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Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Session one: Friday November 8 th –Saturday November.

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Présentation au sujet: "Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Session one: Friday November 8 th –Saturday November."— Transcription de la présentation:


2 Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Introduction to managing change and innovation 2013 Session one: Friday November 8 th –Saturday November 9 th Murray Saunders

3 Programme Friday November 8 th morning session: Friday November 8 th afternoon session: – Saturday November 9 th morning session: The sequence: Context of change: the organisation as a unit of analysis The culture of an organisation at the heart of change Knowledge resources, practices as part of culture How do we acquire a culture (informal learning process) How do we experience a change How do we analyse a change (leading to the assignment)

4 Have an understanding of the ideas of change and innovation from a social practice perspective To be able to analyse situations of change with appropriate analytical tools Have an understanding of different types of change context Aims:

5 A Modern Phenomenon? Nothing endures but change. Heraclitus Greek philosopher (540 BC BC)

6 Etzionis classic definition of an organisation Bodies, persisting over time, which are specially set up to achieve specific aims

7 The characteristics of an organisation Division of labour, of power, and of communication responsibilities, such divisions being deliberately planned to achieve certain goals The presence of power centres which control the concerted efforts of the organisation and continuously review its performance and re-pattern its structure to increase efficiency The substitution of personnel by others assigned their tasks and the transference and promotion of individuals

8 Why do organisations change?

9 Because the environment changes To adapt to external change External influence External regulation To be more competitive To stay ahead of the competition To reflect societal needs / aspirations Someone at the top says we have to! Making a difference Planning & development Responding to challenges New people change the organisation to suit themselves To expand good practice To create new opportunities Management goal RestructuringEfficiency Why do organisations change? After: Richard Seel To grow Satisfy demand Attract investment Survival

10 Core conceptual tools in understanding and managing change What is culture? What is change? What is practice? Introducing a social practice approach

11 What is change? To cause to be different A transformation or transition from one state, condition or phase to another

12 Change is anything different from current conditions whereas innovation is something entirely new than anyone has seen before.

13 What is change? Incrementalism: doing the same only a little better, in other words improvements on existing practice clusters. Improving the quality of teaching materials might be an example. Innovative incrementalism: addition of innovations to existing practices, for example adding an international dimension to a syllabus where none existed before, or a new teaching practice to a repertoire. Transformational: radical understanding of enhancement involves a re-think of existing approaches, even fundamental purposes, and completely new practices. Saunders, M (2013) Quality enhancement: an overview of lessons from the Scottish experience in Amaral, A (2013) Recent Trends in Quality Assurance (Palgrave/ MacMillan)

14 Change requires a change in culture: culture is at the heart of change

15 Key concepts of culture Brainstorm a definition of culture within your groups

16 Key concepts of culture Designated value Beliefs Meanings (semiotics) and knowledge resources Practices Communities of practice

17 Depicting change in an organisation: knowledge, culture and practice Geertz and culture: The concept of culture I espouse is essentially a semiotic one. Believing, with Max Weber, that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun, I take cultures to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretative one in search of meaning.

18 Depicting change in an organisation: knowledge, culture and practice Geertz and culture: «Le concept de culture, je épouser est essentiellement une sémiotique. Croyant, avec Max Weber, que l'homme est un animal suspendu dans des toiles de signification qu'il lui a filé, je prends des cultures à ces toiles, et l'analyse de celui-ci d'être donc pas une science expérimentale à la recherche de la loi mais une interprétation dans quête de sens ».

19 Cultures consist of organisational characteristics the knowledge of which act as resources for practices Changing requires changing practices but why is this difficult?

20 Depicting organisational culture as interactions Handys organisational cultures: Role (hierarchic, formal roles) Achievement (flat, informal tasking, teams, expertise, specific outcomes) Power (factional, dealing, strategic conduct and liaisons, hierarchic) Support (flat, participative, humanistic, interactional) Saunders, M. (1995) Researching Professional Learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol 11, no 3, pp

21 FactorCollegiateBureaucraticInnovativeEnterprise Dominant value FreedomEquityLoyaltyCompetence Role of central authorities PermissiveRegulatoryDirectiveSupportive Handy's organisational culture SupportRolePowerAchievement Dominant unit Department/individualFaculty/committees Institution/senior management team Sub-unit/project teams Decision arenas Informal groups networksCommittees and administrative briefings Working parties and Senior Management team Project teams Management style ConsensualFormal/'rational'Political/tactical Devolved leadership Timeframe LongCyclicShort/mid termInstant Environmental fit EvolutionStabilityCrisisTurbulence Nature of change Organic innovationReactive adaptationProactive transformationTactical flexibility External referents Invisible collegeRegulatory bodies Policy makers as opinion leaders Clients/sponsors

22 Depicting organisational characteristics as cultural knowledge: the basis of practice Blackler (1995) Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation in Organization Studies November 1995 vol. 16 no Embrained knowledge [dependent on conceptual skills and cognitive abilities] Embodied knowledge [action oriented likely to be only partly explicit, mostly tacit, the way we do things here] Encultured knowledge [refers to the process of achieving shared understandings through language, socialisation acculturation, socially constructed and negotiable] Embedded knowledge [resides in systemic routines {reification of practice} relationships between technologies, roles, formal procedures and emergent routines] Encoded knowledge [information conveyed by signs and symbols, traditional forms {hard copy} and emergent forms {electronic}

23 Décrivant les caractéristiques organisationnelles que les connaissances culturelles: la base de practiceâ Blackler (1995) Knowledge, Knowledge Work and Organizations: An Overview and Interpretation in Organization Studies November 1995 vol. 16 no Connaissances Embrained [dépend des compétences conceptuelles et les capacités cognitives] Connaissance incarnée [orienté vers l'action susceptible d'être seulement en partie explicite, essentiellement tacite, «la façon dont nous faisons les choses ici»] Connaissances Encultured [désigne le processus de réalisation compréhensions partagées par le biais d'acculturation socialisation linguistique, socialement construites et négociable] Connaissances intégrées [réside dans les routines systémique {} réification de la pratique des relations entre les technologies, les rôles, les procédures formelles et des routines émergentes] Connaissances codées [information véhiculée par des signes et des symboles, des formes traditionnelles {} et copie papier formes émergentes {} électroniques

24 Embrained knowledge Technical knowledge Formal knowledge Knowledge in books Knowledge at a theoretical level Theories like learning theory, Piaget for example Theories like Erauts theory of informal learning

25 Embodied knowledge Knowing about daily ways of behaving in a group Could be knowing about how individuals react Peoples habits Talkative open culture or more closed and formal Informality or formality When things get done Where things get done How best to get things done Not written down: tacit

26 Encultured knowledge This refers to the shared discourse of the group Could be references to nick names Could be the technical vocabulary of an organisation (medical environment) Could be knowledge of the word or phrase attached to a way of doing something (e.g. sledging which means criticising or verbally undermining trying to put somebody off, could be very situated or contextualised

27 Embedded knowledge This refers to knowledge of systems and ways of doing things The forms you need The process you have to go through to get things done Think about the process you need to go through if you want an extension to an assignment-this is embedded knowledge

28 Encoded knowledge This is a bit more tricky, it refers to the form that communications are made within a group Could be by text message Could be by Could be mainly face to face Differences between a memo culture or a face to face culture

29 Using these depictions, identify the knowledge resources within a classroom

30 Episodic memory Semantic memory Behaviour or performance Practice, experience Public/propositional knowledge Implicit learning Explicit learning Pathways of cultural knowledge acquisition

31 How do we learn informally? Implicit learning Deliberative learning Reactive learning

32 Knowledge acquisition Explicit pathway-events are stored in episodic memory and used to construct generalisations Implicit pathway-events are stored but no generalisations are made Sometimes explicit and implicit knowledge suggest how propositional knowledge might be used Propositional knowledge can be helpful in reflecting on and clarifying the meaning of an event or experience

33 Learning informally: the importance of the idea of practice Informal learning often occurs through practice or learning about a practice. Practice is at the heart of informal learning Giddens notion of the practical refers to behaviour which is recurrent or routine i.e. happens on a day to day basis and is rooted in the normal routine of daily life. Therefore a practice is a way of doing something, the pattern of which is reproduced in a social context [i.e. work] according to certain rules. A practice is recurrent or routine, rule governed behaviour Can we say that the rules constitute the knowledge base of informal learning?

34 Learning informally: the importance of the idea of practice L'apprentissage informel se produit souvent par la pratique ou l'apprentissage d'une pratique. La pratique est au cœur de l'apprentissage informel La notion de Giddens de la pratique se réfère à un comportement qui est récurrente ou de routine à savoir qui se passe sur une base quotidienne et est ancrée dans la routine de la vie quotidienne. Par conséquent, une «pratique» est un moyen de faire quelque chose, dont le motif est reproduit dans un contexte social [c.-travail] selon certaines règles. Une pratique est récurrente ou systématique le comportement général, régi Peut-on dire que les «règles» constituent la base de connaissances de l'apprentissage informel?

35 Learning informally through practice (Wenger 1999, p 4] A concept of practice includes: both the explicit and the tacit what is said and what is left unsaid; what is represented and what is assumed. the language, tools, documents, images, symbols, well defined roles, specified criteria, codified procedures, regulations, and contracts that various practices make explicit for a variety of purposes. all the implicit relations, tacit conventions, subtle cues, untold rules of thumb, recognizable intuitions, specific perceptions, well tuned sensitivities, embodied understandings, underlying assumptions and shared world views. Most of these may never be articulated, yet they are signs of membership in communities of practice

36 Learning informally through practice (Wenger 1999, p 4] « Un concept de pratique comprend: tant l'explicite et le tacite,ce qui est dit et ce qui est non-dits; ce qui est représenté et ce qui est supposé. le langage, outils, documents, images, symboles, des rôles bien définis, des critères précis, des procédures codifiées, les règlements et les contrats que les pratiques diverses de rendre explicite pour une variété de fins. toutes les relations implicites, conventions tacites, les indices subtils, les règles incalculable de pouce, intuitions reconnaissables, des perceptions spécifiques, des sensibilités bien réglé, les compréhensions incarnée, hypothèses sous-jacentes et visions du monde partagées. La plupart de ces ne peut jamais être articulés, et pourtant ils sont des signes d'appartenance à des communautés de pratique »

37 cultureulture Knowledge Resources Culture produces practices

38 Change concepts: overview Changing cultures: reconstruction of meaning Changing practices: knowing what a practice is! Changing systems [connective procedures] Changing structures [architecture of or connections between sets of procedures] Change is a process not a thing or a moment

39 Summary Organisations consist of cultures Cultures consist of organisational practices knowledge of organisational practices is learned Change involves moving organisational practices


41 Types of Change Type I that which is done to us Type 2 that which we do to ourselves Type 3 that which we do to others

42 Change levels Macro Structures, national systems, organisation at regional levels, orientation Meso Organisational changes, goals, cultures systems, practices Micro Individuals, small groups, practices, cultural change

43 Adaptation Ability to cope with change LowHigh Level of imposed change Low High

44 Attitudes to change After: Outright hostility Refusal Resignation Industrial action Token compliance Lip service to new ideas Subversion Grudging acceptance Comply only where immediate benefit evident Lukewarm enthusiasm Momentum stalled by obstacles Real commitment Enthusiastic Evangelical Willing to take risks Persistent in the face of barriers Increasing level of involvement Increasing depth and durability of change achieved

45 nu.htm Outright hostility Refusal Resignation Industrial action Token compliance Lip service to new ideas Subversion Grudging acceptance Comply only where immediate benefit evident Lukewarm enthusiasm Momentum stalled by obstacles Real commitment Enthusiastic Evangelical Willing to take risks Persistent in the face of barriers Increasing level of involvement Increasing depth and durability of change achieved

46 Desire to change DefianceReluctanceOppositionSabotageSubterfuge Low High ChangeCommitmentEnthusiasmEngagementSuccess DetachedDisengagedBelligerentResignedImpassive Low FrustrationAnxietyHindranceDissatisfactionFailure Desire to change Capability to change Ralph (2007)

47 Levels of involvement Joining Consulting Selling Telling Ralph (1997)

48 How do we experience change? Ralph (1997)

49 How do we experience change? Energising Fear Resistance Transformation Threat Improvement Resignation Excitement Chaos Exhausting Unnecessary Sceptical of benefits Weariness Sense of loss - bereavement Pain Uncertainty Insecurity Challenges Sense of achievement Relief Opportunity Whats in it for me? Disbelief Suspicion Out of Control Demoralising Obstacle Retrograde step Disappointment After: Richard Seel

50 Stages of response to change Shock and Disbeli ef Resistance Acceptance of Ending (Grieving ) Peaceful acceptance of New Reality Callan, J. (1993) Individual and organizational strategies for coping with organizational change in Work & Stress: An International Journal of Work, Health & Organisations Volume 7, Issue 1, 1993Volume 7Issue 1

51 Cycle of change Contentment DenialConfusion Renewal

52 Responses to Change Antsmechanisticcompliantdirectedobedient Unknown Known Beesflexibleempoweredsearchingintegrated Frogsobliviousroutinestagnant Unknown Rabbitsbewilderedpetrifiedovercome Knowledge of why we should change Knowledge of what to change

53 Transition Curve After: J.Adams, J.Hayes and C.Hopson, Transition: Understanding and Managing Personal Change, 1976, London: Martin Robertson & Company; Kubler-Ross, E 1970 On death and Dying Perceived Competence/ Confidence Time Denial Shock Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance Hope Testing Search for Meaning Integration/ Moving On Blame Period of Loss Increasing Stress Positive Growth Reducing Stress Transformative learning Zone of resistance

54 Transition Curve Williams D Life events & career change: transition psychology in practice. Brit.Psych.Soc. Symposium, Jan 1999Life events & career change: transition psychology in practice Well-being Time Honeymoon Numbness Uncertainty Denial Crisis Accepting Testing Transformation Disbelief Excitement Losing confidence Confusion Depression Exploring Positive event Trauma or loss Distress/ despair Feel Good Letting go Partial recovery

55 Diagnostic tool for the change curve Phase Human RelationsCommunicationsLeadershipProblem Handling Planning and Goal Setting ShockFragmentedRandomParalysedNoneInactive Defensive Retreat ProtectiveRitualisedAutocraticMechanisticIsolated Acceptance and Test SupportiveSearchingConstructiveExplorativeCo-ordinated Change and Adapt InterdependentHarmoniousBalanced approach to people and task FlexibleIntegrated

56 Managing through the change curve Time Self-confidence; Morale; Perceived effectiveness Denial Anger Confusion Strong emotions Commitment Acceptance Exploring new ways of working Information Involvement & Encouragement Clear Direction Support Manage through:

57 Understanding change Trowler P, Saunders M, Knight P (eds) [2004] Change thinking, change practices: A guide to change for heads of department, subject centres and others who work middle-out [LTSN Generic Centre, York] pp 40 Change theory Technical- rational theory Resource allocation model Diffusionist: epidemiologic theory Kai Zen, or continuous quality improvement perspective Models using complexity theories What are the core assumptions about the nature of change and its objects? Positivism works: experts plan and then manage faithful implementation Rational economic model: assume that central resource decisions have predictable results. Normative re- educative: clear, visible messages picked up by early adopters they diffuse according to the fit of message with audience priorities Bricolage: change is because the system gets people to be continuously tinkering, looking for ways of doing better Indeterminate systems, outcomes not predictable. Change sponsors create conditions in which change is more likely to happen than not

58 Force Field Analysis Driving ForcesRestraining Forces Current StateDesired future state Kurt Lewin

59 Three step change theory Kurt Lewin Unfreezing : (Motivate, building trust, collaboration) Movement : (agreeing status quo is undesirable, hierarchic support) Refreezing : stabilise new environment, incentives, embedding)

60 Critique of Lewins Three step change theory ( Burnes B (2004) J of Management Studies 41:6 p 996 ) 1.stability and change in organizations was at best no longer applicable and at worst wildly inappropriate 2.approach to change is only suitable for isolated and incremental change situations 3.ignored power and politics 4.adopted a top-down, management-driven approach

61 Eight steps to transformation (Kotter, 1995, Harvard Business Review, p61) 1. Sense of urgency 2. Forming a powerful coalition 3. Creating a vision 4. Communicating the vision 5. Empowering others to act on the vision 6. Planning for and and creating short-term wins 7. Consolidating improvements 8. Institutionalising (embedding) new approaches

62 I am uncomfortable with the use of the language pattern 'change management'. The concept of 'Change management' and the use of that language is possibly a 2nd wave way of talking about a 3rd wave phenomenon (vestiges of a control based model where we think we can manage and/or control things). In a world of complex adaptive systems new states of being 'emerge' and aren't really managed (and a key component to survival is the ability to quickly respond and adapt to new environmental conditions)

63 «Je suis à l'aise avec l'utilisation de la« gestion du changement »le modèle de langue. Le concept de «gestion du changement» et l'utilisation de cette langue est peut-être un moyen 2e vague de parler d'un phénomène de 3ème vague (vestiges d'un modèle de contrôle basé où nous pensons que nous pouvons gérer et / ou des choses de contrôle). Dans un monde d'états complexes adaptatifs de nouveaux systèmes d'être «émergent» et ne sont pas vraiment réussi (et une composante clé de la survie est la capacité à réagir rapidement et de s'adapter aux nouvelles conditions environnementales) "

64 Refocusing Attention now on adaptation, major changes, alternatives to original ideas, creativity, consolidation of ideas CollaborationCoordinating and cooperating with other stake-holders in developing ideas and outcomes ConsequenceAttention on impact on students, staff, departments and whole institution of change outcomes and the development of new ideas ManagementAttention on difficulties in the processes and tasks involved in the change, developing and accommodating new practices, processes and systems Institutional/personalBegins to analyse involvement in context of existing systems and practice InformationalEmerging awareness and interest in knowing more, thinking of implications of participation AwarenessInitial awareness of the change characteristics Stages of concern in a change (adapted from Hall and Loucks (1978).

65 Recentrer: l'attention aujourd'hui sur l'adaptation, des changements majeurs, les alternatives aux idées originales, la créativité, la consolidation des idées Collaboration de coordination et de coopération avec d'autres parties prenantes dans le développement des idées et des résultats Attention Conséquence de l'impact sur les étudiants, le personnel, les ministères et institution dans son ensemble des résultats du changement et le développement de nouvelles idées Attention de la direction sur les difficultés dans le processus et les tâches impliquées dans le changement, le développement et accommodant de nouvelles pratiques, processus et systèmes Institutionnel / personnel commence à analyser l'implication dans le contexte des systèmes existants et la pratique Informationnelle émergents sensibilisation et l'intérêt d'en savoir plus, pensant implications de la participation Sensibilisation sensibilisation initiale des caractéristiques changement

66 The evolution of changes: all levels

67 Government Regions Institutions Departments Individuals and groups Learners Receipt/Réception Agence/Agency Implementation staircase and policy trajectories MS12/03/04 The point about this metaphor is that it suggests the importance of constructing the experience of the proposed change from the points of view of all the main stakeholders within the system. Further, it suggests these points of view may well differ significantly and it is the task of the evaluation to uncover these important differences. Another dimension to this metaphor is the way in which each group acts as both a receiver and an agent of a policy message and through this process, the policy message will undergo adaptation. Le point sur cette métaphore est qu'elle suggère l'importance de construire l'expérience du changement proposé à partir des points de vue de tous les principaux intervenants dans le système. En outre, elle suggère que ces points de vue peuvent différer de façon significative et c'est la tâche de l'évaluation à «découvrir» ces différences importantes. Une autre dimension de cette métaphore est la manière dont chaque groupe agit comme un récepteur et un agent d'un message politique et à travers ce processus, le message politique va subir une adaptation.

68 Types of Organisational Change Quick fix or Crisis Transformation or Radical Change Tinkering or Fine Tuning Incremental or Evolutionary Change Timescale (in years) Magnitude of change LongerShorter Lesser Greater

69 change management strategies and their main advantages and disadvantages can be summarised as follows:

70 Cultural audit Assignment Description Introduction (general description, aims, people, location) Paradigm: overall description (power, role etc) Symbols: artefacts, prizes, awards, charters, policies Power: how are decisions made? Structures: elements of the organisation, division of labour Controls: quality frameworks, inspections, performance measures Routines: practices that happen regularly, meetings, newsletters, groups etc and knowledge resources Stories: shared memories about the organisation Potential change

71 Cultural Audit Paradigme: la description globale (puissance, le rôle, etc) Symboles: objets, prix, récompenses, des chartes, des politiques Puissance: comment sont prises les décisions? Ouvrages d'art: des éléments de l'organisation, la division du travail Contrôles: des cadres de qualité, les inspections, les mesures de rendement Routines: les pratiques qui se produisent régulièrement, des réunions, des bulletins, des groupes, etc Histoires: souvenirs partagés sur l'organisation

72 Categories in a cultural audit Stories Routines Symbols Power Organisation structures Controls Paradigm Role, Achievement, Power, Support

73 Position each on a 4-quadrant matrix as shown below.

74 Super-tanker In the Super-tanker quadrant change is slow and driven by external factors rather than by a sense of drive and purpose from within the organisation. Advantages Disadvantages Change can be managed Systems have time to react Change is slow Lack of responsiveness Unlikely to be able to respond to opportunities Fall behind competitors Enthusing staff about the need for change can be difficult

75 Fire-fighting Areas in the fire-fighting quadrant are always reacting to change and threats at very short notice and don't feel in full control of circumstances and actions. AdvantagesDisadvantages Culture of change can help make change happen Changes happen readily Externally driven Never run things long enough to fully embed them Change fatigue can set in High stress levels Responsive Changes happen readily Sense of 'Buzz' Entrepreneurial Externally-driven Never run things long enough to fully embed them Change fatigue can set in High stress levels Never have the opportunity to review whether what you do is effective

76 Band-wagon In the band-wagon quadrant you are always driven by external factors and the latest initiative. AdvantagesDisadvantages Responsive Changes happen readily Sense of 'Buzz' Entrepreneurial Externally-driven Never run things long enough to fully embed them Change fatigue can set in High stress levels Never have the opportunity to review whether what you do is effective

77 Space explorer In the space explorer quadrant change is slow and driven by opportunities from the internal and external environment. This may seem like the optimum quadrant but it has its drawbacks. AdvantagesDisadvantages Change can be managed and embedded Systems have time to react Staff feel more in control Change is relatively slow and some opportunities may be missed Lack of responsiveness Is change taking us in the right direction - and quickly enough? Can we afford the investment?

78 Discuss assignment A change case study in two parts: 1. Undertake a cultural audit of an organisation with which you are familiar and identify a possible change. Use the framework called the cultural audit Identify the main practices and the knowledge resources 2. A) Suggest a change strategy, where you will identify a change and analyse the following: The nature of the change Stakeholders and their interests Incentives and disincentives to change Power and ownership of the change process Suggest a change strategy to move the organisation from A to B OR B) Analyse a change process, using the concepts you have been introduced to during the module

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