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Nathalie Léonard, Richard Harkin, et Julie Lavigne

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1 CML 1502 : Recherche juridique (2010-2011) Introduction à la méthodologie de la recherche juridique
Nathalie Léonard, Richard Harkin, et Julie Lavigne Bibliothécaires de droit, Bibliothèque de droit Brian-Dickson

2 Plan du cours Révision du syllabus et structure du cours
Les principes de base de la recherche juridique Les catégories du droit (droit substantif, droit procédural, droit de la preuve) Ressources primaires c. ressources secondaires Documents imprimés c. électroniques  Aperçu des sources du droit Stratégies générales de recherche pour résoudre des problématiques juridiques Inscription aux différents systèmes juridiques informatisés

3 Révision du syllabus Mes coordonnées Matériel nécessaire Évaluation
Règles à suivre en ce qui concerne les exercices à compléter Calendrier (7-10 min.) REVIEW SYLLABUS BRIEFLY. I usually highlight “Course Materials”, “Evaluation” and “Rules for the Completion of Assignments” (and in particular, the fact that any extensions must be obtained from the Office of Academic Affairs, not the professor), and a brief review of the “Weekly Outline” and in particular, the structure of the 3-week cycle. Please draw particular attention to the notes following the Weekly Outline at the end of the syllabus; in particular, the last note about Virtual Campus module #9 which, while technically not due till the end of March, should be completed well in advance of this date, as students will find it useful for completion of other assignments (in particular, the short memo that many small-group torts or criminal law profs assign, usually in mid-October to late November). I will give each of you a class list, with the students clearly divided into Tutorial A and B (alphabetically – 20 students per group).

4 Campus virtuel Course materials will all be kept on the Virtual Campus site which is available from most main pages of the university under “Quick Picks”. All modules listed under “Required” on the “Weekly Outline” in the syllabus are found here, as well as links to other sites, such as the course’s former wiki page (not currently updated – students should just use this to access the Legal Research Manual for recommended readings). Students are expected to monitor the Virtual Campus site on a regular basis and to do all readings and activities as required prior to attending their Tutorial. Assignments will also be downloaded from the Virtual Campus site.

5 Campus virtuel “Getting Started” has basic technical information about using Virtual Campus, etc. I will also see if I can add the syllabus here. “Learning Modules” is where you will find the modules referred to in the “Required” column of the “Weekly Outline” of the syllabus. “Assignment Downloads” will have copies of all in-class exercises and graded assignments. Students will not be provided with a paper copy of the graded assignments, so they are expected to use this download site. We will provide paper copies of in-class exercises. “Contact Information” has information on all the professors and a bio for each of the teaching assistants. I WILL BE CHANGING “Principles of Legal Research Wiki” to “Legal Research Manual”, which is listed under recommended reading on the syllabus. I WILL UPDATE THIS SLIDE. “Web Links & Online Legal Resources” has links to many different free, online legal resources.

6 Pourquoi ce cours est-il important?
La recherche est fondamentale pour le travail d’un avocat Et, de façon encore plus pratique : Il existe plusieurs opportunités pour travail/études comme étudiant ou étudiante : La revue de droit d’Ottawa Revue de droit & technologie de l’Université d’Ottawa Clinique d’intérêt public et de politique d’internet du Canada Internats Pro bono Clinique juridique Dean’s Legal Research and Writing Fellowship (en anglais) Answers from a former student after completion of 1st year: -why do you think legal research instruction is important? Legal research instruction was important to me because coming into law school I had no idea how cases were documented and stored, or where to find scholarly legal articles. The legal research course introduced me to legal research concepts, taught me what was out there and where to find it. -how has legal research training helped you throughout your first year? The legal research training helped me research and write my papers for my small group, and also helped me complete citation assignments in my small group. It also helped me gain a position on the Law Review; the application includes a citation exercise that I wouldn't have been able to complete without the legal research training. -how has legal research training helped you after first year (e.g. RA position, summer articling, etc.) In addition to gaining a position on the Law Review, the legal research training helped me in work as an RA. I was hired as an RA for one of my professors during my second semester of first year and also during the summer after first year. The legal research instruction gave me the confidence and ability to effectively research in the role. Because of the legal research instruction, I was able to get right down to the research without having to familiarize myself with the research tools on top of conducting the research itself.

7 Autres raisons pourquoi ce cours est important?
Recherche efficace = utilisation efficace de l’argent de notre client crédibilité (professionnelle et personnelle) Responsabilité professionnelle (2-3 min.) GET STUDENTS TO BRAINSTORM SOME IDEAS, THEN DISPLAY SUGGESTED LIST (OR WRITE ON BOARD IF AVAILABLE).

8 Prenez connaissance du Code de déontologie!
Règle 2 : Les rapports avec les clients « avocat compétent » Dans son Code de déontologie, le Barreau du Haut-Canada, un “avocat compétent” est défini dans la Règle 2 sur les rapports avec les clients comme tel: Avocate ou avocat qui possède et met les habiletés, qualités et valeurs nécessaires au service de chaque affaire acceptée pour un client ou une cliente [y incluant]: c) exécuter le plan d'action retenu en mobilisant les habiletés nécessaires à la conduite de l'affaire, notamment : (i) la recherche juridique, (ii) l'analyse, (iii) l'application du droit aux faits pertinents, (iv) la rédaction, (v) la négociation, (vi) les techniques de règlement extrajudiciaire des règlements, (vii) la représentation en justice, (viii) la recherche de solutions; Law Society of Upper Canada, in its Rules of Professional Conduct (Adopted by Convocation on June 22, 2000), Rule 2: Relationship to Clients (Rules and commentaries on client-related issues such as lawyer competence, conflicts of interest and confidentiality), defined a ‘competent lawyer’ as: a lawyer who has and applies relevant skills, attributes, and values in a manner appropriate to each matter undertaken on behalf of a client including: …. (c) implementing, as each matter requires, the chosen course of action through the application of appropriate skills, including: legal research, (ii) analysis, (iii) application of the law to the relevant facts, (iv) writing and drafting, (v) negotiation, (vi) alternative dispute resolution (vii) advocacy, and (viii) problem-solving ability; There have been many cases where lawyers were found by a court to have breached this duty to their client, and the

9 La méthodologie de la recherche juridique
But you will learn the most efficient routes once you’re comfortable with the research tools. Usually not fast or easy Takes careful planning, persistence and patience Requires big picture and detailed approaches Your approach will differ depending on the TYPE of legal research question (10-15 min total) BEN HIGGS CASE STUDY (in part) A boy picked up Ben during recess, carried him a short distance and dropped him on the ice. There were teachers supervising but none of them saw this incident. Another student ran to get a teacher, who came immediately to help Ben up. Ben was in tears and in some pain but refused assistance. They went back to a classroom together, and the teacher insisted Ben go see the school nurse. The nurse checked over Ben, but said he would be OK. That evening, Ben’s parents took him to the family doctor, and X-rays showed that his hip was, in fact, dislocated. Ben’s parents have approached your firm to see what can be done. GET THE STUDENTS TO TAKE 5-7 MIN. TO BRAINSTORM HOW THEY WOULD GO ABOUT ANSWERING THIS (WITHOUT DOING ANY RESEARCH). FOR EXAMPLE: Is there anything they still need to know? (e.g., questions to ask the lawyer or client) What area or areas of law are in play? What question or questions are they trying to answer? How should they go about researching this issue further? (e.g. what types of resources/documents do they think will be useful in helping them to find the answer?) What are some keywords/subject areas that they should be searching? CALL ON SOME VOLUNTEERS TO EXPLAIN WHAT THEIR GROUP DISCUSSED. Write some ideas on board (if available). **This activity shows the beginning of how to develop a research plan or research strategy. Some helpful tips and models for doing this will be discussed in Module #1 (The Research Process) and #2 will help flesh out researching skills such as coming up with good keywords and terms.**

10 Les rudiments de la recherche juridique
Identifier les points en litige en se basant sur les faits ou la problématique comme telle Identifier les outils de recherche appropriés, version imprimée ou version électronique, et savoir comment les utiliser Lire et comprendre les textes auxquels votre recherche vous a mené Appliquer le droit aux faits ou à la problématique comme telle. You need to be: Aware of legal materials; Familiar with multiple sources and different techniques for each researching various types of problems; Able to search for primary authorities, as well as a large range of secondary sources; and, Certain that your research is up-to-date. Legal research differs in many ways from the research as an undergraduate. A clear understanding of the goals of research (WHY am I researching this?) will help pinpoint the proper legal materials to consult. Different types of sources will lead you to different answers. i.e., It’s no use citing 5 cases on point if you then neglect to mention that the issue is also covered by statute. Similarly, a law may apply to your fact situation; however, laws are not always as clearly worded as we might like, and you will often need to rely on both case law and secondary sources in order to determine how the law should actually be interpreted! What types of materials make up “the law”? (More on this below (see information re: primary and secondary sources).) How do these materials relate to one another? **So for example, for our Ben Higgs case: Issues or questions to be answered include: Is the classmate directly responsible for Ben’s injury? Is the school responsible for Ben’s injury? What area of law are we dealing with? …This is a torts case. A textbook on torts, and the duties one person owes to another to not do harm, might be a good place to start your research.**

11 Quelques exemples de problèmes juridiques
A la faculté de droit, les problématiques juridiques sont plus de nature académique: Quand les privilèges de sécurité en vertu de la Loi sur les sûretés mobilières s’applique aux biens meubles? Quels sont les recours disponibles à la suite d'un délit de négligence? Est-ce qu’un contrat rédigé sur une serviette en papier est exécutoire? Qu'est-ce que le principe de la vulnérabilité de la victime et quand peut-on l’appliquer? What we tend to call “black-letter law”. Unless you are taking a procedural or clinical course, or a practicum of some kind, the legal problems tackled tend to be more of the theory-and-application type, rather than practical how-to’s. SEE IF STUDENTS CAN SUGGEST SOMEWHERE THEY WOULD LOOK FOR THE ANSWER. Security liens? …Check the PPSA itself or (better) an annotated version. Tort in negligence? …No statutes in torts. Check a torts textbook or an encyclopedia. Only go to cases if you have a more specific fact scenario that you are trying to match. Contract on paper napkin? …A classic contracts question. A textbook would clearly lay out the criteria required to assess the validity of a contract. (Answer? Probably yes.) Thin skull rule? …This is a criminal law concept that you take your victim as you find him (e.g., if you punch someone and he dies because he had an underlying heart condition that you couldn’t have known about, you are still liable for his death). Could search for cases on “thin skull rule”, but better to check a criminal law textbook or legal encyclopedia.

12 Quelques exemples de problématiques juridiques
Dans la pratique du droit comme telle, les problématiques sont plus de type “pratique”: Quel est le nom officiel d’une personne ou d’une compagnie que la firme d’avocats veut poursuivre et sous quelle juridiction se trouve-t-elle? Est-ce qu’il y a une exécution contre le vendeur d’un bien immobilier que votre client désire obtenir? Comment pouvez-vous prendre des dispositions pour qu’un témoin expert témoigne au procès au sujet de la quantification des dommages-intérêts? Company registration? Sites such as Canada Business Development website that will show official name and province of registration Execution against vendor? There are databases that firms subscribe to where you can check this information (an “execution” here means that there has been a monetary judgment against the person selling a property – sometimes someone will try to sell property in an attempt to avoid paying this judgment) Expert witness? Case law reporters such as Ontario Reports often include section listing expert witnesses in various areas. In addition, however, you will need to check rules of procedure (civil or criminal) to see how you must go about getting permission from the other parties and the court to have this expert testify.

13 Catégories du droit Droit privé Droit substantiel Droit public
The last two slides show (somewhat) the distinction between the 3 main categories of law. In order to properly analyse a legal problem, you must understand the various types or categories of law. After initially identifying issues and isolating necessary facts in a problem, a good lawyer will determine what categories are at play. ONCE ALL BOXES DISPLAYED, SEE IF ANY STUDENT KNOWS WHAT THESE 3 MAIN TYPES ARE (or if you have anyone brave enough to attempt to answer this question, which might be a more accurate situation). Droit procédural Droit de la preuve

14 Droit substantiel Droits légaux et obligations; les droits légaux peuvent être exercés par voie de procédure judiciaire, à laquelle le droit substantif indique le type de défense à utiliser ex.: quels sont les éléments du délit d’intrusion? Quels sont les moyens de défense applicables? Divisé entre le droit public et le droit privé Le droit public régit les relations entre les personnes et l’état Le droit privé régit les relations entre personnes Substantive law = “black letter law”; legal rules and principles; etc. ASK FOR EXAMPLES OF PUBLIC VS. PRIVATE. Public law includes: municipal law immigration and refugee law environmental law constitutional law criminal law tax law. Basically anything that involves a person (individual or corporate) and a level of government. Private law includes: contracts family law property law real estate torts wills and estates. Basically anything which is between two persons (individual or corporate). TO RETURN TO BEN HIGGS’ CASE: Issue of whether classmate is liable for the injuries suffered by Ben is a question of substantive private law. However, if the parents want to also sue the school for Ben’s injuries (which is likely), this may be a question of substantive public law, depending on the structure of the school (e.g., is it a state-run school versus a private school). There is also the remote possibility that Ben’s parents convince the police that charges should be laid against the classmate. If this happens, what changes??? (ASK STUDENTS.) …It is now a criminal case, not civil, and therefore texts on assault in criminal law should be consulted rather than assault in tort law.

15 Droit procédural Prévoit la procédure qu’une partie doit suivre afin de faire valoir ses droits dans une procédure judiciaire ou pour défendre une instance. ex.: quelles sont les mesures à prendre pour poursuivre une action en intrusion? Quels sont les documents qui doivent être déposés pour amorcer la procédure? Combien de temps doit-on attendre avant de déposer des documents en cour? Quand doit-on déposer la défense? Learned in classes such as “Civil Procedure”, “Criminal Procedure”, and legal clinics. BEN HIGGS: Ben ends up suffering lots of physical pain and has many doctor’s appointments and multiple operations on his hip over the next two years. Only once he is well on his way to recovery do his parents come to your law firm to inquire about some form of recovery. Can they still file their lawsuit? (Answer: Ontario Statute of Limitations sets time limits for the final deadline for filing various types of lawsuits. In most cases (likely including this one), it is two years. So as long as they are still within the two year deadline, they can start their lawsuit. However, there are certain circumstances in which this deadline may be extended. You would need to consult a text on limitations law in Ontario.)

16 Droit de la preuve Établit la manière dont les faits sont prouvés lors d’un procès ou lors d’une procédure ex.: quelles sont les questions que vous pouvez poser à un témoin lors d’un procès? Qui peut être un témoin? Qu’est ce qui est pris en considération ou non par le juge? Definition: Margaret Kerr, JoAnn Kurtz & Arlene Blatt, Legal research: step by step, 3d ed. (Toronto: Emond Montgomery, 2010) at 5. Learned in classes such as “Evidence” and legal clinics. BEN HIGGS: Ben’s parents have filed a lawsuit against both his classmate (for the actual incident) and the school (both for its alleged failure to properly supervise and for the alleged negligence of the school nurse). Can they force the individual teachers who were supervising that day to testify? A friend of Ben’s mother told her that her own son said that Ben’s classmate has acted as a bully towards many of the other students. Can Ben’s parents bring this forward as evidence about Ben’s classmate’s character?

17 Sources du droit 3 sources principales en droit canadien :
Législation (lois) adoptée par le parlement fédéral ou par une législature provinciale Règlements émis par le gouvernement fédéral ou provincial Les décisions rendues par les juges (jurisprudence) ASK STUDENTS IF THEY KNOW WHAT THE 3 MAIN SOURCES ARE? BEN HIGGS: No statutes about the tort aspect of the case; however, there might be laws or regulations about the liability of schools for the safety of the children who attend. There will be lots and lots of cases! Sources primaires

18 Attendez! Il y a plus … Les sources secondaires fournissent des interprétations des décisions judiciaires et/ou de la législation Livres, rapportss, documents gouvernementaux, encyclopédies, articles de périodiques, etc. Il y a une vaste gamme d’outils pouvant vous aider à repérer ces sources primaires et secondaires Le catalogue informatisé de la bibliothèque, des index de périodiques, des moteurs de recherche, des recueils de décisions, etc. ***Don’t start with those primary sources! As a beginning law student, you will just get overwhelmed. Secondary sources are important for understanding how the law (legislation, regulations and case law) “works”. It will also help you pinpoint the relevant law. NEVER skip this step! It is written by experts in the field – academics, lawyers, notaries, judges, etc. – and will help make your research much easier. Why reinvent the wheel? If someone has already done the legwork for researching a problem, there is usually no good reason to re-do that research, other than ensuring it is still up-to-date. BEN HIGGS: By consulting a textbook on tort law, you will quickly learn the necessary elements of a tort in assault. Books on education or school law will help you further determine the exact extent of the liability of the school for this occurrence. **You will learn more about these specific sources and how to use them in Modules #3 (Secondary Sources) and #4 (Legal Periodicals), which you will read in a few weeks’ time.

19 Recherche avec les imprimés c. Recherche électronique
POURS: Meilleur pour donner le contexte et des explications quant au domaine du droit sélectionné. Plus complet, spécialement au niveau de la jurisprudence ancienne et des lois. Coût d’utilisation peu élevé. Très à jour. Inclus les décisions non-rapportées. Les références multiples de l’information sont déjà faites pour vous. Facile à repérer l’information se trouvant dans un grand groupe de documents. CONTRES: Pas toujours à jour. Pas toujours facile à utiliser. Pas toujours disponible. Couverture parfois limitée. Peut être dispendieux à utiliser. ASK STUDENTS FOR SUGGESTIONS RE: WHY THEY MIGHT CHOOSE ONE OVER THE OTHER BEFORE DISPLAYING CHART. (Get them to brainstorm for a minute or two and write one pro and one con down for each.) Print = free! Not good to get into the habit of checking QL or WL for preliminary stages of research…will more often than not prove to be quite costly, both in terms of money and time.

20 Recherche avec les imprimés c. Recherche électronique
Utilisez les ressources imprimées pour trouver un exposé de l’état du droit en question. Utilisez les ressources électroniques pour trouver et mettre à jour les lois et les règlements ainsi que la jurisprudence. Utilisez les deux types de ressources afin de trouver des décisions supplémentaires ou pour trouver le texte d’une décision lorsque vous avez une référence à celle-ci.

21 Les quatre C pour faire une bonne recherche juridique
orrecte omplète rédible oût Correct = leading to the law that governs your client’s situation and applied or will apply as of the time of that situation Comprehensive = addressing the various issues raised by the client’s situation and incorporating an appropriate range of pertinent authorities; Credible = featuring authority that carries weight because of its nature and quality Cost-effective = yielding results that justify the efforts devoted to research, in light of the client’s situation and available research options

22 Quand est-ce que ma recherche est terminée?
Quand vous avez utilisé plusieurs ressources appropriées Quand vous commencez à revoir les mêmes citations et autorités encore et encore Quand le coût excède les bénéfices (ex. : vous n’avez plus de temps!) There is always more to know and to learn, but at some point, you must stop researching. How do you know when it is safe to do so? Best reason to stop researching is #2 above.

23 Travail à faire pour l’atelier
Lire les modules 1 et 2 disponibles sur le Campus virtuel et compléter les quiz 1: La méthodologie de la recherche 2: Les opérateurs booléens et les mots-clés Lire le Guide McGill, Partie 1: Règles fondamentales Soyez prês à discuter et à répondre aux questions de votre assistant d’enseignement

24 Travail à faire pour l’atelier
Connecter votre portable au réseau sans fil et apporter les modifications nécessaires pour les fins d’impression - et Inscrivez-vous à LexisNexis/Quicklaw Cliquez sur “Ouvrir une session” sur le site suivant et cliquez sur “S’inscrire maintenant”. Suivez ensuite les instructions. ATTN: Il est nécessaire de s’inscrire en utilisant un des ordinateurs à la bibliothèque! Inscrivez-vous à Westlaw Canada Utilisez l’adresse mentionnée sur la carte distribuée en classe et suivez les instructions (fonctionne de n’importe lequel ordinateur). Problèmes? Vous désirez plus d’information? Mary Régimbald sera disponible lors des ateliers prévus en septembre et qui auront lieu dans le laboratoire informatique (FTX 430). Allez la voir la semaine que vous n’avez pas d’atelier! Students should pick up a card for Westlaw Canada on their way out of class. EMPHASIZE that Mary is our computer and reference technician, and she is VERY busy in September; therefore, this is their best chance for 1-on-1 help if they need it. Therefore, they should try installing wireless, printing, etc., registering for Quicklaw and Westlaw AS SOON AS POSSIBLE, so that they know if they need to attend Mary’s session or not. (Julie Lavigne is less competent re: laptops, but will muddle her way through and refer to Mary as necessary )

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