Présentation au sujet: "Gestion du cycle de vie Un guide d’affaires pour la durabilité Session de formation 2 sur 4 Novembre 2006."— Transcription de la présentation:
1Gestion du cycle de vie Un guide d’affaires pour la durabilité Session de formation 2 sur 4 Novembre 2006
2Formation en gestion du cycle de vie - Plan Introduction à la GCVPremière sessionComment est utilisé en pratique la GCVCette session !Communiquer les résultats de la GCVTroisième SessionLa GCV et les attentes des parties prenantesQuatrième Session
3Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre les bases théoriques de la gestion du cycle de vie & son histoireQu’est ce qu’un cycle de vie ? Impacts & valeur créés avec le cycle de vie d’un produit ou serviceDéfinitionsHistoireUtilisationPourquoi la GCV est-elle nécessaire en entreprise et au gouvernement ?ConducteursQu’englobe la GCV ?Quels sont les aspects uniques de la GCV?Exercice de groupePause café et rafraîchissementsIntroduction à la GCVSession précédenteHere is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the previous session...Fait
4Comment est utilisé en pratique la GCV Cette session Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre les aspects pratiques de la GCV dans le développement des politiques et les opérations d’affaires, à travers des discussions pour son intégration dans la prise de décision et à travers des cas pratiquesGestion du cycle de vieDéfinition & AvantagesLa GCV implique …Apprentissage à partir d’une gamme d’exemplesUne démarche de mise en œuvre de la GCVPlanifier – Faire – Contrôler – AgirUn accent sur la conceptionD’autres exemples pour illustrerExercice de groupePause déjeunerComment est utilisé en pratique la GCVCette sessionHere is our agenda for this session, and a statement of learning objectives – The session will last no longer than 2.5 hours
5Pourquoi communiquer la GCV ? A qui ? Objectif d’apprentissage: Fournir une bonne compréhension des outils et stratégies de communication. Pourquoi et comment peuvent-ils être précieux pour les entreprises ?Pourquoi communiquer la GCV ? A qui ?Définition et domaines de compétences, conducteurs, groupes cibles de communicationBoîte d’outils de communicationCaractéristiques principales et lien avec la GCV Exemples et diffusion d’outilsEtudes de casSecteur -Conducteurs spécifiques Stratégies de communicationCombinaison d’outilsExercice de groupePause café et rafraîchissementsCommuniquer les résultats de la GCVTroisième SessionHere is a preview of the agenda for the third, upcoming, session - - to give you an understanding of what we’ll cover next
6Pourquoi impliquer les parties prenantes ? Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre comment identifier les acteurs clés ainsi que leurs priorités & préoccupationsPourquoi impliquer les parties prenantes ?Identifier les parties prenantesParties prenantes potentiellesDemander aux bonnes personnesClassificationL’importance d’inclure les parties prenantesEvitement de risquesCréation d’opportunitéCas pratiquesExercice de groupePause déjeunerLa GCV et les attentes des acteurs clésQuatrième SessionHere is a preview of the agenda for the fourth session - -
7LA GCV comme élément d’une bonne pratique Considérer les question suivantes durant toute cette session:Quels sont les obstacles majeurs à l’incorporation de la GCV dans votre organisation?Quel membre de votre organisation souhaiteriez-vous engager dans une initiative de la GCV?Quels sont les cinq plus grands domaines d’impacts de vos opérations?Où sont les plus grandes opportunités pour votre organisation dans ce domaine ?Quels sont les risques majeurs pour votre entreprise et votre industrie dans ce domaine ?Consider these questions as we go through these slides & be ready to discuss at the end of this session
8LE DEMARRAGE GROUP DISCUSSION – Spend 10 minutes engaging the participants. Ask them to think for one minute about how they would define LCM to a new person, and what they would say is valuable about LCM. Once participants have had one minute to think, ask for volunteers to state their ideas out loud... allow for questions and clarifications. Alternatively, ask participants simply to write their answers, and keep them.Be sure to ask the same question at the end of the session – again, either have participants think about an answer and then state ideas to the group, or quietly write their answers/ideas... They can compare what they thought (or wrote) at the beginning of this session to what they think (or write) at the end.LE DEMARRAGE
9La Gestion du Cycle de Vie est… … l’application de la pensée du cycle de vie aux pratiques d’affaires, dans le but de gérer systématiquement le cycle de vie des produits et services d’une organisation… la gestion systématique des cycles de vie de produits et matériels, pour promouvoir des modes de production et de consommation qui sont plus durables que ceux que nous avons aujourd’hui… un cadre de travail flexible intégré, de concepts de gestion, de techniques et procédures pour prendre en compte les aspects économiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits, procédures et organisationsTo close the GROUP DISCUSSION give participants one minute to read this written definition... Or read it aloud to them. Then move on to the next slides, which describe how organisations can implement LCM
10GCV – Sa mise en pratique ObjectifComprendre les éléments fondamentaux & étapes nécessaires à une organisation pour démarrer la mise en application de la GCVQuestions fondamentalesToute organisation peut appliquer la GCVOn n’a pas besoin de commencer par la directionLa GCV implique tous les niveaux de l’organisationAssurez vous de voir au-delà des limites traditionnellesCommentPlanifier – Faire – Contrôler – Agir pour l’amélioration continue!This slide outlines what will be covered in the next section of this Session. Each of these items will be discussed in detail in the next slides.
111. Toute organisation peut appliquer la GCV Any organisation can apply LCM from the smallest vendor to the world’s largest corporations. How each organisation structures and pursues LCM will vary greatly, especially in regard to speed and focus.LCM is a dynamic process; organisations may start with small goals and objectives with the resources they have and get more ambitious over time. Organisations should not “jump into” advanced tools or complicated, data-intensive programs, but can instead take a step-by-step approach – begin with developing a life-cycle perspective and finding reasonable possibilities to improve the environmental characteristics of a product, a process or a service.Over the next few slides we will discuss the best practices for applying LCM which applies to any organisation looking to adopt it.
122. On a pas besoin de commencer par le haut Wherever one starts on the spiral of improving their performance the critical aspect is the act of pursuing improvements.To be successful there are some important contextual considerations one has to start with. First, LCM has to involve many levels of the organisation and second, organisations have to be willing to reconsider how they define the scope of their impacts.With these elements in place organisations can then start to pursue the plan>do>check>act/adjust/improve cycle
133. La GCV implique tous les niveaux de l’organisation Coordination et renforcement de capacitésPolitique environnementale basée sur le cycle de vie & la stratégie du produitProduction et distribution plus écologiquesEnvironnement et durabilitéProduction et distributionRelations avecles partiesprenantesRSE etcommunicationGestion du cycle de vieDéveloppement des produitsVenteset marketingEco-marketingConception pour la durabilitéNote to Trainer: Tools listed outside the circle in this figure are only examples – change them to suit the tools your audience is using, or is familiar with – Draw other examples from the many tools and approaches presented in the slides in Session IThere are several conditions to try to foster when implementing a LCM program. (1) Involving all Departments; (2) Management Support & Interest; (3) Engaging all Employees:(1) Involving all Departments - - An LCM initiative may impact all functions and departments of an enterprise. For example, a design-for-environment program will be less able to implement new design ideas, without support from procurement and marketing... You can see that a decision to change the material composition of a product not only affects the environmental aspects of a product, but also procurement of supplies, marketing of that product to customers, as well as distribution logistics, perhaps packaging and storage, among others. Therefore, communication and sharing ideas within and across departments in an organisation is key to LCM. Communication and interaction helps generate a range of news ideas, and helps push ideas into realization. Be sure, also, to recognize the environmental and social initiatives which already exist in various departments. Involving all departments in LCM means learning from what has gone before.(2) Management Support & Interest - - Introducing LCM in a company, it is ideal if it is a top management decision and is according to the company’s policies and strategy. Continued support from top management during implementation of LCM is also needed. The full support of the Management requires in practice:Necessary resources have been set aside for the LCM initiative including time and educational resources.Management of the organisation actively participates in setting up the strategic goals.Explicit communication throughout the organisation regarding the ambition level and goals.Ideas and suggestions of the employees involved are taken seriously.(3) Engaging all Employees - - Participation of a range of employees ensures that the LCM initiatives will be deeply rooted in the organisationand that the focus will be on concrete improvements to a product’s environmental proﬁle, rather than unco-ordinated programs and data collection that is not part of systematic improvement plan. Furthermore, broad participation ensures that the LCM program doesn’t ‘die’, if a key employee involved leaves the organisation.Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Management et FinancesAchatsPriorisation des ressources financièresApprovisionnement durable
144. Regarder au-delà des limites traditionnelles Gestionnaires de déchetsFournisseurs de composantsRecycleursFournisseurs de matières premièresConsommateursProducteursDétaillantsTransporteursTo capitalise on opportunities and make meaningful improvements, organisations can look beyond traditional boundaries of facilities, and expand collaboration and communication to suppliers, customers, employees and communities, peers and other stakeholders in the value chain. In this way, organisations accept that impacts of their operations, products or services may occur well outside of their traditional sense of their responsibility – while this of course creates some challenges it also creates opportunities.Supporting Case Study, “Good Coffee” - see “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – It illustrates how social issues along the life cycle of coffee are considered, and addressed[CLICK]Particular areas to consider include:The product life cycle: flow of materials from acquisition of raw materials to production, transport, use and disposal.The market: a value and currency flow from the consumer to the producer.Communication and cooperation in form of exchange of knowledge and experience.Gestion de la chaîne d’approvisionnementMatériels et ÉnergieGestion de la chaîne de valeurArgent et information
15Amélioration continue Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Le cycle du Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - AgirAgirAgirContrôlerContrôlerPlanifierAmélioration continueWe have learned LCM is a dynamic process... How to Implement LCM? Consider a Plan-Do-Check-Act approach, as followed by many other types of management systems. Aim for an approach that enables continuous improvement over time, and progress that employees, customers and others can get enthusiastic about!A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle provides an organisation with a systematic approach to management along the product life cycle.Supporting Case Study, “Involving the supply chain in Peruvian Mining Activities”, in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual - provides insight into the implementation of an environmental management system, and the Plan-Do-Check-Act approach which is recommended for LCMPlanifierFaireFaire
16Mise en oeuvre de la GCV: Le cycle du Planifier – Faire – Contôler - Agir PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIERDéfinir des politiquesOrganiserEnquête & RechercheDéfinir des butsPLAN: Identify your current level of ambition, ensuring that you have the appropriate resources – namely management support – survey impacts and opportunities for improvement, and set goals.Set policies – determine the ambition level of the organisationOrganise – get engagement and participationSurvey and Research – identify key environmental and social impacts and opportunities and decide where the organisation wants to be.Set goals – select an area/s where the efforts will be directed, determine goal(s) and make an action planSource: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Planifier
17Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIERÉtablir des politiquesNiveau d’ambitionÊtre prêt au niveau interne/ engagement à l’amélioration continueL’amélioration du cycle de vie des produitsLes profils environnementaux des produitsOrganiserEnquêtes & RechercheDéfinir des objectifsLCM has to be part of an organisation’s policies so its importance rings through all management levels. LCM policies should be visionary and long-term while also being realistic and concrete, parallel to its level of ambition. However, in absence of all this – START SMALL. Focus on one project, such as greening purchases of office supplies, or purchasing offsets for energy use, or making public statements or commitments to improve their performance. Later, build on experiences and successes to graduate to higher levels of ambition and commitment.Set goals according to the level of ambition to ensure conformity between policy and actions. Consider three different levels of ambition, to help you understand where you might begin:Internal readiness/commitment to continuous improvement This level signifies awareness that environmental and social improvements can be made using management frameworks such as ISO 9001 and/or ISO 14001, and that a commitment to improvements is the first step to a more integrated systemLife cycle improvement of productsAn organisation understands the value of addressing its products beyond the manufacturing level, for instances in materials acquisition, use of the product, distribution and end-of-lifeEnvironmental profiles of productsA step further by reporting and marketing activities and thereby creating general organisational successes, e.g. eco-labellingSource: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Plan ifier
18Mise en oeuvre de la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIERDéfinir des politiquesOrganiserEnquêtes & RechercheDéfinir des objectifsIdées pour le démarrageDemander à tous les chefs de DépartementsOù sont les enjeux les plus importantsOù sont les opportunitésCe qui a été fait dans le passéCréer une équipe de personnes intéressées à la question“Où résident les questions importantes” par “Où sont les enjeux les plus importants”Experience with LCM and other management systems shows the value of having interested, enthusiastic people at all levels of the organisation. As an example, the success of Interface Flooring and Patagonia’s sustainability efforts can be directly linked with the ability of their leader’s to infect others with the power of their visions and commitments.EXAMPLE: E’Terra Inn is a 6 room Inn located on a picturesque lake in Southern Ontario Canada. When it was constructed the owner was committed to the principles of Green Building and was determined to minimise the impact of the building’s construction on the local environment. As a result every piece was carefully selected from the source of materials (to minimise transportation impacts) to the local natural plants placed in the garden (to eliminate the need for an irrigation system). Even though this was a small scale project the care and commitment the owner showed was critical in “going against the grain” to find sometimes unconventional solutions that would improve the final result: minimise the Inn’s impact, create a unique and popular travel destination, and minimise costs of the Inn’s operation & maintenance.Planifier
19Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIERDéfinir des politiquesOrganiserEnquêtes & RechercheImpacts environnementauxMarché/Conditions commercialesPartenairesDéfinir des objectifsIl y a deux manières de se perdre. L’une est de ne pas savoir où l’on va, l’autre est de ne pas savoir d’où on part- anonyme“There are two ways to get lost. One is not to know where you are going, the other is not to know where you are starting from” - anonymousLook for existing information that helps you outline current performance: where the largest environmental or social issues/impacts are, and what opportunities exist to improve or change.Many companies already posses information on the impacts of their production process and operations, but are uncertain of how to expand their understanding. Some may find it useful to think in terms of products rather than processes to identify material flows through the entire life cycle system. This would include impacts/issues associated with suppliers, purchased materials or components, storage and distribution, use of the product, and waste streams. Further, it is useful to leverage the insights of external stakeholders – reach out to academics, policy makers and interest groups, which can often act as quasi leading indicators of future areas of concern. Specifically, aim to gather the following types of information to define your current performance:Environmental ImpactLife Cycle Phases – where are the most important environmental and social impacts? (SEE MET MATRIX ON NEXT SLIDE)Technology – is new technology available or being developed that can reduce the impacts?These can be assessed quantitatively or qualitatively (For an example of how this can be done see the Materials, Energy and Toxics Matrix Tool in the Delegates Manual)Market or Commercial ConditionsSupply – what is characteristic of the product’s profile?Demand – how important is the social and environmental awareness of consumer?Value – what advantages are achieved by adding positive environmental and social characteristics as an extra product quality?PartnersProduct Chain – are suppliers, retail stores, or others interested in collaboration on environmental and social initiatives?Authorities – what are the demands of authorities? What support programs do they have in place?Within sector – what are competitors doing? Codes of conduct within the trade?Consumer Associations – what are their interests? What are their values?Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Planifier
20PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIER Incidences environnementales clés de l’enquête & la Recherche Début/fin du cycle du matérielDébut/finDe l’utilisation d’énergieRésultats directsDes Émissions toxiquesProduction et approvisionnement de tous les matériaux et composantsProduction interneDistributionUsageOpérationPrestation de servicesSystème de fin de vieRécupéra-tionMise en déchargeThe Materials-Energy-Toxic Substances MatrixThe MET Matrix is a means of organising information about a product’s environmental impacts for analysis. It is one example of a simple, qualitative tool organisations can use to summarise information on the environmental issues of a product, throughout its life cycle. The purpose of the MET Matrix is to identify “hot spots” of environmental concern that require further investigation, and “cool spots” for new, innovative solutions.Motorola - - Motorola use this qualitative matrix tool to identify design-for-environment opportunities. Over time, Motorola has observed that designers have started to recognize and consider all aspects of the life cycle throughout the design process, which leads them to new ideas and solutions which enhance product performance. Motorola also conducts more quantitative LCA matrix for use in the detailed design phase.Before using the MET matrix:Define the system boundaries for the product – define what exactly will be included in the product system and what will not. This should also focus on auxiliary products and consumables associated with the total life span of the product.Perform a needs analysis – This involves two central questions:How does the product fulfill the needs it is meant to satisfy? And Can a system be developed to fulfill the same needs in a radically more effective and efficient way? This is not to imply that you will aim to radically change the whole premise of your business each and every time you consider a product design BUT questions like this get the product design team thinking beyond the usual – outside the box – more often.Now, use the MET matrix...The Material Cycle column is for information on environmental problems concerning the input/output of materials – This column is where the team would record information on:Non-renewable materialsMaterials that create emissions during productionIncompatible materialsInefficient use or lack of re-use of materials/components in all five stages of the product life cycleThe column on Energy Use is for information regarding energy consumption – This column is where the team would record information on:List inputs of materials with an extremely high-energy content in the first cellInclude energy consumption for the product itself as well as for transportation, operating, maintenance and recoveryInclude exhaust gases produced as a result of energy useThe Toxic Emissions column identifies emissions that are potentially toxic to land, water and air.
21Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir PREMIERE ETAPE – PLANIFIERDéfinir des politiquesOrganiserEnquêtes & Recherche Définir des objectifsPertinencePotentielInfluenceBuilding on the policy, engagement across the organisation and findings from research, establish goals. Consider:Relevance: Where are the most significant environmental or social problems in the product’s life cycle?Potential: Where is it possible to achieve environmental and social improvements?Influence: Where can the enterprise make a difference?An enterprise may have several opportunities for improvements, and should choose several initiative areas to involve many departments across the organisation – for example, procurement and logistics, marketing, product development.Aim for concrete goals and action plans – define who will be responsible for what action, and by when.EXAMPLE – BIG GOALS: Interface Flooring set a “Mission Zero” goal: “Every creative, manufacturing and building decision we make will move us closer to our goal of eliminating any negative impact our flooring and fabric companies may have on the environment by the year 2020.” (www.interfaceglobal.com/)EXAMPLE – SMALL GOALS: Fulcrum Consulting a small firm in England decided to set the goal of reducing their carbon emissions by the equivalent volume of their office building. Over 100 days through a number of activities including raising awareness, turning off lights they were not using, and purchasing more energy efficient equipment, they achieved their goal. When asked about their accomplishment Susie Diamond, Building Physics Engineer commented “We are proud of the changes we have made to our company in 100 days and are keen that it won't stop here. We have shifted our purchasing and disposal habits as an organisation and taken steps to reduce wastage and cut our energy bills. These are intended as permanent changes and we are setting targets to further reduce our environmental impact over the coming years.” (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/ stm)Supporting Case Study, “Green Management as Sony” in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – includes specific goals the company set for improving product life cycle performance... There are explicit targets to reduce product weight, number of parts used, and to increase proportion of recycled materials within the products, to use halogen-free materialsPlanifier
22Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir ETAPE DEUX – FAIREFaire des améliorations environnementalesMettre le plan en actionProduire des rapportsDocumenter les efforts & leurs résultatsIt is now time to “do” - - To review, we have talked about how to lay the foundation for effective action (first, you don’t need to start at the top; next, you do need to look beyond the traditional boundaries of operations to find impacts, opportunities and risks; next comes initial phases of the Plan-Do-Act cycle, the planning, during which it is important to make a clear commitment, get people engaged, specify impacts, risks and opportunities for improvement, and set goals for making improvements). With these elements in place it is now time to ‘Do’.Practical results create credibility, enthusiasm, and active support for a product initiative and help to ensure continued support as one increases their ambition. From accomplishments such as increasing the recycled content of paper used in the office, to reducing waste water in the production process, or dematerializing a product, what is important is setting clear goals, achieving them, communicating lessons learned and setting the next round of goals.Supporting Case Study, “3M - a pioneer in LCM”, in “Case Studies and Resources” section of manual – shows how LCM is supported at 3M by “technology study reports and success stories” which promote the sharing of new environmental/health/safety ideas and results within the 3M technical communityThe “do” part of the cycle can include both “easy rewards” and new challenges to tackle, For example, what if an EU directive that required a company to take back all its scrap comes into force in one year? Such a demand would, of course, be added to an enterprise’s list of initiative goals and an action plan. The company could implement life cycle thinking to engage a re-design of the product to meet the requirements of the EU directive, including easier recycling, easier disassembly, new materials selection, etc.Source: A UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management, UNITED NATIONS PUBLICATION, DTI/0889/PA, ISBN:Faire
23Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir To keep the enthusiasm and commitment of management and employees, document achievements and challenges. Make these public whenever feasible as it adds credibility, captures the interest of customers and other stakeholders, lets interested suppliers know where to find you and keeps momentum! Documentation also lends support and credibility when answering inquiries from customers, suppliers, investors, government agencies. The form of documentation depends upon the ambition level in the enterprise. It is advantageous for enterprises to have some insight into the environmental and social impacts the enterprise’s stakeholders prioritise, so that communication can be aimed at this group. Take a look at what your competitors, and peers are documenting on their website or annual reports.How to Document?State environmental goals, progress towards goals, and success stories within corporate annual reportsPress releases, news paper articles or interviews with mediaProduct labelsSupporting Case Study, “Green Management at Sony” – see “Case Studies and Resources” section in manual – It illustrates how the company examines the entire life cycle of a product, in order to identify points in the life cycle at which environmental impacts are greatest, and thus, priorities for improvementProduct brochures, or informational pamphletsWhat to Document?To what degree has the energy consumption of the product in the use phase been reduced?How much of the product can be recycled?To what degree and how has transport been optimised?How much energy was consumed during production of the product?The topic of Communication is covered in detail in Session III of this Training – Glance ahead in your Training Manual! Or look for examples in the Case Studies and Resources section of your ManualFaire
24Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir ETAPE TROIS – CONTRÔLERÉvaluerRéviserRéviser les politiques et les structures organisationnelles si nécessaireHaving, evaluated the initial situation, set goals, initiated a plan to achieve them, and reported your efforts to stakeholders, an organisation is now in a position to consider their accomplishments and learn from their mistakes. The types of questions one might ask at this phase would include:What worked and what did not?How can the effort be improved?Should more of the employees be involved in the initiative?Should the efforts be focused in a different direction?Were the appropriate means and methods used?Should more partners be involved?Should the level of ambition be raised?Faire
25Mettre en oeuvre la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir ETAPE QUATRE – AGIRAgir. Ajuster. AméliorerAllez y au niveau suivantOn the basis of experience, redefine and update goals:Begin a new round of planning, doing and checking. Always, keep focusing on achieving concrete environmental and social improvements to the product and supporting operations or services.Begin (or continue) to broaden relationships in the product chain – it is much easier to develop a base of knowledge if there is good cooperation and an atmosphere of trust among producers, suppliers, retail store owners, disposal facilities and other stakeholders in the product chain.Make the choice to increase ambition. This can be as simple as expanding the scope of their existing policies or as aggressive as establishing “Big Hairy Audacious Goals”.EXAMPLE: “Boeing sets BHAGS that are so audacious that they literally bet the company. When the built the 707, they did it in light of an industry view that the jet was not the right plane for the airline industry, no-one else is doing it, and Boeing said, ‘We’re going to build it,’ and they did. And it was successful, and it transformed the airline industry.” Note the Boeing 707 commercial passenger jet airliner was developed by Boeing in the 1950s. Although not the first commercial jet in service, it was a huge market success and is credited as ushering in the “Jet Age”. Sony also set a BHAG: Change the worldwide image of Japanese products as poor quality; create a pocketable transistor radio. (Source: Professor J. Porras, Lane Professor of Organizational Behaviour and Change, Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Co-author with James C. Collins of 'Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies‘, 1994).Faire
26Mettre en oeuvre de la GCV: Planifier – Faire – Contrôler - Agir Amélioration continue
27Étude de casThe following case studies provide examples of how companies are coordinating different concepts and tools amongst departments – to create an LCM approach, or to move toward LCM. The Ciba Chemicals and Utz Kapeh Coffee case studies illustrate how companies are also targeting improvements in their supply chain.If desired, walk participants through some or all of the following case studies. Ask questions of participants. Encourage discussion of the different strategies/concepts, systems/processes, programmes, tools/techniques, and data/information elements present in each case study and how the link amongst departments in an organisation. Tie the discussion back to:1) the elements of LCM introduced in Session I2) the specific concepts, programs and tools in place in the participants’ own organisations, or which they have observed at other organisations, or their ideas for new initiatives in their organisation3) the case studies written in the manualsDo not try to cover all case studies. Pick those most relevant to the audience (by sector, by concept or tool, by size or geography). Add other examples meaningful to the audience. Ask the participants to talk about other examples they have seen or heard. Discuss whether, and why, these are illustrative of LCM or elements of.
28Étude de cas – Mercedes -Class S ConceptionConsidérer le cycle de vie entier du car y compris:Production des matériaux et composantsDurée de vie de kmLa mise en déchargeIls considèrent 40,000 procédés individuelsIls utilisent un logiciel d’analyse du cycle de vie (Gabi 4.0) pour prendre en compte 200 paramètres en entrée et 300 paramètres en sortieThis case study demonstrates eco-design...” ParLife Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that will enable the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. LCM should be, in the end, a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures that promote innovative production and consumption patterns more sustainable than those in place today. Therefore, to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors. Eco-design, or design-for-environment, is one such concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. supply chain management in the purchasing department, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.EXAMPLE: The development process for the S-Class (“Design for the Environment”) met all criteria described in the international guidance document ISO TR14062, for the inclusion of environmental aspects in product development. The environmental analysis – or “environmental balance” – included the entire life cycle of the new S-Class, from the production of materials and components to a service life of km, and disposal. In order to establish this environmental balance the Mercedes specialists considered over individual processes. The overall results included a total of more than 200 input parameters (resources) and around 300 output parameters (emissions). A full life cycle assessment was initiated according to standards ISO using a life cycle modelling software (Gabi 4.0 software).
29Étude de cas – Mercedes Class-S Mercedes Benz Environmental Certificate p. 16 ww.daimlerchrysler.com/Projects/c2c/channel/documents/776132_environmental_certificate_s_class_w221.pdf
30Étude de cas – Mercedes Class S RésultatsLa première voiture avec un certificat environnementalSurpasse les réglementations des émissions NOx et d’hydrocarbures de l’EU de 85 et 75%Efficacité améliorée du carburant et réduction de bruitPeintures utilisées à base d’eau pour réduire les émissions de solvantsRespecte à la fois les réglementations du taux de recyclage de l’UE de 2006 et 2012« Surpasse les réglementations des émissions NOx et hydrocarbonées de l’EU de 85 et 75% » par« Surpasse les réglementations des émissions NOx et d’hydrocarbures de l’EU de 85 et 75% »The S-Class models of Mercedes-Benz are the World’s first automobiles with an environmental certificate (of 44 pages) confirming the environment-oriented product development of this car, during which significant progress was made in numerous ecological important areas. For example, the exhaust emissions of the new S 350 are 85% below the current EU limit for nitrogen oxides and 75% below the EU limit for hydrocarbons. In addition, fuel consumption is reduced by 9%, and driving noise is reduced with 2 decibel (dB(A)). Use of water-based paints and water-borne fillers sharply reduces solvent emissions. Nanotechnology is used for the coating to give a surface more resistant to scratching than before.Further, Mercedes Benz offers a service to its customers – “Eco Driver Training”. The training can reduce fuel consumption by an average 15%. The diesel models can be operated with SunDiesel fuel.The materials for the new S-Class have been selected to meet both the recycling rate of 85% valid in EU from 2006 but will also comply with the 95% overall recycling rate applicable from More raw materials than before are made from natural or recycled resources.
31Etude de cas – 3MPourquoi 3M utilise t-elle la gestion du cycle de vie ?3M produit près de 500 nouveaux produits chaque annéeA commencé à gérer dans les années 1990, tous les aspects d’un produit à partir d’une phase d’idées à travers l’utilisation et la mise à en décharge Selon le CEO de 3M“[La Gestion du Cycle de Vie est ] un engament qui doit être adopté pour maintenir notre leadership environnemental et pour renforcer notre position compétitive”
32Etude de cas – 3MComment 3M utilise t-elle la Gestion du Cycle de Vie?3M utilise une matrice pour identifier l’impact des produits ou procédés sur leur cycle de vie entier
33Etude de Cas – 3MComment 3M utilise t-elle la Gestion du Cycle de Vie?3M utilise une matrice pour identifier l’impact des produits ou procédés sur leur cycle de vie entierIls utilisent cela pour identifier les risques et les opportunités du produitRisques: dangers du produit, degré d’incertitude et de faisabilité pour contrôler l’expositionOpportunités: Apporter des solutions à ces questions
34Etude de cas – BASF BASF a un outil d’ “Analyse socio éco efficacité” (SEEbalance®)Ils utilisent leur analyse de l’eco-efficacité ou SEEbalance® pour:Les décisions stratégiques sur les investissements, produits et marchés.La comparaison des sites de production et les marchésLa priorisation de la recherche et le développement du produit.Discussions avec les décideurs dans les décisions politiques.Marketing, soutien aux clients extérieurs et l’acceptation sociale des produits.Pour les enjeux de communication ex. Rapports de développement durable de l’entreprise.LCM is... :... “the application of life cycle thinking to business practices” – BASF uses data from the SEEbalance tool to inform strategic business decisions. It applies life cycle thinking to business practices... “with the aim to systematically manage the life cycle of an organisation’s products and services... to promote production and consumption patterns that are more sustainable than the ones we have today” – BASF in this case uses SEEbalance to compare different product scenarios (and process scenarios), to foster improvement, to prioritise research & developmentBASF’s tool analyzises products from the end customer’s angle and weights the economic, ecological and social aspects equally. Examples of the output are on the next slide.
35Étude de cas – BASFLe rendement de l’outil offre à BASF des comparaisons de produits sur un certain nombre de critères
36Étude de cas – BASF Facteurs de succès à BASF: Engagement de la haute directionCombinaison de l’ACV, ACC et des aspects sociaux.Résultats quantitatifs avec une évaluation claire.Illustration simple et impressionnante des résultatsPossibilité de scénario- et analyse de sensibilitéDélai court (2 mois) et coûts faibles pour l’analyse (<30,000 €).“Combinaison de l’ECV, LCC et des aspects sociaux.” par “Combinaison de l’ACV, ACC et des aspects sociaux.”
37Étude de cas – Gestion Écologique chez SONY Définition de l’objectifDes objectifs de performance environnementale sont définis dans les plans d’affaires annuels divisionnaires à travers les objectifs généraux de la société à long termeSONY utilise une équation d’éco-efficacité pour suivre le progrèsEco-Efficicacité = Ventes /Impact environnementalLes Objectifs prennent en compte:Poids réduit du produitRéduire le nombre de pièces utiliséesAugmentation de la proportion de matériaux recyclésInterdiction de mercure et de soudure de plombUsage de matériaux sans halogèneLes Impacts sont pris en compte et suivis tout au long de leur cycle de vieIls supportent aussi la responsabilité sociétale de l’entreprise et ont un code de conduite du fournisseurA Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is recommended for structuring LCM in an organisation. A key part of “Planning” includes setting meaningful goals for improvement.SONY’s approach illustrates goal setting, and examples of product-focused goals which cover the life cycle of the product...
38Étude de cas – Gestion Écologique chez SONY Conservation de l’ÉnergieRéduction de la consommation énergétique dans le mode veilleRéduction de la consommation énergétique pendant le fonctionnementConservation des ressourceset recyclabilitéRéduction des matériaux et parties par poidsFacilement recyclableEmploi des matériaux recyclés et de bioplastiquesRéduction et Élimination progressive des matériaux dangereuxUsage de soudure sans plombRéduction de PVCRéduction et élimination progressive des retardateurs de flamme à base de substances halogénéesEmballage qui prend en compte les questions environnementalesRéduction du polystyrèneUtilisation de papier usé ou recycléUtilisation d’encre végétale à base d’huileSONY believes it is critical that customers are able to factor environmental considerations into purchase decisions. Therefore, SONY informs customers about the environmental performance of products using an “Eco Info” mark.Source:
39Étude de cas – Le groupe Hartmann Produits des oeufs, des fruits et l’emballage industriel particulièrement à partir de papier recycléA pratiqué la Gestion du Cycle de Vie depuis 1997A développé et utilise l’outil Systématique pour le Progrès de l’environnement ou modèle -STEP®Réalise l’Analyse du Cycle de Vie pour tous les produits majeursDonne une vue d’ensemble de tous les aspects de l’environnement et oriente les décisions d’affaires de la planification aux ventesIntroduit en 2006 un concept d’évaluation des fournisseursLife Cycle Management... Reflect on the strategies/concepts, systems/processes, programmes, tools/techniques, and data/information elements presented in Session I (remind participants they can look back to slides in their manuals) – Identify, and discuss, how many of these are mentioned in the Hartmann example:The Hartmann Group produces packaging for egg, fruit and industrial products mainly based on recycled paper. The company conducts life cycle assessments on major products, by also have a tool for modelling “environmental progress”. Hartmann has around 2,600 employees in 21 countries worldwide and have an annual turnover of about 1½ billion €. Hartmann has also a long tradition for preventive environmental initiatives, and in 2002 Hartmann received the European Commission’s Management Award for Sustainable Development. Hartmann is member of World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) and has joined the United Nations Global Compact. Nine production sites are certified according to ISO for environmental management systems, and five production sites are certified according to OHSAS for occupational health and safety management.
40Étude de cas - ABBABB a intégré la durabilité dans chaque aspect de son commerce y compris:Le développement du produitLes fournisseursLa ProductionLe Flux des matières et de déchetsLCM is...:“… the application of life cycle thinking to business practices” – ABB has integrated life cycle thinking into product development, supply management, production/manufacturing“…a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures to address environmental, economic, and social aspect of products, procedures and organisations” – ABB’s framework includes: life cycle analysis, life cycle costing tools, published/certified Environmental Product Declarations, a set of minimum standards for suppliers and a process for qualifying them, management systems at all manufacturing sites, tools to track waste/emissions/flow of materials throughout the company, goals to phase hazardous substances out of manufacturingABB is a global leader in power and automation technologies that enable utility and industry customers to improve their performance while lowering environmental impact. ABB has about employees in more than 100 countries and had revenue of 22.4 billion $ in 2005.Product Development:A lifecycle perspective is required in all product developmentProvide guidelines and tailored life cycle analysis and life cycle costing toolsAs part of this have undertaken over 100 Life Cycle Assessments many of which were further developed into Environmental Product Declarations.SuppliersA Supplier Qualification Process ensures that suppliers meet defined minimum standardsProductionManagement Systems have been established at all manufacturing sitesMaterial Flows and WastesWaste, emissions, and flow of materials are tracked throughout the whole companyUse of hazardous substances are being phased out of manufacturing
41Étude de cas – Procter & Gamble Produit une large gamme de produits: des batteries aux collationsÉvaluer la durabilité des produits en utilisant leur propre Outil d’Analyse de la durabilité du Produit PSATResponsabilité Sociale.Risques et bénéfices pour les consommateurs/la société.Sécurité humaine.Responsabilités sociales tout au long de la chaîne d’approvisionnement.Profil Environnemental.Sécurité Environnementale.Gestion des déchets solidesEfficacité des ressourcesEfforts de réduction du risque.Développement ÉconomiqueAspects économiques de la compagnieAspects économiques des consommateurs/de la sociétéThe multinational Proctor & Gamble Company is committed to sustainability. In all years , Proctor & Gamble was ranked first in the consumer, non-cyclical market sector of the Dow Jones Sustainability Group Index, and P&G is also an original charter supporter of the Global Sullivan Principles of Corporate Social Responsibility.P&G, as one of the business pioneers in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is introducing a Product Sustainability Assessment Tool (PSAT) for assessing sustainability profile of new products. It looks holistically at systems, considers the whole life cycle and addresses science-based data and perceptions. It may guide on design choices, help communicate data and identify opportunities and potential issues/risks.
42Étude de cas – Procter & Gamble PSAT offre des paramètres pour mesurerSwiffer is a floor sweeping product...
43Étude de cas – Ciba Spécialités Chimiques Le Ciba a des activités dans 22 pays dont un nombre d’entre elles dans les pays en développementIls maintiennent un standard environnemental, de santé et de sécurité qu’ils appliquent à toutes leurs activités sans tenir compte de leur situation géographiqueLes enjeux couverts par cela sont: droits de l’homme, travail des enfants, corruption, santé et sécurité de l’employé et de la communauté ainsi que les considérations standards EHSSelon la infraction cela pourrait conduire à la résiliation du contrat ou de l’assistance pour aider le fournisseur à respecter les critèresLife Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that will enable the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. It has been said, already, that to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors. Supply Chain Management is one such concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. eco-design in the product development process, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.Ciba has committed to meeting a standard of performance, but also holds its suppliers to this same level of performance
44Étude de cas – Café Responsable et Certifié de Utz Kapeh Certifie une production et approvisionnement de café responsable au niveau social et environnementalDéfinit un lot de critères pour des pratiques de culture de café efficientes et responsables y compris:Au niveau environnemental: minimiser et documenter l’utilisation des produits agrochimiques, la gestion de l’eau et la sécurité alimentaireAu niveau Social: la protection des droits dans le domaine du travail et l’accès aux soins médicaux et à l’éducation pour les employés et leurs famillesLCM is...:“… the systematic management of product and material life cycles, to promote production and consumption patterns that are more sustainable than the ones we have today” – Utz Kapeh coordinates efforts amongst actors along the coffee supply chain, to optimise improvements and solutionsThe foundation ”Utz Kapeh”, meaning ”good coffee” in a Mayan language, was formed by three Guatemalan coffee producers and the Dutch coffee roaster company Ahold in It is independent, worldwide, non-for-profit organisation with the aim of developing a program to guarantee responsibly grown mainstream coffee as a mean of recognizing and differentiating progressive growers. An office was opened in Guatemala in 1999, and it’s headquarter in The Netherlands was established in 2002.Utz Kapeh’s worldwide certification program sets and implements the global standard for socially and environmentally responsible coffee production and sourcing. It is the fastest growing coffee certification program in the world. Utz Kapeh assures the social and environmental quality in coffee production that coffee drinkers expect. The Utz Kapeh certification provides the answer to two key questions:Where does the coffee come from?How was it produced?A web-based ”Track and Trace System” follows the certified coffee though the chain from grower to roaster. This gives buyers insight into where their coffee really comes from. Utz Kapeh’s “Chain of Custody” criteria assure that certified coffee is not mixed with non-certified coffee.The certification program is based on a 32 pages long “Code of Conduct” with a set of social and environmental criteria for responsible coffee growing practices and efficient farm management. It includes elements such as standards for recordkeeping, minimised and documented use of agrochemicals for crop protection, water management, food safety, protection of labour rights and access to health care and education for employees and their families. Independent certifiers conduct annual inspections to ensure producers comply with the requirements.In September 2005 Utz Kapeh worked with more than 100 producers and producer groups throughout Latin America, Asia and Africa. In addition 57 roaster companies and 146 registered buyers.
45Étude de cas – Café Responsable et Certifié de Utz Kapeh Utz Kapeh monitors the coffee through its entire system to ensure that the benefits are maximised and that it’s reputation is protected.The numbers here indicate the process of attaching a certificate to a shipment of coffee.is the sale of the coffee which the certified producer informs Utz Kapeh of who in turnsend back a certificate for that shipmentthe same process takes place at the roasting stage and there is auditing to make sure that no co-mingling of coffee takes placeif necessary this step can be repeated with the final trade/sale of the coffee even to a number of purchasers.Image from Utz Kapeh Traceability System (http://www.utzkapeh.org/index.php?pageID=159)Producteur exportateurs Importateurs/Négociant Torréfacteur
46Étude de cas – Durabilité –Innovation conduite Résultats95% des compagnies croyaient avoir le potentiel pour apporter la valeur commercialePresque 25% croyaient délivrer de manière définitive la valeur commercialeCe type d’innovation commence à offrir une valeur commerciale réelle, mais les bénéfices demeurent intangibles;Les responsables mettent l’emphase sur les opportunités au lieu se concentrer uniquement sur les risquesUne petite minorité de compagnies ont intégré cela à la fois dans leur stratégie et la conception de leurs produits/procédésQuelques compagnies explorent les opportunités de percées dans l’innovation conduite de la durabilitéThis case study demonstrates some of the perceived value created by applying Sustainability criteria to business decision makingIn 2005 the consultancy company Arthur D Little has conducted a study of, how 40 leading international companies are using Sustainability-Driven Innovation, which means the creation of new market space, products and services or processes driven by social, environmental or sustainability issues.The full report is available here:
48Étude de cas – Le Zabbaleen Caire Egypte Le Caire produit tonnes de déchets par jourZabbaleen collecte les déchets de porte à porte et gagne un revenu en triant les produits recyclables issus des déchetsZabbaleens recycle 60-90% de déchetsLa Collecte contractée recycle seulement une moyenne de 20% de déchetsThis case study demonstrates the types of opportunities that exist for perhaps unconventional approaches to addressing some of the economic, environmental and social impacts by the application of legislation.Cairo is one of the most populated cities in the Middle East and Africa. Municipal solid waste, MSW generated daily is in the range of 10,000 – ton. A number of national and international companies are engaged in the collection of about 60 – 70 % of daily generated MSW, while Zabbaleen would account for the collection of the remaining %. The Zabbaleen of Cairo have been involved in the collection, recycling, and reuse of domestic waste as a means of survival. Zabbaleen works involve labour intensive door to door collection, mostly using donkey carts. Collection is followed by sorting out in nearby districts. Non – organic recyclable waste, including glass, paper, plastic, bones, metals, and textile is used to provide local market with products and consumer items at reasonable prices. Meanwhile, organic waste is used for pig raising industry.An average of 60 – 90% of MSW collected by Zabbaleen is recycled or reused, while 10 – 40 % ends up in dumps and / or landfills.National and international companies use trucks, of varied sizes to collect domestic waste from pooling sites, or building to building. Collected waste is transported for intermediate sites for mechanical compression, then further transported to compost facility for sorting out. An average of 20% of the collected waste is composted, while the remaining 80% is further transported in heavy trucks to landfills located in remote areas rather far from collection and composting sites.Zabbaleen collection has different advantages, that include,Negligible gas emissionWaste minimisationEnergy savingLonger life span of the landfillHigh recovery rateCheap labourLow overheadProviding consumers with affordable products.In contrast, national and international companies engaged in MSW have a number of undesirable features that include,Air pollution, gas emissionExtensive use of energyWaste generationLow recovery rateHigh overheadA high labour / ton ratioOthers
49Etude de cas - Sayman & Danks Finition de Metal Situé à Durban, Afrique du SudConducteursChangements réglementairesExigence du clientActivitésRéduction général des produits chimiquesÉlimination progressive de substances toxiques telles que leChrome 6Une réduction d’eau de 50%Sur le point d’avoir la Certification ISO 9000RésultatsA gagné un avantage compétitifVoit la performance environnementale comme une opportunitéEst devenu le défenseur de la prévention de la pollutionThis is an example of a company affected by legislative change and the benefits derived from striving to meet this new challenge.Industry in South Africa is beginning to start its environmental transformation. South African industry faces many challenges following the country reintegration to the global economy after the fall of the apartheid regime. The change is slow but it can be observed that some industries are beginning to aim for more integrated forms of environmental management to their operations. Sayman & Danks, a metal finishing company in Durban, illustrates the changes of some medium, small and micro enterprises in South Africa in their way towards a life cycle management approach.Sayman & Danks is a medium sized company in the city of Durban, South Africa that exemplifies the environmental improvements led by pressure from customers and government environmental legislation.REGULATORY CHANGESThe metal finishing sector has been traditionally a highly pollutant and problematic industry in Durban. eThekwini Municipality, the local authority in charge of the city, tightened its regulations to the metal finishing companies while offering them an alternative to achieve the new standards through one of the first waste minimisation clubs in the country.CUSTOMER DEMANDThe company is a supplier to the automotive industry who has put direct pressure on them to improve their operations; reduce waste, recycle and reuse and phase out toxic substances.ACTIVITIESThe change was not easy for the company due to lack of capital to invest, human resources and lack of previous experience in managing their environmental performance. The pressure brought a new learning curve to the company as they had been working using the same technique for 15 years and initially did not see any reason to change.The company has achieved numerous benefits thanks to their new approach to their operations; they have reduced their use of chemicals while producing three times the volume, a 50 % water reduction and phased out toxic substances such as Chrome 6. The company is in the process of gaining ISO 9000 certification, has a robust occupational health and safety system, an uncommon feature among the industry and complies with government regulations quite comfortably. Additional to these benefits Sayman & Danks is now building effluent plants thanks to the experience won with their waste minimisation and cleaner production activities.RESULTSSaymand & Danks is one of the advocates of pollution prevention among the sector and its example has influenced positively the metal finishing industry. The company has gained a competitive advantage over competitors and now sees improved environmental performance as a window of opportunity rather than a burden.
51Décrire une initiative actuelle Coordination et renforcement de capacitésProduction et distribution plus écologiquesEnvironnement et durabilitéProduction et distributionRelations avecles partiesprenantesRSE etcommunicationGestion du cycle de vieDéveloppement de produitsVenteset marketingEco-marketingConception pour la durabilitéPurpose and Objectives: This exercise is designed to allow participants to think about one environmental/social initiatives that exist within their own organisation today – specifically within one department – and then to think about an new environmental/social initiative which could be established (or augmented) in another part of the organisation tomorrow, in order to support LCMMaterials: Note pads for each individual to write their ideas on, and a method of documenting a group discussion at the end of the exercise.Facilitating the Activity:Ask the group to work individually (or in pairs if they are from the same organisation)Ask each participant to think of one current program in their organisation that is focused on environmental and/or social performanceRequest participants answer four questions about the program they’ve identified:What department(s) owns the program / initiative?What parts of the life cycle does the program focus on?Is the program part of a broader system, (e.g. are their targets and deadlines? Is it an isolated program)?Is it structured to promote continuous improvement, stimulate new ideas?Write these four questions on a white board or flip chart so participants can see themOnce participants have had enough time (10 minutes), ask for volunteers to talk about the program/initiative which came to their mind. Ask them to describe it to the group, and discuss answers to any of the four questions they choose. Allow others to ask questions, and offer their ideasCapture ideas, or highlights, on a white board or flip chartShow next slide while participants work & write...Management et FinancesAchatsPriorisation des ressources financièresApprovisionnement durable
52La gestion du cycle de vie est… … l’application de la pensée du cycle de vie aux pratiques d’affaires, dans le but de gérer systématiquement le cycle de vie des produits et services d’une organisation… la gestion systématique des cycles de vie des produits et des matériaux, pour promouvoir des modes de production et de consommation qui sont plus durables que ceux que nous avons aujourd’hui… un cadre de travail flexible intégré, de concepts de gestion, de techniques et procédures pour prendre en compte les aspects économiques, sociaux et environnementaux des produits, procédures et organisationsThink of one current program in organisation, focused on environmental and/or social performance... Write answers to the following?What department(s) owns the program / initiative?What parts of the life cycle does the program focus on?Is the program part of a broader system, (e.g. are their targets and deadlines? Is it an isolated program)?Is it structured to promote continuous improvement, stimulate new ideas?
53Imaginer une initiative future Coordination et renforcement de capacitésProduction et distribution plus écologiquesEnvironnement et durabilitéProduction et distributionRelations avecles partiesprenantesRSE etcommunicationGestion du cycle de vieDéveloppement de produitsVenteset marketingEco-marketingConception pour la durabilitéFacilitating the Activity, continued:Now ask participants to think about: (1) a different part of their organisation, a different department, than they just described; and (2) a concept, programme, or tool they learned about so far which interested them – With these two things in mind, ask participants to answer the following questions:If your organisation were to implement a new program/initiative in a department today, what should that program be?What department(s) should be involved? And whyDescribe how this could foster LCMWould this new program link to, or support, the existing program you described earlier?Write these four questions on a white board or flip chart so participants can see themOnce participants have had enough time (10 minutes), ask again for volunteers to talk about the new idea for a program/initiative which came to their mind. Ask them to describe it to the group, including answers to any of the four questions. Allow them to explain where they got the idea, and why they think it is interesting / valuable. Allow others to ask questions, and input ideas they generated during the exercise.Capture ideas, or highlights, on a white board or flip chartManagement et FinancesAchatsPriorisation des ressources financièresApprovisionnement durable
54DISCUSSION DE CLÔTURE GROUP DISCUSSION – CLOSING DISCUSSION This is the same short exercise participants went through in the opening of this session. Ask participants, now that they have participated in this Session, to think about how they would define LCM to a new person, and what they would say is valuable about LCM. Once participants have had one minute to think, ask for volunteers to state their ideas out loud. Allow for questions and clarifications. Alternatively, ask participants simply to write their answers, preferably on a different sheet of paper than where they wrote their first answer.Ask participants to now compare this with what they thought (or wrote) at the beginning of this session. Ask for volunteers to state differences, similarities or other interesting observations from their two answers.DISCUSSION DE CLÔTURE
55REVIEW THIS “Eco-Design” EXAMPLE, and decide whether this level of detail is appropriate for the audience you are training - - It is not obligatory to include the remaining slides in this SessionLife Cycle Management entails coordinating many existing, effective tools to establish systematic management of the life cycle of products and services, that enables the organisation to continually improve its environmental, economic and social performance. LCM should be, in the end, a flexible integrated, management framework of concepts, techniques and procedures that promote innovative production and consumption patterns more sustainable than those in place today. Therefore, to establish LCM, organisations pick and choose tools and concepts (introduced in Session I) that are appropriate to their operations, top environmental concerns, pressing social challenges, current customer interests, emerging market opportunities, internal level of ambition and other factors.Eco-design, or design-for-environment, is one existing concept. When coordinated with other tools, in other departments of an organisation (e.g. supply chain management in the purchasing department, or life cycle costing in the financial department), it is a key element of LCM for many companies.Exemple: Mise en oeuvre de l’Eco-conception dans une entreprise avec la GCV
56L’importance de la conception ImpactImpactRegardless of where a product’s impact occurs it is commonly accepted that design will determine 70-80% of the total life-cycle costs and as a consequence the majority of the life-cycle impacts.Early assessment of the cradle- to- grave environmental aspects of the product system can lead to effective integration of environmental considerations into the design process. This is also the most cost effective stage to integrate these considerations as retrofitting existing products may lead to additional costs.Supporting Case Study, “First car with an environmental certificate”, in “Case Studies and Resources section of manuals – it illustrates how life-cycle thinking integrated eraly into product design & development influenced new products, such as the Mercedes S-ClassProduit AProduit B
57Le Processus générique de développement de l’étape d’entrée PlanificationLe but & les politiquesde l’entrepriseGÉlaborationconceptuelleGConceptiondétailléeTest/PrototypeLancementde la productionRevuedu produitGGGWhile the design process is unique to every industry and organisation this stage-gate diagram depicts the generic new product development process. (The green boxes represent stages or steps that need to be taken while the blue diamonds represent gates or decision points.) By incorporating the collection of economic, environmental, and social data it is possible to integrate considerations of these aspects into the decision making gates.Activités de soutienSource ISO/TR 14062: 2002
58L’Eco-ConceptionL’Eco-conception s’applique aux produits nouveaux et existantsAdaptez-le au profil du cycle de vie du produit en question... Mais aussi à la stratégie commerciale de l’entreprise, la culture & les capacités del’organisationThere are different concepts organisations use to stimulate designers to consider sustainability criteria during the design and development of new (or revised) products. Eco-Design, Eco-Efficiency and Bio-mimicry are among those. In this example, we will examine Eco-design...
59Analyse Environnementale Eco-conceptionDéfinitionDu Produit (Système)Analyse EnvironnementalePerspectivedu cycle de viedes partiesprenantesEco-conceptionCommunicationEnvironnementaleEco-design can follows a general pattern, like that presented here.ISO has issued a technical report outlining the integration of environmental aspects into product design and development (TR14062:2002). In Session I, we learned how organisations combine different Concepts, Programmes, Tools and Data to support LCM. ISO’s technical report, guidance document, on eco-design serves as an example of how an internationally accepted guidance document can serve to support, foster, LCM in an organisation.The European Commission has issued a framework legislation on Eco-Design of Energy Using Products. Not voluntary, but mandatory for companies selling into the European Union, this also serves as an example of how international policy may drive and support certain elements of LCM in an organisation.Source ISO/TR 14062: 2002
60En pratique – Eco-conception DéfinitionDu Produit (Système)Eco-conceptionCommunicationEnvironnementaleAnalyse EnvironnementalePerspectiveDu cyclede viedes partiesprenantesImpactOutput from this stage will include:the product compositionproduct systemlife cycle stage datatechnical parameters of the product relevant to the significant environmental aspects or environmental parameters
61En pratique – Eco-conception Analyse EnvironnementalePerspectivedu cycle de viedes partiesprenantesEco-conceptionCommunicationEnvironnementaleDéfinition duProduits (Système)Incinération et Mise en déchargeExtraction de matières premièresRécupérationRéutilisation et recyclageConception et productionEnvironmental Assessment:Life Cycle Perspective- Assesses the environmental aspects of a product system based on the impacts caused by the system. Tools that can be used to support this include life cycle thinking and assessments, both formal and informal.Stakeholder Engagement - Assess the environmental aspects of a product based on the stakeholders view such as legal requirements, market demands, and competitor’s products.Recyclage de matières et de composantsUtilisation et maintenanceEmballage et distribution
62En pratique – L’Eco-conception CommunicationEnvironnementaleDéfinitiondu Produit (système)Analyse EnvironnementalPerspectivedu cycle de viedes partiesprenantesMarchandises durables (ex. appareils)ImpactConservation de l’énergieélimination des toxiques et des constituants mineurs qui compliquent la maintenance et la mise à jourUsage unique, (ex. couches de bébé)ImpactOnce the environmental impact criteria has been established one is then able to apply the appropriate design criteria to the areas of largest impact. In these cases one can see that the design strategies address the areas of greatest impact.Below is a step-by-step procedure to implementing eco-design task with relevant tools identified in bracket (Wimmer, Zust, and Lee, 2004).Link the significant environmental parameters to relevant environmental strategies. (Any set of environmental strategies and guides). In the above examples one can see the difference between impacts from an appliance and from diapers.Identify relevant implementation measures for the improvement of the environmental parameters belonging to a certain environmental strategy. (Any checklist that allows evaluating implementation measures). On the right of the above slide there are possible measures to address these impacts.Develop product specification. It consists of fixed and wished specification.Identify function of the reference product and then add new function and/or modify existing function based on the product specification (Function analysis).Generate ideas to realize the function. (TRIZ, brain-writing, brainstorming, patent search, etc).Generate variants. Assembling idea corresponding to each function of the newly improved product generates the variants.Develop product concept by selecting variant. Variants are evaluated against criteria such as economic, technical, social and environmental onesContinuing detailed embodiment design, layout, testing, prototype, production and market launch.biodégradabilitéélimination de toutes les matières problématiques après sa mise en décharge
63En pratique – L’Eco-conception CommunicationEnvironnementaleDéfinitiondu Produit (système)Analyse environnementalePerspectivedu cycle de viedes partiesprenantesEco-conceptionCommunicate the environmental aspects of the environmentally improved product or eco-product to the market with the hope of increasing market share or at the least to enhance the image of the product and the company
64Formation en Gestion du Cycle de Vie - Plan Introduction à la GCVCette session !Comment est utilisé en pratique la GCVDeuxième sessionCommuniquer les résultats de la GCVTroisième SessionLa GCV et les attentes des parties prenantesQuatrième Session