La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

Ecologie appliquée et consommation. Plan de la présentation Introduction 1. Texte : The New Politics of Consumption" Juliet Schor 2. Histoire de la consommation.

Présentations similaires


Présentation au sujet: "Ecologie appliquée et consommation. Plan de la présentation Introduction 1. Texte : The New Politics of Consumption" Juliet Schor 2. Histoire de la consommation."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Ecologie appliquée et consommation

2 Plan de la présentation Introduction 1. Texte : The New Politics of Consumption" Juliet Schor 2. Histoire de la consommation 3. Les ampoules à faible consommation 4. Léconomie de fonctionnalité Conclusion

3 Juliet Schor : Biographie Doctorat en économie (University of Massachusetts) Enseigne durant 17 ans à Harvard University (Department of Economics and the Committee on Degrees in Women's Studies) Professeur de sociologie au Boston College Co-fondatrice du Center for a New Americain Dream Prix Leontief du Global Development And Environment Institute en 2006

4 Juliet Schor : Bibliographie 1992 : The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure 1998 : A Sustainable Economy for the 21st Century 1998 : The Overspent American: Upscaling, Downshifting and the New Consumer 2000 : Do Americans Shop Too Much? 2002 : Sustainable Planet: Solutions for the 21st Century 2004 : BORN TO BUY, The Commercialized Child and the New Consumer Culture

5 Autres auteurs 1899 : Veblen : conspicuous consumption" 1976 : Hirsch : The Social Limits to Growth, positional goods 1979 : Georgescu-Roegen : La décroissance 1979 : Bourdieu : La Distinction. Critique sociale du jugement

6 Contexte :

7 Apports et idées fortes du texte

8 Approche socio-historique Growing aspirational gap –Déclin du quartier comme point de comparaison –Entrée des femmes sur le marché du travail –Diminution du niveau dépargne

9 Consommation-développement Distinction entre consommation privée et alternative (publique, épargne et loisirs) Type de consommation défini le type de développement, type de société Consommation privée comme principale sources dinégalité « Hyperbolic discounting » La consommation privée génère des structures de pouvoir et des inégalités Impossibilité dune société plus égale avec les pratiques de consommation actuelles

10

11

12

13 Consommation collective « The new consumerism » s/1990s « Competitive consumption » - Pression Redéfinition du groupe de référence

14 Se comparer avec qui & quoi?!

15 TV

16 Consommation collective Bourdieu: « La distinction » the ways in which our sense of social standing and belonging comes from what we consume « Over-consumption » des biens identitaires La consommation individuelle est liée à des décisions collectives Nécessité dune réponse collective aux problèmes

17 Consommation collective Critiques de la théorie conventionelle/libérale: Rationalité limité du consommateur

18 Le désir - niveau rationel?!

19 Consommation-Collectivité Critiques de la théorie conventionelle/libérale: Le consommateur na pas toutes les informations Ses choix ne sont pas toujours consistent et structurellement déformés Les consommateurs ne sont pas indépendants La collectivité forme les préférences Importance des inégalités sociales et du pouvoir dans les pratiques de consommation Marché de la consommation alternative incomplet

20 Consommation=problème Ce nest plus un problème dinégalité de revenu: la consommation fait partie du problème Il faut déconstruire la consommation Il faut construire des nouvelles normes collective pour la consommation Bases pour une nouvelle consommation et un nouveau style de vie

21 Critiques Points forts: –Aspect collectif de la consommation –N'hésite pas prendre partie et créer son propre concept de « competitif consumption » –Consciente de la limite des connaissances actuelles - Questionne le concept de besoin

22 Critiques Points faibles: –Origine de lindividualisme pas questionnée au niveau sociologique (rêve américain) –Recours à des concepts économiques (marché incomplet,…) sans les discuter. –Pertinence de lopposition consommation VS famille et religion –Est-ce que la politisation de largumentation ne décrédibilise pas son propos? –Ambiguïté entre démocratie corrompue par les producteurs de biens privés et espoir dans les politiques.

23 Applying Ecology to Daily Life How?

24 History of Consumption

25 Expansion of Consumption In trillions of dollars, real terms While the population has increased 600%, consumption has increased 2400%.

26 The Global Division of Consumption

27 Roots of Consumption Technological advances resulted in the production of more goods –contribute to a rise in the world economy –without absorption of excess also facing unemployment and economic slow down –cheaper consumption: not want but ability to consume that is new –consumption necessary to finance technological advancement and the continuation of a growth-led economy

28 Roots of Consumption Religion –a basis for legitimizing consumption Social: new conception of consumption and pleasure –Luxuries made into necessities – expanding and democratizing consumption –Individualism: concern about social issues transformed into concern for fulfilling individual desires through consumption Politics: –Hoovers New Politics of Consumption Government promotion of maximum consumption Proposed the Department of Consumption

29 Applying Ecology to Consumption Applied Ecology: the use of scientific and technological advances and innovative management to solve ecological problems –INSIGHT –INNOVATION Scientific (engineers) vision of the world –substitutability –technology –biotic ressources

30 Consumption: a question of Public Policy? Belongs in the private sphere? –Discourse of personal choices of the individual However, consumption is social and structural –Consumer choices constrained by social barriers, inadequate incomes, imperfect information, lack of time, unavailability of goods Consumer decisions impact the public realm –Environmental and other externalities not incorporated into the prices

31 Public measures Consumption measures... environmentally friendly goods and technological solutions –Tax the bad (Swedish eco-tax) –Regulations –Promoting technology Green New Deal - subsidies for certain industries and goods An industry in its own right: $650 billion in 2006 –Improving information Problem: still in an economic paradigm increasing consumption

32 Consume Differently –Taxes on non-necessary consumption –Sensibilisation campaigns Diminishing the value of novelty –Different Standards for goods: Georgescu-Roegen recommends: –Make goods last longer –Make them reparable

33 Applied ecology and consumption Lighting General information about the Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) Consuming CFL Issues

34 Lighting Worldwide (http://www.enerlin.enea.it/doconline/documents/CEN-Report.pdf)

35 Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

36 General information A compact fluorescent lamp (CFL), also known as an energy saving light, is a type of fluorescent lamp The modern CFL was invented by Ed Hammer, an engineer with General Electric, in response to the 1973 oil crisis CFLs generally use less power, have a longer rated life, but a higher purchase price

37 General information Lifespan The average rated life of a CFL is between 8 and 15 times that of incandescents CFLs typically have a rated lifespan of between 6,000 and 15,000 hours, whereas incandescent lamps are usually manufactured to have a lifespan of 750 hours or 1,000 hours. (http://www.osram-os.com/_global/pdf/Consumer/General_Lighting/Energy- Saving_lamps/102W008GB_SBH_Brochure.pdf)

38 General information Energy Efficiency For a given light output, CFLs use between one fifth and one third of the power of equivalent incandescent lamps (http://www.osram-os.com/_global/pdf/Consumer/General_Lighting/Energy- Saving_lamps/102W008GB_SBH_Brochure.pdf)

39 General information Cost The purchase price of an integrated CFL is typically 3 to 10 times greater than that of an equivalent incandescent lamp. (see IKEA for example) CFLs are popular for use in off-the-grid housing

40 DC CFL with small solar pannel

41 General information CFLs, like all fluorescent lamps, contain small amounts of mercury as vapor inside the glass tubing Sophisticated disposal Concern for landfills or waste incinerators Incandescent light bulbs consist of a glass enclosure with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric current is passed

42 Consuming CFL in Switzerland Various organizations have encouraged the adoption of CFLs. Publicity to encourage awareness, direct handouts of CFLs to the public. Some electric utilities and local governments have subsidized CFLs or provided them free to customers as a means of reducing electric demand.

43 Consuming CFL in Switzerland

44 Consuming CFLs in USA, Canada, Europe, Australia Australia, Canada, and the US (Thomas Act) have already announced nationwide bans on incandescent bulbs At the meeting of the Ecodesign Regulatory Committee in Brussels on December 8, 2008, the European Union Member States experts approved the European Commission's proposals for regulation progressively phasing out incandescent bulbs starting in 2009 and ending in 2012

45 Consuming CFL in Switzerland In Switzerland in 2012: ban of light bulbs efficiency class E (75% of used light bulbs in 2008) (http://www.konsumentenschutz.ch/files/pdfs/downloads/08_12_merkblatt_glueh birnenverbot.pdf)

46 Consuming CFL in Switzerland, Germany New policy The retail price includes an amount to pay for recycling, and manufacturers and importers have an obligation to collect and recycle CFLs Germany since March 2006 Switzerland 0.50 CHF in advance on the price since August 2005 (

47 Consuming CFL in Switzerland, Germany Rate of return In Germany less than 25% of privately used CFLs are recycled, but up to 90% of commercially used ones – rate of return is 70-80% (http://www.dellekom.de/info/energiesparlampen-faq) In Switzerland the rate of return is 65% - sent to Berlin for disposition. (SM Recycling AG)

48

49 Consuming CFL in USA, Canada, Europe, Australia Awareness Strong communication in general Education – Mobilization – Change practices People see the long term benefit for them in monetary terms (theoretically smaller electricity bill) New temporality Existing knowledge and facilities to dispose of the used or/and broken lamps

50 Consuming CFL in USA, Canada, Europe, Australia Question of accessibility People can afford it People can buy them almost everywhere They suite existing light fixtures Governmental incentives – measures including taxation, or bans on production of incandescent light bulbs Promotions, publicity On the way to become the standard light source in private residential buildings and commercial buildings/offices

51

52 Consuming CFL in USA, Canada, Europe, Australia Question of responsibility Responsibility is more and more taken away from the consumer and taken by the government I will if you will- logic New politics of consumption?! Consumption is linked to larger collective decisions

53 Maturing CFL market Question of style Not that big anymore Different light colours – not that blue, cold, clinical light anymore New CFL are dimmable

54 Issues Question of harmful radiation Danger for health? Experts fight against the introduction of CFL…online forums, magazines, … >> Objective product information

55 Issues Price A German survey confirms that the major barrier for CFLs is still the high purchase price when compared to incandescent lamps, even though 96% of interviewed people know that CFL save energy, 86% now that CFLs last much longer than incandescent lamps and even though 69% know that the CFL has short pay back period (http://www.enerlin.enea.it/doconline/documents/CEN-Report.pdf)

56 Issues CFL quality – mistrust on the CFL technology Use of halogen lamps Not yet as diversified in style, form, etc. Mercury containing – but less electricity can mean less coal burning means less mercury released Under which conditions are CFLs produced, where do they come from?

57 Issues Lifespan is drastically reduced when CFLs are turned on/off frequently CFL has to burn min. 15min LED Lights compete with CFL – consumer confused

58 Broader Issues Does energy efficiency really lead in the right direction?! People may think that they can install 3 lamps instead of one and/or let them burn when they leave the room/house – rebound effect Consumer culture is not really questioned How much lightening is really necessary? CFL use may further support the broader idea that technology is The solution

59 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Objectifs: Dématérialisation Décarbonisation Analyse de cycle de vie Ecologie industrielle: chaque é change de d é chets fait l objet d une n é gociation s é par é et confidentielle. Les é changes ob é issent aux lois du march é. (Erkman, 2004)

60 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Base dune nouvelle logique de production et de consommation. In many instances it is not the material product that is desired by an individual, but the service it renders. (Prettenthaler & Steininger, 1999) Substituer la vente dun service par la vente dun produit.

61 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Lexemple de Xerox Avantages: –Implique le fournisseur dans lusage du produit –Produit fait pour durer –Facilement réparable et recyclable –Utilise moins de matière –Création et relocalisation demploi

62 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Obstacles: –Tout les produits ne sont pas substituable en service –Nécessite la mise en place dinfrastructure –Rentabilité –Valeurs attaché à la possession de certains biens

63 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Voiture VS mobilité: –From car-owership to car-sharing –Comment ça marche?

64 Léconomie de fonctionnalité

65 Avantages: –Moins de voitures, moins de parking, … –Voiture plus r é cente donc moins polluante –Pas d investissement initial important –Choix du mod è le de voiture en fonction du trajet –Pas de frais d entretient –Pas de frais d essence –Tout les frais d assurance inclus –Pas besoin de chercher une place de parc

66 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Profil de lutilisateur type: –Entre 25 et 45 ans environs –Haut niveau déducation Motivations: –Pour les pionniers : environnement –Actuellement : économique

67 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Quel potentiel? –Etude de Prettenthaler & Steininger (1999) Cas 1: Voiture = moyen de transport –Rentable si moins de km par ans –Rentable pour 69% des Australiens Cas 2: Voiture = lieu dattente –Rentable si moins de 8000 km par ans environ –Rentable pour 22% des Australiens Cas 3: Voiture = identité et prestige –Rentable pour 9% des Australiens

68 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Changement du comportements des consommateurs: –Case lillusion du faible coût de la voiture –Comparaison avec les transports publics facile

69 Léconomie de fonctionnalité

70 –Après 2 ans de car-sharing, les clients ont diminué leur utilisation de 20% –1500 km de voiture en moins et 2000 km de train en plus (Hockerts, 2003)

71 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Effet rebond: –En Suisse: une voiture pour 2.2 citoyens –Avec le car-sharing, une pour 34 citoyens –Moins de voiture sur les routes et dans les parking. Risque d'inciter dautres à prendre leur voiture.

72 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Stratégie pour attirer le consommateur: –Combiner loffre car-sharing avec les transport publics –Fidéliser les jeunes avec des offres de cours dauto-école –Réduire les parking et places réservées pour le car-sharing

73 Léconomie de fonctionnalité Principale obstacle en Suisse: –Le statut conférer par la possession dune voiture 90% des Suisses partagent leur machine à laver le linge

74 Private Measures – Live Differently Consume differently Changing values of consumption –consumer citizenship movement This requires a spirit of detachment from material consumption once basic needs are met True pleasure in voluntary sharing, social relationships, and intangibles like culture and spirituality Value alternative consumption

75 Freeganism – Protesting Consumption "limited participation in the conventional economy and minimal consumption of resources" –Salvage food and other things among waste and garbage : Foraging, Sharing, Squatting, Working Less –Many refrain from working – demonstrating the capacity to live only off waste –Not out of need but of political protest –Socially looked down upon Dumpster Diving –Not possible for everyone – requires wasteful behavior –http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zMhoPwbxV zU

76 Merci Beaucoup!!!


Télécharger ppt "Ecologie appliquée et consommation. Plan de la présentation Introduction 1. Texte : The New Politics of Consumption" Juliet Schor 2. Histoire de la consommation."

Présentations similaires


Annonces Google