:43). Artfulness is useful if it remains unobtrusive/hidden; if it is uncovered, it causes embarrassment and destroys with good cause the trust forever.

34 Lai de lombre 31 un exemple et un modèle de conversation courtoise, tel fut son dessein, et par là son poème appartient surtout, peut-on dire, au genre didactique.Bédier (1913:iii) un exemple et un modèle de conversation courtoise, tel fut son dessein, et par là son poème appartient surtout, peut-on dire, au genre didactique. Bédier (1913:iii)

35 Lai de lombre 32 intra-textual level: the lady repeatedly voices her doubts as to the trustworthiness of the courteous verbal surface intra-textual level: the lady repeatedly voices her doubts as to the trustworthiness of the courteous verbal surface textual level: the dialogues always lead up to an impasse casts serious doubts on their suitability as model dialogues textual level: the dialogues always lead up to an impasse casts serious doubts on their suitability as model dialogues

36 Lai de lombre 33 De amore and Lai de lombre: De amore and Lai de lombre: a) the protagonists in both works remain nameless; b) there are similarities in genre and treatment a) the protagonists in both works remain nameless; b) there are similarities in genre and treatment

37 Lai de lombre 34 Jean Renarts poetic skill transforms the commonplaces of troubadour poetry and conventional amorous dialogues into one of the most elegant and vivacious small masterpieces of medieval fiction (Sargent 1965:79). Jean Renarts poetic skill transforms the commonplaces of troubadour poetry and conventional amorous dialogues into one of the most elegant and vivacious small masterpieces of medieval fiction (Sargent 1965:79).

38 Next time: medieval arts of love


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