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Changing perceptions & Adopting new representations

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1 Changing perceptions & Adopting new representations
ADAPTIVE LEADERSHIP Changing perceptions & Adopting new representations Laurent Ledoux (www.philoma.org)

2 What did Parsons do or didn’t do? Is this a leadership case?
What did she achieve? Is this a leadership case? Why or why not? Need to give example of second bullet

3 Distinguish the challenges types
Problem definition Solution & implementation Primary locus of resp. for the work Kind of work Clear Clear Physician Technical Type I (Benign flu) Clear Requires learning Physician &patient Technical &adaptive Type II (Cardio-vascular problem) Requires learning Requires learning Patient > physician Adaptive Type III (Metastasized cancer) Source: “Leadership without easy answers”, by Ronald Heifetz

4 The leader’s social functions
Challenge Technical Adaptive Direction Authority provides problem definition and solution Authority defines adaptive challenge, provides diagnosis & questions about problem definitions & solutions Protection Authority protects from external threat Authority discloses external threat Role Orientation Authority orients Authority disorients current roles, and resists pressure to orient people in new roles too quickly Need to give example of second bullet Controlling conflict Authority restores order Authority exposes conflict, or lets it emerge Norm maintenance Authority maintains norms Authority challenges norms, or allows them to be challenged Source: “The practice of adaptive leadership”, by Alexander Grashow, Ronald Heifetz & Marty Linsky

5 Mobilize the group for the adaptive
Photo: ΠΑΣΟΚ Leadership Mobilize the group for the adaptive work Heifetz

6 Modulate the stress Need to give example of second bullet
Source: “Leadership on the line”, by Ronald Heifetz & Marty Linsky

7 5 Leadership Identify the adaptive challenge Protect leadership
(Unbundle the issues) Protect leadership voices w/out authority (Cover who raises questions authorities can’t raise) Give the work back to people (Put pressure on people with the problem) 5 strategic principles of Leadership Identify the adaptive challenge. Diagnose the situation in light of the values at stake, and unbundle the issues that come with it. Keep the level of distress within a tolerable range for doing adaptive work. To use the pressure cooker analogy, keep the heat up without blowing up the vessel. Focus attention on ripening issues and not on stress-reducing distractions. Identify which issues can currently engage attention; and while directing attention to them, counteract work avoidance mechanisms like denial, scapegoating, externalizing the enemy, pretending the problem is technical, or attacking individuals rather than issues. Give the work back to people, but at a rate they can stand. Place and develop responsibility by putting the pressure on the people with the problem. Protect voices of leadership without authority. Give cover to those who raise hard questions and generate distress - people who point to the internal contradictions of the society. These individuals will have latitude to provoke rethinking that authorities do not have. Keep the distress level tolerable (Control the pressure cooker) Focus on ripening issues (Counteract work avoidance mechanisms) Source: “Leadership without easy answers”, by Ronald Heifetz, adapted by Ledoux

8 See yourself as a system
Get on the balcony to see the patterns of the dance floor and to look at yourself 1 2 Diagnose the system Mobilize the system Socratic dialogue 3 4 See yourself as a system Deploy yourself

9 4 related groups of activities
Adaptive leadership 4 related groups of activities I Diagnose the system Be ready to observe & interpret before intervening Diagnose the system itself Diagnose the adaptive challenge Diagnose the political landscape Understand the qualities that makes an organization adaptive II Mobilize the system Make interpretations Design effective interventions Act politically Orchestrate the conflict Build an adaptive culture Socratic dialogue See yourself as a system Identify who you are Know your tuning “Broaden your bandwidth” Understand your roles Articulate your purposes Deploy yourself Stay connected to your purposes “Engage courageously” Inspire people Run experiments “Thrive” III IV Source: “Leadership without easy answers”, by Ronald Heifetz, adapted by Ledoux

10 Do the pizza & dare to get beyond your scope of authority
Adaptive challenge Faction Participant Constituencies

11 The best leader is the one whose existence the group barely knows
Photo: Radoslav Minchev Laozi, 630 BC

12 The boss does nothing Zobrist, 2005 12
Le vrai chef c’est “celui qui a le ballon”, celui qui fabrique. Le chef ne doit pas jouer. Il doit rester sur la touche. Sa tâche est avant tout de regarder le dehors de son équipe: l’équipe adverse, la direction du vent, la position du Soleil. Il anticipe le match suivant. Il essaye d’entendre les signaux faibles, ceux de l’intérieur (les craquements du navire), ceux de l’extérieur, qui seront les signaux forts de demain qu’il faut à tout prix anticiper. Zobrist, 2005 12

13 Let go Rosnay

14 Let the effect impose itself
Julien

15 “It” shoots Be one with the bow, the arrow, the target and everything, everyone else Anzawa

16 Pursue higher goals Optimize the value for the society at large
under the constraint of an adequate profit for shareholders Faber VP Danone Nos comptes nous racontent des contes: il faut que nous changions les contes que nous nous racontons Maximize the value (without limits) for shareholders under the constraint of the respect of the law Friedman Chicago School 16

17 Adaptive Leadership Authority Leadership Technical problems Power
Leadership without easy answers Technical problems Power Adaptive challenges Progress Personality Presence Source: “Leadership without easy answers”, by Ronald Heifetz, adapted by Ledoux

18 Bibliography The practice of adaptive leadership, Ronald Heifetz, Alexander Grashow & Marty Linsky, HBR ed., 2009 Leadership without easy answers, Ronald Heifetz, HBR ed., 1994 Leadership on the line, Ronald Heifetz & Marty Linsky, HBR ed., 2002 Leadership can be taught, Sharon Daloz Parks, HBR ed., 2005 Leading quietly, Joseph Badaracco, HBR ed., 2002 Questions of character, Joseph Badaracco, HBR ed., 2006 Arts of the wise leader, Mark Strom, Sophos ed., 2007 (www.artsofthewiseleader.com) The powers to lead, Joseph Nye, HBR ed., 2008 Leading with wisdom: spiritual-based leadership in business, Peter Pruzan & Kirsten Pruzan Mikkelsen, Response ed., 2009 Rational, Ethical & Spiritual Perspectives on Leadership, Peter Pruzan, Peter Lang ed., 2009 Leadership, Spirituality and the Common Good, Henri-Claude de Bettignies & Mike J. Thompson, Garant ed., 2010

19 Bibliography La responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise comme objet des sciences de gestion, Jean Pasquero dans Responsabilité sociale et environnementale de l’entreprise, sous la dir. de Marie-France B.-Turcotte et Anne Salmon, Presses de l’Université du Québec, 2005 Responsabilité sociale des entreprises et co-régulation, T. Berns, P.F. Docquir, B. Frydman, L. Hennebel & G. Lewkowicz, Bruylant 2007 La société malade la gestion, Vincent de Gauléjac, Seuil, 2005 Le capitalisme est-il moral, André Comte-Sponville, Albin Michel, 2004 Ethique et ordre économique: une entreprise de séduction, CNRS Editions, 2002 Le fondement de la morale, Marcel Conche, PUF, 1993 Rethinking business ethics – A pragmatic approach, Sandra Rosenthal & Rogene Buchholz, Oxford Press, 2000 Business Ethics & Values, Colin Fischer & Alan Lovell, FT Prentice Hall, 2003 Working ethics, Marvin Brown, Jossey-Bass, 1990 Responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise : Faut-il enchaîner Prométhée ?, Philippe de Woot, Economica, 2005 Does business ethics pay?, S. Webley & E. More, London IBE, 2003 Managing messy moral matters, C.M. Fischer & C. Rice, in Strategic Human Resources, J. Leopold, L. Harris & T.J. Watson, 1999 Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantilize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole, B. Barber, 2007 Capitalism at crossroads, S. Hart, 2005


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