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Facet analysis: a technique to combine structure and content in the study of social representations. Fabrice Buschini University of Geneva.

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Présentation au sujet: "Facet analysis: a technique to combine structure and content in the study of social representations. Fabrice Buschini University of Geneva."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Facet analysis: a technique to combine structure and content in the study of social representations. Fabrice Buschini University of Geneva

2 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Outline Introduction : content and processes in the different approaches in the study of SRs. Introduction : content and processes in the different approaches in the study of SRs. What is facet analysis What is facet analysis basic principle facets and mapping sentence The Smallest Space Analysis The Smallest Space Analysis principle distinctive features basic structures Interpretation of SSA Interpretation of SSA Relevance of facet analysis for the study of SRs Relevance of facet analysis for the study of SRs checking or re-evaluation existing models locating position of different groups

3 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Processes and content This distinction is very common and heuristic in science. This distinction is very common and heuristic in science. Focusing on the processes, one hopes to understand the principles of phenomena in a kind of universalistic dream. Focusing on the processes, one hopes to understand the principles of phenomena in a kind of universalistic dream. On the contrary, the content in the flesh, which makes the phenomenon alive, particular and inserted in social world On the contrary, the content in the flesh, which makes the phenomenon alive, particular and inserted in social world If the focus is maintained only on one side, it can be prejudicial to the comprehension of the phenomenon If the focus is maintained only on one side, it can be prejudicial to the comprehension of the phenomenon it is why, from the beginning, the SR theory insists on the necessity to investigate both content and processes in the study of SRs

4 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Three Schools in the study of SRs Following the seminal work of Serge Moscovici on the SR of psychoanalysis (1961), three schools were developed for the study of SR Following the seminal work of Serge Moscovici on the SR of psychoanalysis (1961), three schools were developed for the study of SR School of Paris –anthropological approach mainly qualitative based on observation, interviews and questionnaires School of Aix (central core theory) –structural approach mainly quantitative based on interviews, questionnaires and above all words associations School of Geneva (organizing principles theory) –mainly quantitative, it aims to study the common principles organizing a SR and the individual position relating to those principles In theory, those school attach the same importance to the processes and the content. In practice, however, one of those two elements is more or less favoured : In theory, those school attach the same importance to the processes and the content. In practice, however, one of those two elements is more or less favoured : Facet analysis could help to find a better balance between processes and content.

5 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet analysis: Basic principle Resulting from the work of Louis Guttman (1944, 1950, 1977, 1994), facet analysis is a technique based on a method (the smallest space analysis). Resulting from the work of Louis Guttman (1944, 1950, 1977, 1994), facet analysis is a technique based on a method (the smallest space analysis). It aims to control the adequacy between the theoretical level and the empirical level in a research. It aims to control the adequacy between the theoretical level and the empirical level in a research. The premise is that a good theory or a good model should be reflected in the empirical data. The premise is that a good theory or a good model should be reflected in the empirical data. The theoretical structure build by the researcher should be found in the structure of the data The theoretical structure build by the researcher should be found in the structure of the data The graphical representation of data should fit the structure of the model hypothesized by the researcher. The graphical representation of data should fit the structure of the model hypothesized by the researcher.

6 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Defining the facets The first step is to identify the relevant concepts or dimensions involved in the model: The first step is to identify the relevant concepts or dimensions involved in the model: they will constitute the facets of the model ; the elements of each facet should be then listed The second step consists in combining those facets and their elements in a mapping sentence that The second step consists in combining those facets and their elements in a mapping sentence that allows to check facets are independent and not overlapped gives a convenient tool in the research planning and the elaboration of the tools for data collection.

7 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Example of a mapping sentence From a research program by Lorenzi-Cioldi and Buschini (2005) on affirmative action: From a research program by Lorenzi-Cioldi and Buschini (2005) on affirmative action: representation of personality traits that male and female executives can possess.

8 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July The smallest space analysis (SSA) It is a statistical tool that provides a graphical representation of data matrix in a space as small as possible (Guttman, 1968, 1982). It is a statistical tool that provides a graphical representation of data matrix in a space as small as possible (Guttman, 1968, 1982). It belongs to the Multidimensional scaling (MDS) family It belongs to the Multidimensional scaling (MDS) family but its specificity comes from the coefficient used to measure the relations between variables (elements of the representation) –The Guttmans coefficient of monotonicity Contrary to the factor analysis, all the variance of the data is represented in the space. Contrary to the factor analysis, all the variance of the data is represented in the space. Of course, the reduction of the dimensions introduces a distortion Of course, the reduction of the dimensions introduces a distortion coefficient of alienation (stress in MDS) should be lesser than 0.2

9 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July A monotonic relation It is a relation in which the variables go on the whole in the same way, but not necessary in a linear way. It is a relation in which the variables go on the whole in the same way, but not necessary in a linear way.

10 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Basic structures that can be found in SSA Two prototypical forms can be identified in a SSA: Two prototypical forms can be identified in a SSA: they can combine together to generate other forms of structure. The first form, called simplex, corresponds to variables that can be ranked according to their proximity on a continuum: The first form, called simplex, corresponds to variables that can be ranked according to their proximity on a continuum: The more the variables are close, the more they are linked. –The two extreme variables on the continuum are the less linked This structure can be represented as a line, which is perpendicularly shared by the facet elements

11 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Representation of a Simplex

12 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Basic structures that can be found in SSA (2) The second form appears with variables that can also be ranked according to their proximity. The second form appears with variables that can also be ranked according to their proximity. However, the proximity is not on a continuum, However, the proximity is not on a continuum, unless if a continuum without end is considered: it is a step-by-step proximity. The structure takes a circular form along which variables are linked step by step. The structure takes a circular form along which variables are linked step by step. The facet elements can then be delimited by circles The facet elements can then be delimited by circles

13 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Representation of a Circumplex

14 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Basic structures that can be found in SSA (3) Combination of two simplexes gives a duplex. Combination of two simplexes gives a duplex. Combination of a simplex and a circumplex produces a radex. Combination of a simplex and a circumplex produces a radex. If data are represented in a three-dimensional space, If data are represented in a three-dimensional space, a duplex can be combined with a simplex to give a triplex, a radex can be combined with a simplex to produce a cylindrex. The interested reader can find more information on those basic structures in the very complete chapter by Brown (1985). The interested reader can find more information on those basic structures in the very complete chapter by Brown (1985).

15 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Duplex and Radex

16 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Back to the example

17 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Rules of interpretation It is essential not to interpret the SSA structure as a factorial structure. You cannot oppose can hide their feeling to sensitive: It is the same nonsense than opposing Milano to Roma and saying that those two cities give a sense to a north / south direction. Here, the interpretation should be done in terms of areas. But this kind of interpretation is easier with if facets are projected on the SSA

18 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet A: gender of traits

19 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet B: valence of traits

20 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet C: Utility of traits

21 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July From two to three dimensions If we had a dimension to the SSA solution If we had a dimension to the SSA solution The coefficient of alienation goes from 0.21 to 0.13 The new solution will be better: The new solution will be better: More complicated, but less distorted Facet A appears under a similar form in the plane made by dimensions 1 and 2. Facet A appears under a similar form in the plane made by dimensions 1 and 2. Facets B and C appear with a simpler structure in the plane made by dimensions 1 and 3 Facets B and C appear with a simpler structure in the plane made by dimensions 1 and 3

22 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet A in the plane d1 x d2

23 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Facet B and C in the plane d1 x d3

24 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Interest for the study of SRs The reintroduction of the meaning, the symbolic into the structure The reintroduction of the meaning, the symbolic into the structure To reunify content and processes It allows to check or evaluate some existing models It allows to check or evaluate some existing models Basic cognitive schemata (Guimelli and Rouquette, 1992) Bidimensional model of SRs (Moliner, 1994, 1995) It allows to project different groups position on the whole structure It allows to project different groups position on the whole structure By means of supplementary elements

25 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July List of BCS SCBEXPRESSION DES RELATIONS LEXIQUEA signifie la même chose que votre réponse A peut être défini comme votre réponse A est le contraire de votre réponse VOISINAGEA fait partie, est inclus, est un exemple de votre réponse A a pour exemple, pour cas particulier, comprend, inclut votre réponse A appartient à la même catégorie générale de réponse COMPOSITIONA est une composante, un constituant de votre réponse A a pour composante, pour constituant, votre réponse A et votre réponse, sont tous deux les constituants de la même chose, du même objet PRAXIEA fait votre réponse A a une action sur votre réponse A utilise votre réponse Cest votre réponse qui fait A A est une action qui a pour objet, porte sur, sapplique à votre réponse Pour faire A on utilise votre réponse Votre réponse est quelquun (personne, institution) qui agit sur A Votre réponse désigne une action que lon peut faire sur A Votre réponse est un outil que lon utilise sur A A est utilisé par votre réponse On utilise A pour faire votre réponse A est un outil que lon peut utiliser pour votre réponse. ATTRIBUTIONA est toujours caractérisé par votre réponse A est souvent caractérisé par votre réponse A est parfois caractérisé par votre réponse A doit avoir la qualité de votre réponse Votre réponse évalue A A a pour effet, entraîne votre réponse A a pour cause, dépend de, est entraîné par votre réponse

26 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Fictive structure of the bidimensional model

27 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July Conclusion Great interest of facet analysis for the study of SRs Great interest of facet analysis for the study of SRs It takes into account both content and processes It takes into account both content and processes It respects the dialectical relation between semantic, symbolical, pragmatic aspects of the elements of the representation and their structure It respects the dialectical relation between semantic, symbolical, pragmatic aspects of the elements of the representation and their structure It allows to study both the consensual part of SRs and their group modulations It allows to study both the consensual part of SRs and their group modulations Technically, it is not more complicated than other statistical software Technically, it is not more complicated than other statistical software Facet analysis could be an important source of innovation Facet analysis could be an important source of innovation If researchers are less conservative and timorous

28 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References Abric, J.-C. & Guimelli, C. (2002). La zone muette des représentations sociales : approche théorique et méthodologique, 6th International Conference on Social Representations Thinking Societies: Common Sense and Communication, University of Stirling, Scotland, 27th August - 1st September Abric, J.-C. & Guimelli, C. (2002). La zone muette des représentations sociales : approche théorique et méthodologique, 6th International Conference on Social Representations Thinking Societies: Common Sense and Communication, University of Stirling, Scotland, 27th August - 1st September Abric, J.-C. & Vacherot G. (1976). Méthodologie et étude expérimentale des représentations sociales : tâche, partenaire et comportement en situation de jeu. Bulletin de Psychologie, XXIX, Abric, J.-C. & Vacherot G. (1976). Méthodologie et étude expérimentale des représentations sociales : tâche, partenaire et comportement en situation de jeu. Bulletin de Psychologie, XXIX, Borg, I. & Shye, S. (1995). Facet theory: Form and content, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Borg, I. & Shye, S. (1995). Facet theory: Form and content, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Brown, J. (1985). An introduction to the uses of facet theory, in D. Canter (ed.), Facet theory. Approaches to social research, New York, Springer-Verlag, p Brown, J. (1985). An introduction to the uses of facet theory, in D. Canter (ed.), Facet theory. Approaches to social research, New York, Springer-Verlag, p Canter, D. (ed.) (1985). Facet theory. Approaches to social research, New York, Springer-Verlag. Canter, D. (ed.) (1985). Facet theory. Approaches to social research, New York, Springer-Verlag.

29 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References (2) Clémence, A. (2003). Lanalyse des principes organisateurs des représentations sociales, in S. Moscovici & F. Buschini (eds), Les méthodes des sciences humaines, Paris, PUF, p Clémence, A. (2003). Lanalyse des principes organisateurs des représentations sociales, in S. Moscovici & F. Buschini (eds), Les méthodes des sciences humaines, Paris, PUF, p Deschamps, J.-C. & Guimelli, C. (2001). L'organisation interne des représentations sociales de la sécurité/insécurité et l'hypothèse de la zone muette, 9ème table ronde Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, San Sebastian. Deschamps, J.-C. & Guimelli, C. (2001). L'organisation interne des représentations sociales de la sécurité/insécurité et l'hypothèse de la zone muette, 9ème table ronde Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, San Sebastian. Doise, W. (1986). Les représentations sociales : définition dun concept, in W. Doise & A. Palmonari (eds), Létude des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé, p Doise, W. (1986). Les représentations sociales : définition dun concept, in W. Doise & A. Palmonari (eds), Létude des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé, p Doise, W. (2001). Droits de lhomme et force des idées, Paris, PUF. Doise, W. (2001). Droits de lhomme et force des idées, Paris, PUF. Flament, C. (1986). Lanalyse de similitude : une technique pour les recherches sur les représentations sociales, in W. Doise & A. Palmonari (eds), Létude des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé, p Flament, C. (1986). Lanalyse de similitude : une technique pour les recherches sur les représentations sociales, in W. Doise & A. Palmonari (eds), Létude des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé, p

30 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References (3) Flament, C. (1987). Pratiques et représentations sociales, in J. -L. Beauvois, R. -V. Joule & J. -M. Monteil (eds), Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, 1, Théories implicites et conflits cognitifs, Cousset, Delval, p Flament, C. (1987). Pratiques et représentations sociales, in J. -L. Beauvois, R. -V. Joule & J. -M. Monteil (eds), Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, 1, Théories implicites et conflits cognitifs, Cousset, Delval, p Flament, C. (1989). Structure et dynamique des représentations sociales, in D. Jodelet (ed.), Les représentations sociales, Paris, PUF, p Flament, C. (1989). Structure et dynamique des représentations sociales, in D. Jodelet (ed.), Les représentations sociales, Paris, PUF, p Giraud-Heraud, J. (1974). La notion de groupe : analyse structurale d'une représentation sociale. Mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Provence. Giraud-Heraud, J. (1974). La notion de groupe : analyse structurale d'une représentation sociale. Mémoire de maîtrise, Université de Provence. Guimelli, C. (1989). Pratiques nouvelles et transformation sans rupture dune représentation sociale : la représentation de la chasse et de la nature, in J. -L. Beauvois, R. -V. Joule & J. -M. Monteil (eds), Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, 2, Représentations et processus socio-cognitifs, Cousset, Delval. Guimelli, C. (1989). Pratiques nouvelles et transformation sans rupture dune représentation sociale : la représentation de la chasse et de la nature, in J. -L. Beauvois, R. -V. Joule & J. -M. Monteil (eds), Perspectives cognitives et conduites sociales, 2, Représentations et processus socio-cognitifs, Cousset, Delval. Guimelli, C. (1994) (ed.). Structures et transformations des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé. Guimelli, C. (1994) (ed.). Structures et transformations des représentations sociales, Neuchâtel, Delachaux et Niestlé.

31 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References (4) Guimelli, C., Rouquette, M.-L. (1992). Contribution du modèle associatif des schèmes cognitifs de base à lanalyse structurale des représentations sociales, Bulletin de Psychologie, n° Spécial « Nouvelles voies en psychologie sociale », XIV, 405, Guimelli, C., Rouquette, M.-L. (1992). Contribution du modèle associatif des schèmes cognitifs de base à lanalyse structurale des représentations sociales, Bulletin de Psychologie, n° Spécial « Nouvelles voies en psychologie sociale », XIV, 405, Guttman, L. (1944). A basis for scaling qualitative data, American Sociological Review, 9, Guttman, L. (1944). A basis for scaling qualitative data, American Sociological Review, 9, Guttman, L. (1950). The basis for scaloram analysis, in S. A. Stouffer, L. Guttman, E. A. Suchman, P. F. Lazarsfeld, S. A. Star & J. A. Clausen, Measurement and prediction : Studies in social psychology in World War II, vol. 4, Princeton, Princeton University Press, p Guttman, L. (1950). The basis for scaloram analysis, in S. A. Stouffer, L. Guttman, E. A. Suchman, P. F. Lazarsfeld, S. A. Star & J. A. Clausen, Measurement and prediction : Studies in social psychology in World War II, vol. 4, Princeton, Princeton University Press, p Guttman, L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest co-ordinate space for a configuration, Psychometrika, 33, Guttman, L. (1968). A general nonmetric technique for finding the smallest co-ordinate space for a configuration, Psychometrika, 33, Guttman, L. (1977). What is not what in statistics, The Statistician, 26, Guttman, L. (1977). What is not what in statistics, The Statistician, 26, Guttman, L. (1982). Facet theory, smallest space analysis and factor analysis, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 454, Guttman, L. (1982). Facet theory, smallest space analysis and factor analysis, Perceptual and Motor Skills, 454,

32 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References (5) Guttman, L. (1994). Louis Guttman on theory and methodology: selected writings, edited by Shlomit Levy, Aldershot, Hants, England, Dartmouth Publishing Company. Guttman, L. (1994). Louis Guttman on theory and methodology: selected writings, edited by Shlomit Levy, Aldershot, Hants, England, Dartmouth Publishing Company. Haas, V. & Jodelet, D. (1999). Pensée et mémoire sociales, in J. -P. Pétard (ed.), Psychologie sociale, Paris, Editions Bréal, p Haas, V. & Jodelet, D. (1999). Pensée et mémoire sociales, in J. -P. Pétard (ed.), Psychologie sociale, Paris, Editions Bréal, p Jodelet, D. (1989). Folies et représentations sociales, Paris, PUF. Jodelet, D. (1989). Folies et représentations sociales, Paris, PUF. Jodelet, D. (2003). Aperçus sur les méthodologies qualitatives, in S. Moscovici & F. Buschini (eds), Les méthodes des sciences humaines, Paris, PUF, p Jodelet, D. (2003). Aperçus sur les méthodologies qualitatives, in S. Moscovici & F. Buschini (eds), Les méthodes des sciences humaines, Paris, PUF, p Laurens, S. & Roussiau, N. (eds) (2002). La mémoire sociale. Identités et représentations sociales. Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Laurens, S. & Roussiau, N. (eds) (2002). La mémoire sociale. Identités et représentations sociales. Rennes, Presses Universitaires de Rennes. Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (2002). Les représentations des groupes dominants et dominés. Collections et agrégats. Grenoble, PUG. Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. (2002). Les représentations des groupes dominants et dominés. Collections et agrégats. Grenoble, PUG.

33 11th Int. Summer School - Euro PhD on SRC - Roma 2-10 July References (6) Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. & Buschini, F. (2002). Carrière au masculin et carrières au féminin, 6th International Conference on Social Representations Thinking Societies: Common Sense and Communication, University of Stirling, Scotland, 27th August - 1st September Lorenzi-Cioldi, F. & Buschini, F. (2002). Carrière au masculin et carrières au féminin, 6th International Conference on Social Representations Thinking Societies: Common Sense and Communication, University of Stirling, Scotland, 27th August - 1st September Moliner, P. (1994). Les deux dimensions des représentations sociales, Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 7, 2, Moliner, P. (1994). Les deux dimensions des représentations sociales, Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 7, 2, Moliner, P. (1995). A two-dimensional model of social representations, European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 1, Moliner, P. (1995). A two-dimensional model of social representations, European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 1, Moscovici, S. (1961). La psychanalyse, son image et son public. Paris, P.U.F. (nouvelle édition, entièrement refondue, P.U.F., 1976). Moscovici, S. (1961). La psychanalyse, son image et son public. Paris, P.U.F. (nouvelle édition, entièrement refondue, P.U.F., 1976). Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, in M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 25, New York, Academic Press, Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, in M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 25, New York, Academic Press, 1-65.


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