Présentation au sujet: "Key concepts & social sciences background. What do you think of it? What are the key controversial concepts behind this? Men feel comfortable acting in."— Transcription de la présentation:
Key concepts & social sciences background
What do you think of it? What are the key controversial concepts behind this? Men feel comfortable acting in public area, while women are guardians of the private area Women have to work much harder than men to achieve the same position in the society. Biological sex is unchanging (trouver une phrase plus subtile!!!)
Men feel comfortable acting in public area, while women are guardians of the private area Masculine / feminine traits - Innate / learned - social roles - sex / gender Gender - gender studies
Anthropologist Margaret Mead Sex and Temperament in 3 primitive societies (1935) Laid the foundation for much of our contemporary sociological research and debate on gender. are « masculine » and « feminine » traits innate or learned? do men and women differ because of nature (heredity) or nurture (socialization)? => For M.Mead cultural conditioning is more important than biology in shaping women and mens behaviour.
Arapesh people Men = Women Both : -« maternal » in its parental aspects -« feminine » in its sexual aspects -Cooperative, unaggressive, responsive to the needs of others
Mundugumor people Men = Women Both : -ruthless, aggressive -Not « maternal » at all -Undisciplined and violent
Tchambuli people Men Women Men : Emotionnaly dependant person Less responsible Women : Dominant Impersonnal Managing partner => Definitive conclusion : no basis for regarding specific behaviours or traits we traditionally regarded as feminin or masculin as sex-linked.
Gender SEXGENDER Is innate Refers to: Biological, natural, physical differences Is learned. It is a social and historical construction Refers to: Way of thinking and feeling Position in the society Identity - way to introduce yourself… Council of Europe : Gender is a socially constructed definition of women and men. It is the social design of a biological sex, determined by the conception of tasks, functions and roles attributed to women and men in society and in public and private life. It is a culture specific definition of femininity and masculinity and therefore varies in time and space.
Gender and Culture Euromed heteroneous context towards new guinea? G.Hofstede Brief presentation of 5 dimensions
Focus on Masculinity/Feminity Dimension Hoftstedes definitions From Hofstede (2001), Cultures Consequences Masculinity stands for a society in which social gender roles are clearly distinct: Men are supposed to be assertive, tough, and focused on material success; women are supposed to be more modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life. Femininity stands for a society in which social gender roles overlap: Both men and women are supposed to be modest, tender, and concerned with the quality of life.
Women have to work much harder than men to achieve the same position in the society. Sexist jokes - Inequality - discrimination - Gender equality - gender mainstreaming / positive(affirmative) action
Biological sex is unchanging (trouver une phrase plus subtile!!!) Heterosexuality / Homosexuality - LGBT - Gay - lesbian transsexualism- transgender - breaking norms - queer - discrimination Sexual identity - gender identity
How do you say gender issue in your mother tongue? Is it a political issue?
Conclusion Food for thought : Translation problem, controversial theories, what consequence for youth work?
Political frame 1979 : CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women), a UN major tool – Conférence mondiale sur les femmes, Pékin : un tournant majeur. Véritable charte refondatrice des droits des femmes, la Déclaration de Pékin consolide et précise le travail engagé vingt ans plus tôt. Les gouvernements reconnaissent que « légalité des droits, des chances et de laccès aux ressources, le partage égal des responsabilités familiales et un partenariat harmonieux entre les femmes et les hommes sont essentiels à leur bien-être et à celui de leurs familles ainsi quà laffermissement de la démocratie ». La Conférence de Pékin proclame que légalité entre les femmes et les hommes est une condition essentielle du développement durable, de la paix et de la démocratie – Pékin +10 : La 49e session de la Commission des Nations unies sur le statut de la femme réaffirme les acquis de la déclaration et du Programme daction de Pékin de la façon la plus ferme possible dans un contexte marqué par des risques de régressions.
EU and equality between women and men Principle included in the Rome Treaty. To achieve this goal the EU has established legal (directives) and political tools. Moreover gender has been integrated into all sectors of European and national political processes as a whole. (gender mainstreaming)
Legislation in support of equality between women and men to reduce the differences in the treatment of men and women in the workplace in terms of wages, access to employment and training etc. to promote gender equality in the social area such as in social security, maternity and parental leave.