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Air Pollution. ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Formaldehyde.

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Présentation au sujet: "Air Pollution. ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Formaldehyde."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Air Pollution

2 ORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Acrylonitrile Benzene Butadiene Carbon disulfide Carbon monoxide 1,2-Dichloroethane Dichloromethane Formaldehyde Polycycli aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and Dibenzofurans(PCDDs/PCDFs) Styrene Tetrachloroethylene Toluene Trichlorethylene vinylchloride

3 INORGANIC AIR POLLUTANTS Arsenic Asbestos Cadmium Chromium Fluoride Hydrogen sulfide Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Platinum Vanadium

4 CLASSICAL AIR POLLUTANTS Nitrogen dioxide Ozone and other photochemical oxidants Particulate matter Sulfur dioxide

5 What is air pollution? contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health contamination of the air by noxious gases and minute particles of solid and liquid matter (particulates) in concentrations that endanger health Air pollution only occurs outdoors Air pollution only occurs outdoors

6 Sources of Outside Air Pollution Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Combustion of gasoline and other hydrocarbon fuels in cars, trucks, and airplanes Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones) Burning of fossil fuels (oil, coal, and dinosaur bones) Insecticides Insecticides Herbicides Herbicides Everyday radioactive fallouts Everyday radioactive fallouts Dust from fertilizers Dust from fertilizers Mining operations Mining operations Livestock feedlots Livestock feedlots

7 A major form of air pollution is emissions given off by vehicles. A major form of air pollution is emissions given off by vehicles. The number of cars in EU has doubled between 1970 and 1994 – 3% per year The number of cars in EU has doubled between 1970 and 1994 – 3% per year

8 Whats in smog particulates (especially lead) particulates (especially lead) nitrous oxides nitrous oxides potassium potassium Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide Other toxic chemicals Other toxic chemicals

9 Sources of Indoor pollution Efficient insulation Efficient insulation Bacteria Bacteria Molds and mildews Molds and mildews Viruses Viruses animal dander and cat saliva animal dander and cat saliva plants plants house dust house dust Mites Mites Cockroaches Cockroaches pollen pollen

10 Effects on the environment Acid rain Acid rain Ozone depletion Ozone depletion Global warming Global warming In human population- respiratory problems, allergies, strengthens lugs, and a risk for cancer In human population- respiratory problems, allergies, strengthens lugs, and a risk for cancer

11 Acid rain contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids contains high levels of sulfuric or nitric acids contaminate drinking water and vegetation contaminate drinking water and vegetation damage aquatic life damage aquatic life erode buildings erode buildings Alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils Alters the chemical equilibrium of some soils

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13 Strategies Air Quality Management Plan Air Quality Management Plan Development of new technology- electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints, less polluting BBQ lighter fluids Development of new technology- electric cars, cleaner fuels, low nitrogen oxide boilers and water healers, zero polluting paints, less polluting BBQ lighter fluids Use of natural gas Use of natural gas Carpooling Carpooling Follow the laws enacted Follow the laws enacted

14 Urban Emissions There are small emissions of NO x from industrial processes The main emissions are from combustion. There is negligible nitrogen in gasoline or diesel fuels so the nitrogen oxides arise from the N 2 and O 2 in the air. Sulphur dioxides arise from the sulphur present in most fuels. Particulate matter describes matter below 10μm aerodynamic diameter.

15 Role of Engines and Fuel Different engines and fuel combinations give out different emissions in different quantities. Different engines and fuel combinations give out different emissions in different quantities. Some engines have catalysts which effectively remove part of the harmful gases. Some engines have catalysts which effectively remove part of the harmful gases.

16 Catalytic Converters and Particle Traps Catalytic converters can be fitted to cars to reduce NOx emissions. Catalytic converters can be fitted to cars to reduce NOx emissions. CO + HC + NOxH 2 O + N 2 + CO 2 CO + HC + NOxH 2 O + N 2 + CO 2 Platinum Honeycomb Platinum Honeycomb Particle traps can be used to reduce PM10 and NOx, but the effectiveness is severely reduced if the fuel the vehicle burns has a high sulphur content. Particle traps can be used to reduce PM10 and NOx, but the effectiveness is severely reduced if the fuel the vehicle burns has a high sulphur content. The major target in the battle for cleaner cities is diesel. The major target in the battle for cleaner cities is diesel.

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18 STRATEGIE The Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) approach: Based on scientific knowledge Based on scientific knowledge Using best available, quality-controlled real-world data Using best available, quality-controlled real-world data With close involvement of stakeholders: With close involvement of stakeholders: 1. Project future emissions and air quality resulting from full implementation of current EU legislation 2. Explore scope and costs for further measures 3. Analyze cost-effective policy scenarios 4. Estimate benefits of policy scenarios

19 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% SO2NOxVOCNH3PM2.5 % of 2000 emissions 2000CAFE baseline 2020, current legislationMaximum technical reductions 2020 Scope for further technical emission reductions CAFE baseline with climate measures, EU-25

20 Main pollutants used in the CAFE assessment

21 Particulate Matter (PM ) Pollution - Traffic emissions including diesel engines - Small combustion sources burnng coal and wood - Reductions of SO 2, N0 x, NH 3 and VOC

22 Ground level ozone - VOC control to reduce ozone in cities - N0 x reduction from traffic - Control of N0 x emissions from ships - Methane reduction

23 Multi-pollutant/multi-effect analysis for identifying cost-effective policy scenarios SO 2 NO x VOCNH 3 PM HealthAcidificationEutrophication Ozone RAINS computer model CAFE policy targets for 2020

24 Une pincée de NOx et quelques photons pour faire un peu dozone < 430 nm) NO + ONO2 + h O + O2 O3 Mais pas trop de NOx ce qui détruit une partie de l'ozone formé, Ni trop de COV ce qui en produit de trop ! NO2 + O2 O3 + NO RO2 + NO La cuisine photochimique : mais cest très simple !

25 LES COV 40 BTX automatiques 50 Campagnes COV/an (tubes à diffusion, canisters, …) CPG automatiques (31 composés) Monitoring of NO X - COV LES NOX 505 NO 2 automatiques en sites fixes

26 Dépassements du seuil dinformation et de recommandation de la population 180µg/m3/h – été 2003 Durées cumulées des dépassements Nb dévènements de dépassement 86 % des sites ont connu au moins 1 dépassement du seuil 180 Durée moyenne des dépassements : 34h par capteur, Principales régions concernées : Alsace, Centre, Ile de France, PACA, Rhône Alpes Les zones habituellement épargnées du littoral Atlantique ont été touchées

27 Echantillons daérosols prélevés chaque semaine au Pic du Midi (3000m )depuis Juin 2002 (LA, LMTG, LGGE, LSCE) Source : C. Liousse et al CNRS Lété 2003 sest également caractérisé par des niveaux élevés de

28 Dépassements du seuil dalerte de la nouvelle directive 2002/3/CE (240µg/m3/h ) été 2003 Nb de dépassements du seuil 240/1h Nb de dépassements du seuil 240/3h 13 jours de dépassements 2 jours en juillet : le 10 et le jours consécutifs du 2 au 13 août PACA : 8j – Paris :6j – Centre, Lorraine : 3j – RA : 2j - Alsace, Bretagne, L R : 1j

29 PRINCIPALES CONCLUSIONS Exceptional ozone pollution in time and space during summer days over the threshold 180/h in days over the threshold 240/h in 2003 strong correlation between day temperature /maximal ozone valuesq corrélation températures diurnes/valeurs maximales en ozone High values of PM10 and NO2 More than 30 millions of person exposed at threshold over Meteorologic conditions ( high temperatures, no wind, sunny, no cloud) explains this phenomenon

30 Expected benefits Emission of road transport sector in Europe CO NOx PM-diesel COV Benzène SO2 CO2 Index 100: 1996

31 Expected benefits (All sources in France) - 43% NOx between 2001 and % NOx between 2001 and % COV between 2001 and % COV between 2001 and 2010 programme of réduction programme of réduction (simulations by Prévair) : - duration of exposition to threshold (180µg/m3) divided by 5 - exposition to concentrations higher than 120µg/m3 divided by 2

32 Surveillance de la pollution : les « réseaux » Les AASQUA (associations agréées pour la surveillance de la qualité de lair) bénéficient dune délégation de service public pour : Surveiller de la qualité de lair Prévoir les épisodes de pollution Informer les autorités et les citoyens Evaluer limpact des mesures de réduction des émissions Des structures pluralistes où sont représentés (4 collèges) : LEtat et ses services Les collectivités locales et régionales Les industriels et entreprises de transport Les associations de défense de lenvironnement et de la qualité de vie 39 AASQUA très différentes par la taille et les moyens Les outils : Matériel de mesures fixes, itinérantes ou temporaires Modélisation, cartographie.

33 Surveillance de la pollution : les alertes La surveillance de la pollution repose encore essentiel- lement sur la notion de « pic de pollution » défini par des seuils et des normes nationales. Les alertes, efficaces dans le cas de la pollution dorigine industrielle, le sont beaucoup moins dans le cas de la pollution photochimique.

34 FLOW INFORMATION


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