Présentation au sujet: "Terminology in the tertiary sector Elements of law terminology Term insurance Property insurance."— Transcription de la présentation:
Terminology in the tertiary sector Elements of law terminology Term insurance Property insurance
Different sorts of LSP Two fundamentally different sorts of LSPs LSP with culture-bound terminology –Law –Insurance Etc. LSP with non-culture bound terminology –Chemistry –Geology –Physics –The objects of chemistry, geology etc. exist independently of language
Legal language: an LSP? Busse (1999) –An institutional language rather than a Fachsprache Specific to the institution of the law –Sprache als Institution –the objects of law and its tools are of a linguistic nature –language is pervasive in the law –importance of performative function –Cf J.L Austin, How to do things with words (1962)
Objects of legal language legal discourse is –not to convey specialized knowledge but to understand law –One must understand its institutions, its rules and therefore its texts –even more important for common law (local definitions; cross references, precedents…) than civil law (based on principles, which can be defined).
Law terminology law terminology is autodefined –definitions are situated on different levels, including for individual circumstances legal language is studied more by lawyers than by linguists (Cornu 1990) the aim of legal terminology is not (only) unambiguous communication, precision.
Features of legal LSP 1. Standardisation in legal language is not aimed at eliminating ambiguity 2. The semantics of legal concepts does not include non ambiguity 3.Legislative concepts are meant to open up spaces of semantic interpretation - though kept in strict limits 4. The demands of legal language and communication are met by establishing a practice of interpretation and usage –they do not explain meaning of texts or concepts in general, but define or limit certain types of cases : institutional standards
Harveys typology of legal equivalence functional equivalents –cour dassise : Crown court –intime conviction : being satisfied beyond reasonable doubt sufficiently close or misleading ? formal equivalence –conseil constitutionnel : constitutional council –notaire – notary naturalisations : contraventions, delicts borrowing –notaire : notaire descriptive equivalents –contravention, délit, crime : minor offense, major offense, serious crime M.Harvey ttp://www.tradulex.org/Actes2000/harvey.pdf
Tertiary terminology Define in extension and in intension –Extension Componential analysis –Accounting for all the features –Intention Definition in intention Two more exercises –Term insurance –Property insurance Home insurance
Term Life Insurance Term life insurance is the most simplified of the life insurance types. The basic concept for term life is that the policyholder pays a premium for a specified amount of coverage for a limited period of time (aka "term"). If the insured should happen to die before the end of the term, the beneficiary would be paid the face value of the policy. If the insured does not die before the policy period expires, no benefit is paid out.
Term insurance: premiums A term life insurance policy has no cash value [surrender value] and the coverage period is very specific. The premium is intended to cover only the cost of the insurance itself and usually for fairly short period of time. The premiums are based mainly on the age of the policyholder and with the increase of age there is the more likelihood of death. The most common of the term policies is the one-year policy written with level benefits. These policies renew annually until a certain age (average 65-70) and the premiums fluctuate according to gender and by specific underwriting guidelines. Some medical testing (i.e., blood, urine, saliva, etc.) maybe required at a certain age or under certain medical conditions. Premiums are apt to be more expensive at older ages and most insurance companies offer policies with increments of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 30-year guarantees, with premium levels based on the insured's age at the time the policy was purchased, and on the length of the guaranteed premium level.
Types of term insurance Level Term Decreasing Term Increasing Term Renewable Term Convertible Term
level term Level Term is a death benefit contract, which remains level throughout the policy term. The premium can increase at confirmed intervals over the years or it may remain the same, but the death benefit will remain the same. This type of term insurance is sold in yearly terms of one, five, ten, twenty, or until the age of 65.
decreasing term Decreasing Term is a death benefit contract, in which levels decrease over time, but premium remains the same throughout the policy period. The most common use for this type of policy is to cover a mortgage. As the mortgage amount decreases of over time, so does the amount of insurance needed. A term life policy is used cover the policyholders financial obligations.
increasing term Increasing Term is a death benefit contract, in which levels and premium increase over time. This coverage is usually written as a rider to a policy and written for the purpose of providing the policyholder with increasing death benefits until the policy terminates. One reason for obtaining this type of coverage could be that the insured needs his/or hers benefits increased while their children are attending college.
renewable term Renewable Term is a death benefit, which provides levels throughout the policy period. In addition, this coverage provides for automatic renewal without having to provide proof of insurability. The premium is adjusted according to the age of the policyholder upon renewal of the policy. If the insured experiences ill health/terminal conditions, the insurance company cannot non-renew or cancel the policy. The maximum number of times a policy can be renewed is specified by the insurer.
convertible term Convertible Term is a death benefit, which provides levels throughout the policy period. In addition, this coverage provides the option to change the policy to a permanent (whole life) policy without having to prove evidence of insurability. An additional premium is required for this special feature. If the insured experiences poor health/terminal conditions, the insurance company cannot non-renew or cancel the policy
Criteria ? Which criteria/features help to distinguish between the sorts of term insurance? –the premium –the benefits (i.e. pay-out) –renewal –convertibility to permanent life
These can be incorporated directly into the definitions level term insurance : term insurance providing level death cover over time and requiring payment of level or rising premiums decreasing term insurance : term insurance providing decreasing death cover over time and requiring the payment of level premiums increasing term insurance : term insurance providing rising death cover over time and requiring the payment of rising premiums renewable term insurance : term insurance which can be renewed automatically without proof of insurability convertible term insurance : term insurance which can be changed into a whole of life policy without proof of insurability
Property insurance An example of property insurance –Homeowners insurance There are six different types of homeowner's insurance, the most popular of which is called HO-3. HO-4 and HO-6 are not traditional homeowner's policies, they are renter's and condominium/co-op owners insurance, respectively. The other homeowner's policies (HO-1, HO-2, and HO-5) offer varying degrees of coverage
Homeowners insurance The smaller the number, the fewer types of damage the policy covers (and the lower the premium). HO-1 and HO-2 coverage do not insure the policy-owners' personal belongings, and only protect against damages specifically listed on the policy. HO-3 coverage protects against all types of damage, except for those specifically excluded by the policy. HO-3 also protects personal belongings, but only for specific types of damage (typically at the HO-2 level). HO-5 offers the same coverage as HO-3, but extends full protection to all personal belongings. HO-5 is more expensive than HO-3, but experts recommend paying the higher premium. Some insurance companies do not offer HO-5, in which case riders can be added to the policy to provide greater protection of personal belongings. HO-4 and HO-6 only cover belongings, and only for the types of damage specifically listed on the policy. In a condo or co-op, the buildings will be covered by the insurance the board purchases for the entire complex.
Types of homeowners insurance There are six different types of homeowner's insurance, the most popular of which is called HO-3. HO-4 and HO-6 are not traditional homeowner's policies, they are renter's and condominium/co-op owners insurance, respectively.
HO-1 HO-2 HO-5 The other homeowner's policies (HO-1, HO-2, and HO-5) offer varying degrees of coverage - the smaller the number, the fewer types of damage the policy covers (and the lower the premium).
HO-1 HO-2 HO-1 and HO-2 coverage do not insure the policy-owners' personal belongings, and only protect against damages specifically listed on the policy.
HO - 3 HO-3 coverage protects against all types of damage, except for those specifically excluded by the policy. HO-3 also protects personal belongings, but only for specific types of damage (typically at the HO-2 level).
HO - 5 HO-5 offers the same coverage as HO-3, but extends full protection to all personal belongings. HO-5 is more expensive than HO-3, but experts recommend paying the higher premium. Some insurance companies do not offer HO-5, in which case riders can be added to the policy to provide greater protection of personal belongings.
HO-4 HO-6 HO-4 and HO-6 only cover belongings, and only for the types of damage specifically listed on the policy. In a condo or co-op, the buildings will be covered by the insurance the board purchases for the entire complex.
Conseil préliminaire bien lire le texte, le remettre dans un contexte plus large Le texte comporte du non-dit. Certains éléments sont supposés connus, en particulier ce à quoi sert lassurance habitation. Comme son nom lindique, homeowner insurance assure le propriétaire contre les risques relatifs à son habitation (si lon « déballe » le terme, on obtient la glose suivante : insures the owner for his/her home). Les risques spécifiques éventuellement précisés dans le contrat relèvent donc de la garantie concernant lhabitation. Dautres éléments sont soit absents, soit biaisés dans leur présentation, car le texte est rédigé du point de vue de lassureur et non du futur assuré, ce qui constitue une faute technique en rédaction technique. On sait que lon rédige du point de vue du récepteur et non de lémetteur. Mais cest un texte du monde réel ! Cest ainsi que lon nomme homeowners insurance des types dassurance issus de lassurance propriétaire, mais en fait destinés soit aux locataires (renters) soit aux copropriétaires (condominium). Il est donc nécessaire, du point de vue de lutilisateur, de bien préciser qui bénéficie de la garantie : le propriétaire, le locataire ou le copropriétaire. Ceci constitue donc le premier critère.
Deux autres critères Il serait logique de sinterroger sur la garantie habitation. Celle-ci semble sexprimer par degré : plus ou moins de risques sont couverts, mais pas explicités (on imagine que le risque incendie, dégât des eaux etc. constituent le socle de ce type dassurance), doù le problème de représentation, car lanalyse componentielle présuppose des valeurs discrètes (trait présent, trait absent). Le troisième critère que lon découvre en lisant le prospectus est la garantie des objets personnels, qui vient donc en plus de la garantie habitation. Elle est présente ou absente, mais au premier cas, son étendue est variable – doù un problème de représentation proche de celui constaté pour la garantie habitation.
Critères non discriminants Les autres critères qui figurent dans le texte ne sont guère discriminants. Le montant de la prime est fonction de la garantie : plus la garantie est étendue, plus la prime est élevée. Cette information est utile, mais ne fait pas partie de la définition, car non discriminante. De même, savoir quune garantie est courante, proposée par de nombreux assureurs ou au contraire par peu dassureurs est sans doute intéressant, mais encore une fois non discriminant. –Certains problèmes demeurent pour la rédaction des définitions, à commencer par le choix de lincluant. Normalement celui-ci doit être le concept superordonné le plus proche. Insurance, dans cette hypothèse, est trop éloigné. On serait tenté demployer homeowners insurance, car cest la dénomination retenue par la profession (« traditional »). Mais nous avons vu que cette dénomination est trompeuse, car le concept englobe des garanties pour dautres assurés, notamment des locataires et des copropriétaires. On peut donc remonter dun cran et proposer property insurance, sachant qu en anglais, property sans autre précision renvoie à la propriété immobilière.
Definitions HO1 property insurance covering a very limited number of risks to the homeowners dwelling only HO2 property insurance covering a moderate number of risks to the homeowners dwelling only HO3 property insurance covering risks to the homeowners dwelling and also to a limited number of personal belongings HO4 property insurance covering a limited number of risks to a renters personal belongings HO5 property insurance covering risks to the homeowners dwelling and to all personal belongings HO6 property insurance covering a limited number of risks to condominium or co-op owners personal property
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