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New process of creation: derivative / transformative works, mash-up, wiki authorship The music case Copyright in motion CERDI Seminar Paris 9.7.2012 Federico.

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Présentation au sujet: "New process of creation: derivative / transformative works, mash-up, wiki authorship The music case Copyright in motion CERDI Seminar Paris 9.7.2012 Federico."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 New process of creation: derivative / transformative works, mash-up, wiki authorship The music case Copyright in motion CERDI Seminar Paris 9.7.2012 Federico Mastrolilli (Università Europea di Roma)

2 Intertextuality and Post-production Many of the creative process in (post-)modern and contemporary music undercurrents have been characterized by the phenomenon of intertextuality –Referencing, borrowing and incorporation of fragments of existing records, cultural texts or media ephemera into new works Avant-garde creators have long acknowledged the centrality of appropriation (recorded songs, media excerpts, found sounds) in their creative practices De nombreux processus de création de la musique post-moderne et contemporaine ont été charactérisés par le phénomène de lintertextualité –Citation, emprunt et incorporation de fragments de textes culturels existants ou médias éphémères inclus dans des nouveaux travaux Lutilisation de formes existantes nest pas une nouveauté (ni pour la musique ni pour lart en général)

3 Intertextuality and Post-production Culture is a complex process of sharing and significations and the world is just a possibility of meanings, signs that are exchanged, adapted and detoured –Duchamps ready-made lesson: art is choice more than production –A sample is like a sonic readymade: music is freed from the sphere of the hand-played –Appropriating, sampling, mashing-up, collaging, recycling: they all imply giving a new meaning to an existing object La culture est un processus complèxe de partage et de significations et le monde est simplement une possibilité de sens et symboles qui sont échangés, adaptés et détournés –La leçcon de Duchamp : lart est plutôt choix que production –Appropriation, échantillonnage, mashing-up, collage, recyclage: tous impliquent lattribution dune nouvelle signification à un objet déjà existant

4 Intertextuality and Post- production But current musicians are obsessed with the cultural artifacts of its immediate past –Propelled by the technological innovations that made access and capture of sounds easier… –…but made more difficult by copyright (which even changed the creative process, i.e. hip-hop scene: Grand Upright case), when it emerges from underground (and makes money) –Poussées par linnovation téchnologique qui rend laccès et la capture de sons plus facile –…. mais freinées par le copyright

5 Sampling, collage and mash-up From hip-hop to contemporary appropriation practices: nostalgic Retromania (Simon Reynolds ©) Key element: using recordings to make new recordings, sound collage/mash-ups create a musical event that never happened Different techniques: –Sound collage first experiments Analogue/digital (Dadaist experiments, musique concrète, tape recording, plunderphonics, Negativland and the Tape-Beatles) –Digital sampling Hip-Hop first phase and dj culture –Mash-up 2.0 From Danger Mouse (as little original music added as possible, just enough to glue the two or more halves together) to Illegal Art label (Girl Talk blends dozen of tracks together into a new song), there is no creation of musical surplus: even at their very best they only add up to the sum of their parts The bonus element is conceptual: the wit of an incongruous juxtaposition –Hauntology/hypnagogic pop Ghost Box label, Not Not Fun records, Oneohtrix Point Never…

6 Americanapparelization of forms Current cutting-edge micro-scenes pass material through artificial treatments of decay and wear-and-tear : –Hauntology (UK): sound collage recycling folklore, televisual or library music elements Hauntology is a term borrowed by Jacques Derridas 1994 book Spectres of Marx : a ghost is neither a being nor non-being Different eras being placed in ghostly adjacence: reverie of the lost time of British nostalgia linked to radio-plays and television programming of the sixties and seventies – Hypnagogic pop (US): re-enactment of old-fashioned styles and genres, possibly kitsch Les micro-scènes davant-garde se servent de matériaux passés à travers des traitements artificiels de délabrement et usure

7 Americanapparelization of forms This is part of a more general society and cultural hipster aesthetic sensibility (handmade and vintage clothing, outmoded appliances, yellowed photos, ETSY on line boutiques etc.): americanapparelization or instagramization of forms –Artists use techniques that create a pre-faded effect of deteriorated texture and dream-like montage: create new works that use old works or look like old works –Memorys power (to linger, pop up unbidden, prey on ones mind) and memorys fragility (destined to become distorted, to fade, then finally disappear) Ceci est part, plus en général, dune culture et dun style mec branché (vêtements vintage ou démodés etc…): americanapparelization ou instagramization des formes Simon Reynolds: is underground music making becoming a niche market, a form of hipster consumerism that slots right next to distressed furniture, microbrew beer, artisanal cheese and vintage clothing? –No longer art as an intervention in the battlefield of culture, but art as décor for life

8 Cultural economics of retromania In the last century creativity has shifted from production to post-production (Nicolas Bourriaud) The past is an archive of raw materials through which excavate (the so-called crate-digging) in order to re-discover subcultural capital (recycling + nostalgia) –Cultural undergrounds economics: esoteric influences are consciously acquired and then dropped when they eventually depreciate with overexposure Underground music vanguard is thus driven in search of rarer grooves and earlier and discarded forms of popular music Le passé représente un archive de matériaux bruts à fouiller pour en redécouvrir le substrat culturel

9 Cultural economics of retromania Creation has become post-creation, pastiche is the common form of expression –Musicians are not interested in trying to create anything brand new –Originality has turned into stumbling across something that nobody else has referenced yet –The model for the modern musician becomes the conceptual artist or the critic: to surf the history of music (and media in general) using combinatory logic La création est devenue post-création et le pastiche est la forme commune dexpression –Les musiciens ne sont plus intéressés à créer quelque chose de nouveau –Loriginalité sest transformée en un trébuchement sur ce qui na pas encore été utilisé par dautres créateurs

10 New copyright for new music? What copyright reflections? Open to discussion –Some ideas: Derivative works: Copyright paradigm (rhizomatic progress) vs. Patent paradigm (linear incremental progress) Should fair use/exceptions and limitations embrace transformative use of pre-existing works? Or indeed is this transformative music more creative and inventive than most of the mainstream productions and should therefore deserve stand-alone protection as its creating a rich and evolving musical culture? Which tension with free speech/free expression/free culture? Can the exhaustion principle apply also to meaning? From an economic/commercial standpoint, is sample-based the only new musical style of the last decade and should therefore the industry promote it instead of fighting it? Quelles conséquences pour le droit dauteur? Ouvert à la discussion –Quelques idées: Est-ce que les exceptions/limitations du fair use devraient englober les utilisations transformatives de travaux pré-existants? Ou bien est-ce que ces transformations sont plus créatives que les productions traditionnelles elles-même et devraient donc bénéficier dune protection autonome? Quel rapport entre expression et culture libre? Est-ce que le principe dépuisement peut sappliquer à la signification? Dun point de vue économique et commercial, est-ce que léchantillonnage représenterait le seul nouveau style musical de la dernière décennie et, par conéquent, lindustrie devrait le promouvoir plutôt que le combattre?

11 New copyright for new music? Goal: a better fit between copyright policy and todays intertextual/relational creative practices –Reclaiming the full meaning of copyright policy: not merely protection for owners, but nurturing of new creativity expressions and cultural diversity But: un droit dauteur mieux taillé pour les créations modernes –Non seulement protection mais aussi promotion de la créativité et de la diversité culturelle

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