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B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier 2013 1 Plasmonique intégrée pour circuits photoniques à haute densité Mickaël Février,

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Présentation au sujet: "B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier 2013 1 Plasmonique intégrée pour circuits photoniques à haute densité Mickaël Février,"— Transcription de la présentation:

1 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Plasmonique intégrée pour circuits photoniques à haute densité Mickaël Février, Lukas Halagacka, Matthias Grangier, Yida Wen, Philippe Gogol, Abdelhanin Aassime, David Bouville, Navy Yam, Robert Megy, Béatrice Dagens Coll: LNIO (UTT) et CEA-LETI

2 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Integrated plasmonic : why ? µfluidic channel Optical source Optical detector Sensor area Integrated bioplasmonic sensor Specific functions, miniaturized functions Efficient excitation Spatial separation of « active function » and excitation/detection system Complex circuits Efficient devices Optical interconnects, optical circuitry, nanoantennas Isolators, circulators Isolator Circulator Principle: enhanced properties thanks to nanostructuration and guiding effects

3 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Outline Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI - LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing Gold nanoparticles SOI waveguide

4 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier State of the art : interfacing SOI and plasmonic waveguide reflexions losses Coupling efficiency between 15% and 30% Chen et al, Opt. Lett., 31, 2133, 2006 Tian et al, APL, 95, , 2009 Briggs et al, Nano. Lett., 10, 4851, 2010 Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing Butt-joint coupling

5 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier State of the art : interfacing SOI and plasmonic waveguide Sederberg et al, APL 96, , 2010 Delacour et al, Nano. Lett., 10, 2922, 2010 Reduced reflections Coupling efficiency: 60% to 70% Evanescent coupling Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

6 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier State of the art : localized surface plasmons nanoparticles deposited on a waveguide Quidant et al, PRB 69, (2004) successive metallic NP: correlated excitation through underlying dielectric waveguide (like in Bragg grating) but no direct coupling between NP Bragg grating made of metallic nanoparticles Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

7 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Localized surface plasmon (LSP) chains Simsek, Optics Express, 18, 1722, 2010 Plasmonic resonance generated by an electromagnetic excitation in a metallic nanoparticle (subwavelength dimension) Excited particle= oscillating dipole Near field excitation of the nearest particle: electromagnetic energy propagation Plasmonic resonance controlled by the size, shape, position of nanoparticles Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

8 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Ellipsoidal MNP polarisability Response of MNP to electromagnetic field depends on polarisability (for isolated MNP or for MNP assembly) Polarisability includes static response (dielectric cstt, shape of the ellipsoid) But also radiative effects (dimensions of the NP with respect to wavelength, retardation effects, …) with x z y (ellipse semi-axis) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing d m

9 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Ellipsoidal MNP polarisability polarisability is sensitive to MNP environment, shape and dimensions a y = nm Polarisability (imag part) a x =40nm, a z =15nm Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing x z y ayay d m E ext

10 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier (LSP) chains design Weber et al, PRB, 70, , 2004 Koenderink et al, PRB, 74,033405, 2006 Model Couple Dipole Approximation (in homogeneous medium) each nanoparticle = one point, with polarisability radiative losses, NP geometry, gold index (Drude model) long and short distance interaction P: dipolar moment E: external excitation α: polarisability ω: pulsation d: interparticle distance Contribution of other MNP 1/r, 1/r² and 1/r 3 interactions Gives the excitation profile along the finite chain (|p n |²~dissipated ohmic power) Defines collective oscillation of chain dipoles of the infinite or finite chain : eigenmodes (E n (ext) =0) in homogeneous medium: dispersion curve Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

11 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier (LSP) chains modelling (in homogeneous medium) Dispersion curves of the infinite chain : Dispersion curves of the finite chain : Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing 20 MNP chain in homogeneous media

12 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Designed and realized device Design: analytical and then FDTD models Telecom wavelength, TE mode: ellipsoidal shape E-beam lithography (alignment) + lift-off process 30 nm thick gold nanorods 2 a x 2 a y 2 a y ~ 220 nm 2 a x ~ 80 nm Localized surface plasmon excitation ? Chain = waveguide ? Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

13 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier MNP: transmission spectrum Resonance transmission minimum « noise »: FP modes FDTD simulation ( experimentally fitted Drude model ): 5dB extra losses Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing Transmission setup (IEF) Chain excitation ? Coupling mechanisms ?

14 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Near-field : traNSNOM (LNIO, UTT) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

15 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier M. Fevrier et al. Nano Lett. 12, 1032, 2012 (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

16 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Dispersion curves FDTD calculation extracted dispersion curve of the 20 MNP chain on SOI Coupled modes (anticrossing) chain=waveguide Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing Dispersion curves of a chain in homogeneous medium and of the SOI waveguide

17 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier From 5 to 50 MNP chain - transmission: similar spectral shape, wider for longer chains - much lower transmission at 5MNP: cavity effect Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

18 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier From 5 to 50 MNP chain Intensity profiles at transmission minimum - 20 and 50 MNP: clear waveguide coupling - 10 MNP: intermediate case - 10 to 50 MNP: same coupling length - 5 MNP: too short for re-coupling ; total energy transfer into the fourth MNP (<500nm) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

19 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Dipole excitation: experimental validation Very short chains (5MNP) sufficient to implement plasmonic functions Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

20 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Record coupling length 2Lc Lc 560 nm κ 2805 mm -1 WaveguidesCoupling length (Lc) SOI/nanoparticle chain 560 nm (measure, Fevrier et al. Nano Lett.) SOI/delocalized plasmonic waveguide 1 µm (measure, Delacour et al. Nano Lett.) 2 dielectric waveguides 100 µm (theory, Sun et al. Optics Lett.) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

21 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier LSP chain on Si 3 N 4 waveguide Waveguide coupling Longer coupling length in Si 3 N 4 waveguide case Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing M. Février et al, submitted to JLT

22 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Excitation near or far of the light line Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing Lc = λ/[2(n eff antisym n eff sym )]

23 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Strong interaction due to device geometry Mode distortion, especially in dielectric waveguide M. Février et al, submitted to JLT

24 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Excitation up to « non guided » mode Low guiding in Si 3 N 4 Antisymmetric supermode with index higher than material index Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing M. Février et al, submitted to JLT

25 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Excitation up to « non guided » mode appears on transmission curve Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

26 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Guiding based on resonances and near-field coupling 1 rst Brillouin zone chain SOI d kbkb kb=kb= 2 d d=150 nm Spatial harmonics : - generated by chain periodicity - includes decreasing phase contribution - may be as intense as fundamental component Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

27 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Specific collective chain modes FDTD 1 rst et 2 nd Brillouin zones Strong excitation of spatial harmonics in chain waveguide - 2,56 1,6 Heterodyne SNOM (LNIO, UTT) Neff A. Appuzzo, accepted for publication in Nano Letters Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

28 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Biochips : plasmonics waveguides Silice Si0 2 SAM thiol/or SAM silane / SiO 2 or Bio-plasmonics for molecular interaction with localized plasmons Possible detection in transmission Compatibility with further integration with lab-on-chip systems: thiols molecules grafting on gold; thiols can capture element to be detected Plasmonics response strongly modified by the presence of these elements (molecules,...) Integrated plasmonic : why ? State of the art Localized surface plasmon chains SOI- LSP chain interfacing From long to short plasmonic chains Back to waveguide coupling Chain mode harmonics Application to biosensing

29 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Toward biosensing Calculation: chain of 5 gold nanoparticles coated with dielectric material. experiment Mickaël Février, et al, « Integration of short gold nanoparticles chain on SOI waveguide toward compact integrated bio-sensors, » Optics Express Vol. 20, Iss. 16, pp –17409 (2012)

30 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Conclusion and perspectives Integration of localized plasmon waveguide on SOI demonstrated, at telecom wavelength Several efficient excitation and propagation regimes identified Very short chains (5MNP) sufficient to implement plasmonic functions Similar behaviours with SiN guide (compatible with visible wavelength) Short chain = reduced losses, compactness Plasmonic= energy concentration (non-linear functions, sensing, …) Toward magneto-plasmonic ( Au/Co/Au)

31 B.Dagens, Journées thématiques GdR Ondes, Grenoble, 17 et 18 janvier Thanks for your attention


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