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Environmental and Social Safeguard Policies Safety of Dams International Waterways Disputed areas Use of country systems Transparency Accountability ©Michel.

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Présentation au sujet: "Environmental and Social Safeguard Policies Safety of Dams International Waterways Disputed areas Use of country systems Transparency Accountability ©Michel."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Environmental and Social Safeguard Policies Safety of Dams International Waterways Disputed areas Use of country systems Transparency Accountability ©Michel A. Bouchard 20101

2 2 EXAMPLES: RWANDA BURUNDI- TRANSBOUNDARY MARSHLAND MALI-MINING DEVELOPMENT AFRICA- ERADICATION OF TRYPANOSOMIASIS

3 ©Michel A. Bouchard CLIMATIC GOVERNANCE

4 ©Michel A. Bouchard 20104

5 ©Michel A. Bouchard 20095

6 ©Michel A. Bouchard 20106

7 7

8 8

9 CLIMATIC GOVERNANCE Emerging issue for Africa How to avoid contributing to climate change or help attenuate the problem? How to adapt to a changing and variable climate ? How to integrate resilience to climate variablity and change into development? ©Michel A. Bouchard 20109

10 10 Programme Pilote pour la Résilience Climatique INVENTAIRE ET PRIORITÉS Résilience Climatique au Niger REPUBLIQUE DU NIGER MINISTERE DE LECONOMIE ET DES FINANCES

11

12 12 5 PRIORITÉS DEVELOP TOOLS OF ENVIRONMENTAL GOVERNANCE SUCH AS SEA WHICH INTEGRATE CLIMATE RESILIENCE INTO PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING IMPROVE CLIMATE MODELING AND DOWSCALING CAPABILITIES AND IMPROVE THE DATA BASE FOR CLIMATE LONG RUN VIEW

13 13 5 PRIORITÉS SLM AND IWRM: PROMOTE AND SUSTAIN RESEARCH AND INNOVATION IN WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND EROSION CONTROL DEVELOP AND SET UP AN INSURANCE SYSTEM AND A MUTUAL-COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION SYSTEM FOR AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK

14 14 5 PRIORITÉS VENIR EN APPUI À LA CONSOLIDATION ET AU RENFORCEMENT DE LA COORDINATION DES PROGRAMMES, PLANS, INITIATIVES ET STRATÉGIES EN MATIÈRE DE CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES

15 CLIMATIC GOVERNANCE TOOLS ? TOOLDEVELOPED FORDEVELOPED BY CLIMATE MAPPERUSAIDNASA/U.COLORADO CC DATA PORTALWORLD BANKNumerous incl MCGILL WE-ADAPTSIDASTOCKHOLM ENV. INS. ORCHIDDFID CLLIMATE PROOFGTZPOTSDAM INST. CRISTALIISD PRECISHADLEY MET CENTER VULNERABILITY ASSJICA +SEVERAL OTHERS ©Michel A. Bouchard

16 CAN WE COMBINE SEA AND CG TOOLS ? ©Michel A. Bouchard EXAMPLE OF MALI CLIMATE PROOFING AND SEA OF NATIONAL SMALL SCALE IRRIGATION PROGRAMME

17 ©Michel A. Bouchard COLLAPSE OF GOVERNANCE

18 18 ÉVALUATIONS ENVIRONNEMENTALES ET CONFLITS ARMÉS Michel A. Bouchard Al Hamndou Dorsouma Les impacts des conflits armés sur la qualité de vie, la santé humaine et la diversité biologique en Afrique, Kinshasa, mai 2008

19 19 Lenvironnement est devenu depuis quelques années une préoccupation importante en situation de conflit armé ou de catastrophes naturelles, et une partie du PNUE y est consacré. Environmental Assessment of Armed Conflict has been going on for many years now, especially within « POST CONFLICT » context and even structured organisations such as UNEP-Post Conflict Branch

20 20 2. Les préoccupations se sont centrées principalement sur les EFFETS et lÉvaluation des dommages en situation immédiate de la phase Post Conflit, surtout à laide de A) DESK STUDIES B) EXPERTISES RAPIDES SUR LES LIEUX

21 21 1. POUR ÉVALUER LES DOMMAGES AUX FINS DE COMPENSATION MONÉTAIRE 2. AUX FINS DE GUIDER ET DASSISTER LA RECONSTRUCTION ET LA RÉHABILITATION 3. AUX FINS DE PRÉVENTION

22 1. Background information Direct environmental impacts: What are the environmetal impacts of war? Bomb damage Landmines and UXOs Depleted Uranium Military Waste disposal Troop movements What are the environmental impacts of war? Sabotage of resources Depleted uranium Landmines and UXOsBomb damage Military wasteTroop movements

23 1. Background information Indirect environmental impacts: Indirect Impacts Refugees Sanctions Collapse of Management Military Exploitation Opportunity costs Use of marginal lands What are the environmental impacts of war? Collapse of management Military exploitation SanctionsRefugees CorruptionUse of marginal lands

24 UNEP post-conflict assessments Post-conflict assessments from 1991 Gulf War:

25 UNEP post-conflict assessments Post-conflict assessments from 1999 Kosovo conflict:

26 de P. Haavisto (2005)26

27 Tools Collection of existing environmental information Collection of existing environmental information Sharing of information between UN agencies and NGOs Sharing of information between UN agencies and NGOs GIS and remote sensing analyses GIS and remote sensing analyses Interviews and meetings Interviews and meetings Site inspections Site inspections Repeat photography Repeat photography Air, soil, water and vegetation sampling and analyses Air, soil, water and vegetation sampling and analyses Review of material received during the missions Review of material received during the missions Expert panel analyses of the results Expert panel analyses of the results Collection of existing environmental information Collection of existing environmental information Sharing of information between UN agencies and NGOs Sharing of information between UN agencies and NGOs GIS and remote sensing analyses GIS and remote sensing analyses Interviews and meetings Interviews and meetings Site inspections Site inspections Repeat photography Repeat photography Air, soil, water and vegetation sampling and analyses Air, soil, water and vegetation sampling and analyses Review of material received during the missions Review of material received during the missions Expert panel analyses of the results Expert panel analyses of the results

28 28 PRE CONFLIT SYN CONFLIT POST CONFLIT

29 29 REHAB ASSISTANCE RELIEF POST-CONFLIT RECONSTRUCTION « REA » méthodes multiples ÉES ÉIE TYPE PNUE

30 30 SYN-CONFLIT DEPLOIEMENT CONVENTIONS DE GENÈVE ENMOD CICR surveillance?Military Ops

31 31 PRE-CONFLIT PRE-DEPLOIEMENT « ÉES » OU DIAGNOSTIC ENVIRONMENTAL INTELLIGENCE

32 ©Michel A. Bouchard et A.H. Dorsouma

33 ©Michel A. Bouchard et A.H. Dorsouma Orbites Landsat 7

34 ©Michel A. Bouchard et A.H. Dorsouma Landsat décembre 2001 Perturbations environnementales

35 ©Michel A. Bouchard et A.H. Dorsouma

36 GOLD EXPORT FROM OUGANDA Source: Uganda Ministry of Energy and Mineral Development cited by (GRIP 2003)

37 ©Michel A. Bouchard et A.H. Dorsouma conclusion

38 ©Michel A. Bouchard general and unrelated conclusions 1) There is an ambiguous link between development and natural resources endowment 2) There is a link between poverty and environment 3) We need to tools at a new integrated level

39 DÉVELOPPEMENT ET RESSOURCES NATURELLES? ©Michel A. Bouchard % 80% 30 5

40 40©Michel A. Bouchard 2010

41 Management and Governance challenges GOUVERNANCE TOOLS MONITORING OBSERVATORY TOOLS COUNTRIES ECOSYSTEM BASED CHALLENGES

42 Traditional Natural Resources Management strategies are being challenged while inability to cope with changing conditions lead rapidly to irreversible land degradation. Challenges have changed scales and new factors have compounded the issues: namely demographic growth, climate change, global trade rules and others. New threats and challenges cross national boundaries while still all requiring local-based actions or solutions. Emerging and growing national transboundary issues include urbanisation, migration, land use conflicts and resource-based potential conflicts.

43 While there are many solutions at various scales, including local based initiatives, and numerous opportunities for developing drylands, two major issues need to be confronted now: –Developing resilience to climatic variability –Stopping irreversible losses of agricultural capabilities by erosion (loss of soils) Both issues raise questions of the need for integrated MONITORING and GOVERNANCE

44 MONITORING Agrégation/Sélection Intégration et homogénéisation Diagnostic Suivi/Monitoring sur le long terme OBSERVATION LO CALE OBSERVATION SATELLITALE New tools needed NATIONAL LEVEL LARGE ECOSYSTEM SCALES INTERNATIONAL LEVEL GOVERNANCE

45 45©Michel A. Bouchard 2010

46 46 THANK YOU

47 Drylands have given the World a profound contribution and legacy, notably the semi- nomadic and associated land tenure and land management practices and associated arts and cultures. Traditional ways of living were capable of coping with numerous vagaries of nature and resilience was the norm. Challenges have changed scales and new factors have compounded the issues: namely demographic growth, climate change, global trade rules and others.

48 ©Michel A. Bouchard

49 Politique et Critères de performance en matière de Durabilité sociale et environnementale Évaluation environnementale et sociale et systèmes de management Main dœuvre et conditions de travail Prévention et Réduction de la pollution Hygiène, Sécurité et relations communautaires Acquisition des terres et déplacements forcés ©Michel A. Bouchard

50 Politique et Critères de performance en matière de Durabilité sociale et environnementale Conservation de la biodiversité et gestion durable des terres Populations autochtones Héritage culturel ©Michel A. Bouchard

51 Natural resources have fuelled the conflict Liberia is a country with an area of km2 Liberia is a country with an area of km2 Population of 3,3 million Population of 3,3 million Rich forest resources, minerals include diamonds, gold, and iron ore Rich forest resources, minerals include diamonds, gold, and iron ore 14 years of civil war have lead to the ruin of the country 14 years of civil war have lead to the ruin of the country Countrys rich natural resources have created and fuelled the conflict Countrys rich natural resources have created and fuelled the conflict United Nations sanctions on diamonds and timber United Nations sanctions on diamonds and timber

52 Liberia has a lot of child soldiers

53 Some IDP´s have moved 7 times people in IDP camps people in IDP camps Problems in providing freshwater, sanitation and waste management Problems in providing freshwater, sanitation and waste management Areas around the IDP camps are subject to a higher environmental impact – such as deforestation as a result of the collection of fuel wood Areas around the IDP camps are subject to a higher environmental impact – such as deforestation as a result of the collection of fuel wood

54 Monrovia currently has inhabitants - its sewage treatment system was designed for a population of Monrovia currently has inhabitants - its sewage treatment system was designed for a population of

55 Lack of electricity is increasing reliance on charcoal and fuel wood

56 Shifting cultivation (slash and burn) is threatening Liberian forests

57 New logging roads are part of the illegal timber trade, but are also used by bushmeat hunters

58 Alluvial diamond mining poses threats to riparian habitat and increases the environmental risks for downstream

59 UNEP work in Liberia Unregulated sandmining along a river outside Gbarnga and along the coast outside of Monrovia is causing erosion


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