Présentation au sujet: "LE SON L’organologie : la lutherie Les précurseurs"— Transcription de la présentation:
1LE SON L’organologie : la lutherie Les précurseurs L’enregistrement du sonMusique concrèteMusique électroniqueMusique électroacoustiqueLa notation musicaleInstallation sonorePaysage sonorePromenade sonore
2L’ORGANOLOGIE est l'étude des instruments de musique L’ORGANOLOGIE est l'étude des instruments de musique. Pour mieux connaître leur histoire, elle fait appel à différents champs disciplinaires : connaissance technique des instruments, facture instrumentale, musicologie, acoustique, histoire des techniques, étude des traités théoriques, histoire des collections et de la restauration. Elle soulève la question de la classification des instruments, aborde leur origine et leur évolution, étudie les variantes, les usages musicaux et la symbolique. (en grec, organon signifie instrument)tp://www.culture.gouv.fr/irpmf/fr/organo_acc.htm
4tc2.free.fr/Merlier/ Recherche.html interfaces gestuelles pour la musique électroacoustique, spatialisation de la musique électroacoustique les instruments de musique électroniques musique interactive, capteurs documents pédagogiques tc2.free.fr/Merlier/ Recherche.html
5Les Furutistes 29 instruments divisés en plusieurs classes : Hululeurs FroufrouteursBourdonneursÉclateursGlouglouteursSibileursCoasseursCrépiteursGrondeursLuigi RussoloIntonorumori(1913)
71er concert futuriste avec Russolo et Marinetti 1914 Luigi Russolo ( )Luigi Russolo ( ) ,painterFilippo Tommaso Marinetti ( ) ,poetPratella- ( ), musician_____________________________________________________________________________________________ The Futurists were activists in both the arts and politics. Marinetti, a lawyer, was the leader of the group. He saw the past as obsolete and sought to shape the future by publishing manifestos. The Futurists were basically a political movement until after world war one. Mussolini became a follower of the Futurists until he silenced them after attaining the power he needed. This embittered the Futurist and caused them to withdraw from politics. They wrote manifestos on visual arts, sculpture, painting, and music. We will concentrate on Russolo and his contribution to modern electronic music. Russolo had served in the war as a motorcycle driver and been wounded. It was Russolo's belief that noise was the sound of music for the new century. In his manifesto Art of Noises (1913), he wrote, "Ancient life was all silence. In the nineteenth century, with the invention of the machine, Noise was born. Today, Noise triumphs and reigns supreme over the sensibilities of men."(1) He further believed that rhythm and pitch selection had been determined at an early point in man's history and the complex components such as polyphony were man's ways of adding progress to music. It was because music had reached such a great complexity, he concluded that the incorporation of noise as part of the musical language was the next logical step. He further wrote, "we must break out of this narrow circle of pure musical sounds, and conquer the infinite variety of noise sounds...Let us wander through a great modern city with our ears more alert than our eyes, and enjoy distinguishing between the sounds of water, air, or gas in metal pipes, the purring of motors ) which breathe and pulsate with indisputable animalism), the throbbing of valves, the pounding of pistons, the screeching of gears, the clatter of streetcars on their rails, the cracking of whips, the flapping of awnings and flags. We shall enjoy fabricating the mental orchestrations of the banging of store shutters, the slamming of doors, the hustle and bustle of crowds, the din of railroad stations, foundries, spinning mills, printing presses, electric power stations, and underground railways." (2) In another manifesto, Musica Futurista, he wrote, "To present the musical soul of the masses, of the great factories, of the railways, of the transatlantic liners, of the battleships, of the automobiles and airplanes. To add to the great central themes of the musical poem the domain of the machine and the victorious kingdom of Electricity." (3) Russolo categorized noise-sounds into 6 separate groups.Russolo invented noise machines called Intoners (Intonarumori) arranged in 6 cat. rumbles roars explosions crashes splashes booms whistles hisses snorts whispers murmers mumbles grumbles gurgles screeches creaks rustles buzzes crackles scrapes noises made by percussion on metal wood skin stone etc. voices of animals and men: shouts screams groans shrieks howls laughs wheezes sobs(Present day post production sound effects composers should tip their hat to Russolo for subdividing effects decades before post production existed.) The first concert of Futurist music was given by Marinetti and Russolo in The program of "four networks of noises" with the following titles:1. Awakening of Capital. 2. Meeting of cars and aeroplanes 3. Dining on the terrace of the Casino 4. Skirmish in the oasis.The performance ended in a violent battle between the musicians and the audience. The Intoners were played by holding a lever, which controlled pitch by tone, semi-tone and fractional tone, with the left hand turning a crank, which determined the tone of the noise, with the right hand. None of the Intoners survived WWII. Although none of the works by the Futurists are held up as great examples of 20th century music, the redefinition of sound in music by the Futurists was an influence on the thinking of Varese and Schaefer. Today we find that noises in music are accepted, especially in popular music. Russolo caused musicians to take a look at their surroundings for inspiration. He convinced them to open their minds...and their ears.1er concert futuristeavec Russolo etMarinetti1914
8Russolo assis devant le Rumorarmonio 1922 En 1927, Luigi Russolo s'installe à Paris pour fuir le fascisme, il gagne sa vie en créant en direct la musique de films muets d'avant-garde, grâce au "Rumorarmonio" (instrument qu'il a créé et qui regroupe sous la forme d'un piano droit, quelques-uns de ses bruiteurs), puis du "Russolophone". Il effectue notamment la sonorisation des films de Jean Painlevé, Eugène Deslaw et Jean Epstein. Pierre Henry, lui rend hommage en 1975 en composant "Futuristie" : à cette occasion, il fait fabriquer quelques bruiteurs. < retour | suite >
10Inventé par Lev Termen 1920 Theremin Theremin om28000.htmlThereminThe Theremin is one of the earliest electronic instruments, and is played without ever physically touching it. Outfitted with two antennas, a magnetic field surrounds the instrument, and when the hands of the player enter the field, changes in pitch and volume occur. The left side controls the volume, and the right controls the pitch.Invented in the 1920's by Lev Termen.We have an entire section dedicated to the Theremin. Find out more info, see rare pics, and read one of the only interviews with Leon Theremin in ourFeatured Sections area.
11Invented in the 1920's by Lev Termen. om28000.htmlTheremin CelloAlso known as the Fingerboard Theremin, instead of strings, it has a flexible plastic film fingerboard which, when touched, produces a tone. As long as the finger remains depressed, a tone is sustained. The volume is controlled by a lever on the player's right and the tone color is controlled by knobs, and the sound is amplified by an external amplifier.Invented in the 1920's by Lev Termen.We have an entire section dedicated to the Theremin. Find out more info, see rare pics, and read one of the only interviews withLeon Theremin in ourFeatured Sections area.Theremin CelloAussi appelé le Fingerboard Theremin
14Maurice Martenot 1928 jouant du Theremin à distance Here is Maurice Martenot, accompanied by his sister Ginette, on the stage of the Paris Opera, May 3, only five months after the introduction of the theremin. At that time, he played the instrument "à distance" which means that he actually attached himself to it by means of a "ring" and a wire (which can clearly be seen in the above photo) and then stood back about 5 feet from the device. The wire or "ruban" is kept taught by a pulley mechanism that reels it in, and lets it out, as the ondiste moves his hand back and forth. Volume and tone are controlled by the left hand which rests on a small box of switches. The ondes Martenot, although its function is based on the same heterodyne principle as the theremin, is touched by the ondiste. The thereminist, on the other hand, never touches the theremin.The theremin has a "sister instrument" whose construction was based on the same electronic, "heterodyne" principles as those used by Leon Theremin. Conceived and designed by the French cellist and inventor, Maurice Martenot (shown in the photo above around 1929), he built his first instrument at roughly the same time as Leon Theremin was working on his own prototypes. He called his invention the "ondes Martenot" (pronounced like the English "owned Martin O." - which means the "Martenot waves" in French). There was no contact whatever between Maurice Martenot and Leon Theremin until they were introduced in New York City in Their inventions were totally independent of one another and, by 1930, both men had already introduced their respective instruments to the world.I am indebted to Maurice Martenot's biographer, Jean Laurendeau, for many of the photos on this page. Mr. Laurendeau's excellent book MAURICE MARTENOT, LUTHIER DE L'ELECTRONIQUE (published by Dervy Livres) has unfortunately not been translated into English but it remains, nonetheless, an important and beautifully written work on the life and times of a true pioneer in electronic music. Mr. Laurendeau is not only a remarkable writer but he also happens to be an equally gifted ondes Martenot virtuoso. He has allowed me to include a short mp3 of his playing. It can be accessed at the end of this section.*************Maurice Martenot 1928 jouant du Theremin à distance
16Martenot jouant de son instrument Heitor Villa-Lobos( )Bachianas Brasileiras no. 51938age machines/martenot/.The Ondes-Martenot (1928)A concert version of the Ondes-MartenotMaurice Martenot a Cellist and radio Telegraphist, met the Russian designer of the Theremin, Leon Termen in 1923, this meeting lead him to design an instrument based on Termens ideas, the first model, the "Ondes-Martenot" was patented on the 2nd of April 1928 under the name "Perfectionnements aux instruments de musique électriques" (improvements to electronic music instruments). His aim was to produce a versatile electronic instrument that was immediately familiar to orchestral musicians. The first versions bore little resemblance to the later production models: consisteing of two table mounted units controlled by a performer who manipulated a string atached to a finger ring (using the bodies capacitance to control the sound characteristics in a manner very similar to the Theremin) this device was later incorporated as a fingerboard strip above the keyboard. Later versions used a standard keyboard.The Ondes-Martenot became the first succesfull electronic instrument and the only one of its generation that is still used by orchestras today, Martenot himself became, 20 years after its invention, a professor at the Paris Conservatoire teaching lessons in the Ondes-Martenot.The Ondes-Martenot's success was the Theremins loss, although both used the vacuum tube oscillator as a sound source and were both monophonic, where the Theremin had a sliding scale and no fixed preset notes the Ondes-Martenot had a keyboard and a strip control for glissando and vibrato and an appearance that was familiar to any keyboard player.an early version of the Ondes-MartenotThe instrument also had a bank of expression keys that allowed the player to change the timbre and character of the sounds. A later (1938) version of the instrument featured microtonal tuning as specified by the Hindu poet Rabindranath Tagore and the musician Alain Danielou.The Ondes-Martenot was quickly accepted and eventually had a wide repetoire, works were written for the instrument by composers such as Edgard Varèse, Olivier Messian (The "Turangalîla Symphonie" and "Trois Petites Liturgies de la Presence Divine" amongst others ),Darius Milhaud , Arthur Honegger, Maurice Jarre, Jolivet and Koechlin.
17Maurice MARTENOT en 1928Les sons des Ondes Martenot sont produits par des circuits électroniques basés sur des transistors. La matière première (l'onde) est ensuite modulée entièrement par l'instrumentiste en intensité (nuances) et en fréquence (hauteur de la note).