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« Le fait nous a été raconté par Franz Lachner. Celui-ci rend visite à Schubert il le trouve sans aucun entrain au travail. Visiblement content de cette.

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Présentation au sujet: "« Le fait nous a été raconté par Franz Lachner. Celui-ci rend visite à Schubert il le trouve sans aucun entrain au travail. Visiblement content de cette."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 « Le fait nous a été raconté par Franz Lachner. Celui-ci rend visite à Schubert il le trouve sans aucun entrain au travail. Visiblement content de cette diversion, Schubert linvite à prendre un café et il commence à moudre les grains dans son moulin à café. Au bout dun moment il sécrie «davoir trouvé», sinterrompt et se met à décrire les groupes de sons quil entend. Suit une question de Lachner : Est-ce le moulin à café qui compose et non pas la tête ? Réponse de Schubert : Cest juste Franz! la tête cherche quelquefois après un motif toute la journée, ce quune petite machine trouve en une seconde. » Martin Davorin-Jagodic, Le moulin à café de Schubert

2 Johann Philipp Kirnberger : Der allezeit fertige Menuetten und Polonoisekomponist (1757) W.A. Mozart : Musikalisches Würfelspiel (1787)

3 ILLIAC Suite (1957) Lejaren Hiller and Leonard Isaacson

4 Experiment 2. It consists of eight sections, subdivided in two segments each, with random dynamics. Each section introduces a new counterpoint rule. 1. Random music; no rules 2. Skip-stepwise rule; no more than one repeated note 3. Cantus firmus starts on C with C chord for opening; cadence on C with leading tone in one of the four voices; resolution of tritone in VII-6, e.g. F/B must resolve to E/C 4. Octave-range rule 5. Only consonant chords permitted except for 6-4 chords; i.e., harmonic subroutine added 6. Parallel unisons, octaves, fifths and fourths still permitted; melodic subroutine added 7. Parallel fourths, 6-4 chords containing tenth still permitted 8. Best counterpoint [ GAT : Generate and Test method ]

5 Txt Illiac Suite, 2nd movement

6 Linear polyphony destroys itself by its very complexity; what one hears is in reality nothing but a mass of notes in various registers [...] This contradiction inherent in polyphony will disappear when the independence of sounds is total. In fact, when linear combinations and their polyphonic superpositions no longer operate, what will count will be the statistical mean of isolated states and of transformations of sonic components at a given moment [...] The result is the introduction of the notion of probability, which implies, in this particular case, combinatory calculus. (Xenakis 1955) The composers [Stockhausen, Boulez and others] thought they were orthodox serialists but that was only true on paper. In reality they had mass events which they should have listened to in an unbiased manner. On the level of conscious thinking they should have introduced such notions as average density, average duration, colours and so on (Varga 1996) the impasse of serial music Pierre Boulez, Polyphonie X (1951)

7 Achorripsis (1956/57) Iannis Xenakis

8 Stochastic Music (1962) ST/48 – 1, ST/10 – 1, ST/4 – 1, (string quartet) ST/4 – 1, Morsima – Amorisma ST/10 – 1, Amorsima – Morisma ST/10 – 3, Atrées ST/CosGauss Polytope de Cluny Iannis Xenakis w/ IBM 7090

9 Blackbox vs Glassbox Command vs Automata CAC (CAO) vs AC (EMA, MA) von Neumann vs Wiener

10 CAC at Ircam : Patchwork, Carla and Open Music

11 Possible ways of using CAO/AC in composition : 1) as a source of surprise/inspiration (like the coffee mill) 2) to solve (fast) automatic tasks 3) use of paradigms issued from IT with a mapping function 4) muzak

12 Some very basic forms of generative music have existed for a long time, but as marginal curiosities. Wind chimes are an example, but the only compositional control you have over the music they produce is in the original choice of notes that the chimes will sound. Recently, however, out of the union of synthesisers and computers, some much finer tools have evolved. Koan Software is probably the best of these systems, allowing a composer to control, not one, but one hundred and fifty, musical and sonic parameters, within which the computer then improvises (as wind improvises the wind chimes)

13 survey of techniques 0) Simple mathematic processes (interpolations, permutations) 1) Random models (Markov Chains, Random walks) 2) Generative grammars 3) Transition networks 4) Chaos and Fractals 5) Genetic algorithms 6) Cellular Automata 7) Neural Networks, Constraints systems, AI...

14 Markov Matrix Wiener Sausage Iannis Xenakis, Mikka (1971)

15 Generative Grammar Transition Network David Cope (EMI)

16 Strange attractors Self-similar structures Rolf Wallin, Stonewave

17 Cellular Automata in Xenakis Horos (1986)

18 To some extent, this match is a defense of the whole human race. Computers play such a huge role in society. They are everywhere. But there is a frontier that they must not cross. They must not cross into the area of human creativity. It would threaten the existence of human control in such areas as art, literature and music. Garry Kasparov, 1997

19 [...] Many representatives of the scientific world see nothing wrong with this and justify their apprehensions by the fact that artist creation is specifically the domain of intuition, of the irrational. They doubt whether this utopian marriage of fire and water would be likely to produce anything valid. If mystery is involved, it should remain a mystery : any investigation, any search for a meeting point is easily taken to be sacrilege Pierre Boulez, Technology and the Composer (1977) Science, regardless of its deductive or empirical nature, tends at least ideally towards an equivalence of process and result. Music shows no tendency of this kind, for the rigor of the generative process does not guarantee the music coherence of the work Horacio Vaggione

20 « La composition de processus sort du geste quotidien et par cela même nous effraie. Elle est inhumaine, cosmique et provoque la fascination du Sacré et de l'Inconnu, rejoignant ce que Gilles Deleuze définit comme la splendeur du On : un mode d'individuations impersonnelles et de singularités préindividuelles. » Gérard Grisey, Tempus ex Machina

21 Le bricoleur est apte à exécuter un grand nombre de ta ̂ ches diversifiées ; mais, à la différence de lingénieur, il ne subordonne pas chacune delles à lobtention de matières premières et doutils conc ̧ us et procurés à la mesure de son projet : son univers instrumental est clos et la règle de son jeu est de toujours sarranger avec les moyens du bord, cest-à-dire un ensemble à chaque instant fini doutils et de matériaux, hétéroclites au surplus Claude Lévi-Strauss, La pensée sauvage


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