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La Gestion du cycle de vie Un guide d’affaires pour la durabilité Session de Formation 3 sur 4 Novembre 2006.

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Présentation au sujet: "La Gestion du cycle de vie Un guide d’affaires pour la durabilité Session de Formation 3 sur 4 Novembre 2006."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 La Gestion du cycle de vie Un guide d’affaires pour la durabilité Session de Formation 3 sur 4 Novembre 2006

2 Formation en gestion du cycle de vie - Plan
Introduction à la GCV Première session Comment la GCV est utilisée en pratique Deuxième session Communiquer les résultats de la GCV Cette Session ! La GCV et les attentes des parties prenantes Quatrième Session

3  Fait Introduction à la GCV Première session
Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre les bases théoriques de la gestion du cycle de vie et son histoire Qu’est ce qu’un cycle de vie ? Impacts & valeur créés avec le cycle de vie d’un produit ou d’un service Définitions Histoire Utilisation Pourquoi la GCV est-elle nécessaire en entreprise et au gouvernement ? Conducteurs Qu’englobe la GCV ? Quels sont les aspects uniques de la GCV? Exercice de groupe Pause café et rafraîchissements Introduction à la GCV Première session Here is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the first session... Fait

4  Fait Comment la GCV est utilisée en pratique Session précédente
Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre les aspects pratiques de la GCV dans le développement des politique et les opérations d’affaires, à travers des discussions pour son intégration dans la prise de décisions et à travers des cas pratiques Gestion du cycle de vie Définition & Avantages La GCV implique … Apprentissage à partir d’une gamme de cas pratiques Une démarche de mise en œuvre de la GCV Planifier – Faire – Contrôler – Agir Un accent sur la conception D’autres cas pratiques pour illustrer Exercice de groupe Pause déjeuner Comment la GCV est utilisée en pratique Session précédente Here is a reminder of what we learned, discussed & accomplished in the previous session... Fait

5 Pourquoi communiquer la GCV ? A qui ?
Objectif d’apprentissage: Fournir une bonne compréhension des outils et stratégies de communication. Pourquoi et comment peuvent-ils être importants pour les entreprises ? Pourquoi communiquer la GCV ? A qui ? Définition et termes, conducteurs, groupes cibles de communication Boîte d’outils de communication Caractéristiques principales et lien avec la GCV Cas pratiques et diffusion d’outils Etudes de cas Secteur -Conducteurs spécifiques Stratégies de communication Combinaison d’outils Exercice de groupe Pause pour café et rafraîchissements Communiquer les résultats de la GCV Cette Session ! Here is our agenda for this session, and a statement of learning objectives – The session will last no longer than 4 hours

6 Pourquoi engager les parties prenantes ?
Objectif d’apprentissage: Comprendre comment identifier les parties prenantes ainsi que leurs priorités & préoccupations Pourquoi engager les parties prenantes ? Identifier les parties prenantes parties prenantes potentielles Demander la personne indiquée Classification L’importance d’inclure les parties prenantes Evitement de risques Création d’opportunité Cas pratiques Exercice de groupe Pause déjeuner La GCV et les attentes des parties prenantes Quatrième Session Here is a preview of the agenda for the fourth, upcoming, session - - to give you an understanding of what we’ll cover next

7 Contenus Définition, portée et buts de la section
Vue d’ensemble de la boîte d’outils de communication de la GCV – Principales caractéristiques et lien avec la GCV Quels sont les outils de communication utilisés en pratique ? Cas pratiques et diffusion Études de cas Exigences des secteurs spécifiques Les compagnies chef de file et les stratégies de communication Qu’est ce qui vient après ? Tendances récentes et perspectives This session has five sections: Definition and scope of communication of LCM, as well as section goals and main research questions are identified An overview of the main communication tools is given. Main features and link with LCM of each communication tool are discussed Examples of communication tools used by business are given. When possible, diffusion of tools reported (e.g. in terms of labelled products, etc.) This section highlights the difference between companies communicating LCM in episodic way and firms making it in a systematic way, with a clear communication strategy and using a combination of tools Finally, section five identifies the most important recent trends and gives an outlook about possible future LC communication tools

8 Définition, portée & Buts de la section

9 Définition Définition de la “Communication” dans le l’actuel kit de formation: Tout manière de partager l’information avec les parties prenantes, généralement à travers des processus unilatéraux et non itératifs ex. Le rapport de développement durable de l’entreprise ou l’étiquetage écologique du produit This is to clearly define the scope of the present session with respect to the others. While interaction with stakeholders generally involves an iterative process with incoming and outgoing communication flows, the present session just deals with the communication tools used by companies in a one-way, non-iterative process (e.g. environmental reports, sustainability reports, eco-labels, environmental claims, environmental product declarations, advertising, information brochures, etc.)

10 Conducteurs – pourquoi communiquer la GCV?
Exigences du client Demande d’information à partir des clients d’entreprises (ex : Dans la chaîne d’approvisionnement) Pression externe des parties prenantes de la société (ex. ONG) et la société civile Attirer davantage l'attention des parties prenantes du monde financier Programmes publics d’acquisition écologique des administrations publiques Exigences des décideurs politiques (ex. Directives Européennes WEEE et RoHS)

11 Opportunités / Audiences cibles
Avantage compétitif dans les marchés émergents ou nouveaux marchés écologiques Consommateurs finaux Clients d’affaires Administrations publiques Meilleure image Consommateurs et clients Parties prenantes de la finance ONG et société civile Législateurs Réglementations d’influence et processus pre-normatifs

12 Groupes cibles de communication
Parties prenantes externes Consommateurs finaux Clients d’affaires Parties prenantes du monde financier Administrateurs publics et décideurs politiques Société civile et autres parties prenantes de la société Fournisseurs Parties prenantes internes Actionnaires Employés et dirigeants

13 Buts de la section Apporter une bonne compréhension de:
Outils et stratégies de communication Pourquoi et comment peuvent-elles précieuses en entreprises?

14 Questions principales/sujets
Quels sont les outils de communication utilisés en pratique par l’industrie et le commerce? Distinguer les outils de communication des parties prenantes visées Qu’est ce qui est utilisé pour communiquer, avec qui ? Pourquoi et comment la communication est-elle précieuse en affaires ? Pertinence et diffusion des outils de communication Étude de cas des entreprises avec des stratégies complètes de communication Conducteurs des secteurs spécifiques et besoins en communication

15 Vue d’ensemble de la boîte d’outils de communication de la GCV Principales caractéristiques et lien avec la GCV

16 Boîtes d’outil de Communication
ENTREPRISE & NIVEAU ORGANISATIONNEL (F&O) Rapports environnementaux Rapports EHS Rapports sociaux Rapports de développement durable RSE – Responsabilité Sociétale de l’entreprise Codes des entreprises Manuels de conduites Audits Systèmes d’évaluation du fournisseur RELATIF AU PRODUIT (P-R) Labels écologiques Déclarations environnementales Déclarations environnementales du produit Indicateurs de performance environnementale du produit Profils du produits Analyse Eco-efficacité Plan d’information du produit Directives GPP P-R F&O First distinction to be made is between communication tools at firm & organization level (F&O) and at product-related level (P-R) The former group includes reporting (environmental, health&safety, social, sustainability, CSR) + company codes and manuals of conduct, communication within audits in environmental management systems, and supplier evaluation systems (e.g. through checklists) The second group includes all Environmental Product Information Schemes (EPIS), as defined by ISO: ISO-type I ecolabels ISO-type II environmental claims ISO-type III environmental product declarations Furthermore it includes (usually in-house company-specific) other assessment and communication schemes, e.g. Product Environmental Performance indicators, Product profiles, Eco-efficiency analysis Finally, it also included tools usually used to communicate with public administrations according to their requirement, i.e. Product Information Schemes and Green Public Procurement (GPP) guidelines In the coming slides, several of these communication tools will be analyzed more in detail, with specific respect to main features and characteristics and their link with LCM. Due to restricted space and time, not all of them can be covered in this presentation. Publicité, Campagne d’information & brochures, sites Internet

17 Quel outil à communiquer avec qui ?
Parties prenantes externes Consommateurs finaux Clients commerciaux Administrateurs publics et décideurs politiques Parties prenantes de la finance Autres parties prenantes de la société Fournisseurs Parties prenantes internes Employés et direction Actionnaires P-R Int Ext F&O Ext Int Not surprisingly P-R communication tools are mainly used to communicate to clients and final consumers, and to a lesser extent to public administrators and internal stakeholders On the contrary, F&O tools reporting about the firm are usually used to interact with the financial sector, with policy makers, NGOs and other society stakeholders, as well as shareholders In the coming slides, several of these communication tools will be analyzed more in detail, with specific respect to main features and characterstics and their link with LCM. Due to restricted space and time, not all of them can be covered in this presentation.

18 Reporting - From Environmental Reporting to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Production de rapport – De l’information environnementale à la Responsabilité Sociale de l’Entreprise (RSE) F&O Rapport global des rendements par “type“ depuis 1992 This slides shows the evolution of reporting with time, which reflects an increasing attention of companies towards sustainability, i.e. taking into account not only environmental and economic, but also social factors. While before 2000 the main focus was on environmental and health aspects, since then there has been a very significant increase of attention on social matters and ultimately on Corporate Social Responsibility of companies

19 Rédaction de rapports – Contenus & GCV
F&O Plusieurs approches différentes Directives diverses (ex GRI – Initiative globale de compte rendu) Classification difficile, parce que Instruments volontaires Secteurs d’industrie différents et hétérogènes La pensée cycle de vie et la Gestion du Cycle de Vie (GCV) pas toujours pris en compte/reportés Despite existing guidelines (e.g. GRI Global Reporting Initiative), there are very different formats and scopes of reports. Life cycle thinking and Life cycle Management are not always taken into account or reported. In the GRI guidelines (2002), there are indirect indicators addressing the life cycle of the product (e.g. with respect to the manufacturing stage and/or the environmental performance of suppliers), but they are not mandatory. Note: GRI guidelines are currently being reviewed (October 2006)

20 Codes de conduite & vérification des fournisseurs
Établir des exigences sur : L’éthique Le social La santé & la sécurité Les aspects environnementaux Doit être réalisé à l’interne dans l’entreprise Souvent étendu aux fournisseurs Bon outil à interagir avec les SMEs Lien avec le GCV intrinsèque dans Responsabilité sociale de l’entreprise Responsabilité élargie des producteurs Implication des fournisseurs Usually codes of conduct and conduct manuals are first used internally in the company. Often their use is extended to suppliers, sometimes in connection with environmental management systems. The use of supplier screening systems is often accompanied with training to suppliers. This approach is very suited to interact with Small Medium Enterprizes (SMEs), which often lack human, economic and time resources to use more structured life cycle communication systems (e.g. ecolabels and/or environmental product declarations, see next slides). Manuals of conduct and supplier screening systems are usually founded on much simpler communication means (e.g. checklists). The link with LCM is intrinsic because the firm expands its area of responsibility (Extended Producer Responsibility and/or Corporate Social Responsibility) and because it involves its suppliers

21 Outils de communication relatifs au produit
Large gamme du Plan d’information environnemental du produit (EPIS) Classification principale selon la vérification: Vérification de la première partie Vérification par une tierce partie/Certification Codés par les normes ISO 1402x The actual landscape of existing voluntary Environmental Product Information Schemes (EPIS) is wide, ranging from voluntary seal-of-approval programmes, single-attribute programmes, hazard warning programmes, information disclosure programmes, environmental self-declaration by individual firms or test reporting. They can be classified in First-party and third party labelling programmes. First-party verification is performed by producers on their own behalf, to promote the positive attributes of their products on the market. On the contrary, third-party verification is carried out by an independent source that awards labels to products based on certain environmental criteria or assessment procedures. Source: Frankl et al (2004)

22 Plans d’information environnementale du produit (EPIS)- Normes de référence
Normes ISO 14020 Les déclarations environnementales ISO de Type-I (1999) Étiquettes environnementales (ex EU-Flower, Blue Engel, White Swan) ISO de Type-II Autodéclarations environnementales ISO de Type-III (2006) (ex. EPD®, Eco-leaf) The International Organisation of Standardisation (ISO), through the technical committee (ISO/TC 207), has done much effort to structure environmental labelling schemes. Three types of voluntary labels are distinguished: ISO-type I environmental labels or ecolabels ISO.type II environmental claims ISO-type III environmental declarations In the following slides the main feature of each EPIS and its link with LCM is presented

23 Ecolabels ISO de type I P-R
Indiquer la préférabilité environnementale générale d’un produit au sein d’une catégorie particulière de produit Information qualitative, concise Permettre aux consommateurs de prendre des promptes décisions d’achat Traits/ caractéristiques principaux: Instrument volontaire Critères multiples Approche du cycle de vie Vérification indépendante par une tierce partie (organismes nationaux) La pensée cycle de vie (mais pas nécessairement l’ACV) est utilisée de manière explicite pour définir les critères (indicateurs multiples) ISO Type I label schemes are “Voluntary, multiple criteria-based third party programmes that awards a licence authorising the use of environmental labels on products. These indicate the overall environmental preferability of a product within a particular product category based on life cycle considerations. These labels provide qualitative environmental information“ (ISO 14024: 1). They are covered by ISO published in April 1999. Life cycle thinking (but not necessarily LCA) is explicitly used to set the criteria, which involve multiple environmental indicators. Involvement of interested parties is required and detailed in the standard. Verification is guaranteed by an independent third-party body. When using ecolabels, the company communicates its involvement in LCM to final consumers, business clients or public administrations: This is intrinsic in the fact that it sells a product, which satisfies certain environmental criterias referring to the product life cycle The positive feature of Type I environmental labels is that they provide consumers with concise information, which enables them to make quick purchasing decisions.

24 Déclarations environnementales ISO de type II
P-R Définition (ISO 14021): “Les autodéclarations environnementales par les producteurs, les importateurs, les distributeurs, les détaillants ou toute autre entité pouvant bénéficier d’une telle prétention sans la certification indépendante d’une tierce partie” Différentes formes de communication: Opinions, symboles ou graphiques sur le produits ou les étiquettes d’emballage, ou dans la notice du produit, les bulletins techniques, les annonces, la publicité, le télémarketing et l’Internet L’avantage principale pour les entreprises : la flexibilité ISO Type II labels are “self-declared environmental claims made by manufacturers, importers, distributors, retailers, or anyone else likely to benefit from such a claim without independent third-party certification“ (ISO 14021: 3). They are covered by ISO published in 1999. The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet. The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers. Source: Frankl et al (2004)

25 Déclarations environnementales ISO de type II
P-R Traits/caractéristiques principaux: Instrument volontaire Généralement des critères uniques Auto-déclaration de la première partie La relation avec le cycle de vie du produit et la GCV est implicite, généralement faible ISO Type II labels are “self-declared environmental claims made by manufacturers, importers, distributors, retailers, or anyone else likely to benefit from such a claim without independent third-party certification“ (ISO 14021: 3). They are covered by ISO published in The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet. The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers. Source: Frankl et al (2004)

26 Déclarations environnementales ISO de type III
Définition (ISO 14025): “Données environnementales quantifiées pour un produit, avec des paramètres prédéfinis, basées sur les séries de standards ISO 14040, qui pourraient être complétées par d’autres informations qualitatives et quantitatives” Déclarations environnementales du produit (EPD) P-R ISO Type III declarations are “Quantified environmental data for a product, with pre-determined parameters, based on the ISO series of standards, which may be supplemented by other qualitative and quantitative information” (ISO 14025). They are covered by the standard ISO 14025, published on July, 1st 2006.

27 Déclarations ISO de type III
P-R Déclarations environnementales du produit (EPD) – Traits/caractéristiques principaux : Instrument Volontaire Indicateurs d’impact environnemental multiples (à partir de l’ACV) Aucun critère de seuil/niveaux minima à respecter Permettre la comparabilité des produits Vérifié par une tierce partie Règles de la catégorie du produit (PCR) Définir toutes les règles pour l’étude de l’ACV et le format EPD pour la catégorie spécifique du produit Processus de consultations ouvertes des parties prenantes La relation avec le cycle de vie du produit est explicite, strictement basée sur l’étude sous-jacente de l’ACV An ISO-type III environmental declaration is based on a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study, carried out in accordance with the ISO series. To be compared with each other, the results of LCA studies must have the same scope, system boundaries, calculation rules and must be presented in the same format. This is ensured in an Environmental Declaration Programme, which provides both general and product category-specific prescriptions for data collection, handling and calculation rules. The latter are contained in the product category rules (PCR) i.e., a set of specific rules, requirements, and guidelines for developing Type III environmental declarations for one or more product categories. PCR are approved in a multi-stakeholder open consultation process. Information contained in the declaration gives no criteria for assessment, preference or minimum levels to be met, but the customer can compare products by comparing the quantified results presented in the corresponding type III declarations The relationship with the product life cycle is explicit, strictly based on the underlying LCA study. The company is involved in LCM through the fact that it has carried out an LCA study on its product according to certain rules (EPD programme + PCR) and communicates it to its customers (usually business clients)

28 Boîte d’outils de Communication et GCV
Slide summarising the different communication tools and their link with LCM.

29 Quels sont les outils de communication utilisés dans l’industrie et le commerce en pratique ? Cas pratiques et Diffusion While there is a wide set of available life cycle communication tools available, which ones are used by industry and business in practice? What is the actual diffusion of these tools on the market?

30 Quel outil communiquer à qui ?
P-R Int Ext Parties prenantes externes Consommateurs finaux Clients commerciaux Administrateurs publics et décideurs politiques Parties prenantes de la finance Autres parties prenantes de la société Fournisseurs Parties prenantes internes Employés et direction Actionnaires F&O Ext Int This slide is just to remind us of the different tools used to communicated to different groups

31 Importance et impacts de la communication
Très difficile de mesurer les impacts de la communication de la GCV Impacts directs (ex; Accroissement de la part de marché) Impacts indirects (image, autres facteurs, etc.) Un indicateur indirect pour l’importance des différents outils de communication est le degré de sa diffusion, ex. Nombre de produits étiquetés Montant des ventes The importance and impact of LCM communication (in general and of EPIS in particular) on the market depends on several factors, and it is very difficult to assess. The US EPA (1994) introduces five indicators for measuring the effectiveness of EPIS: The consumer’s awareness of eco-labels Consumer’s trust in labels (in relation to the credibility of the label and customer’s understanding of the label) Changes in consumer behaviour Changes in the manufacturers’ behaviour Improvements in environmental quality. Measuring the impact of other LCM communication tools (e.g. firm-organization related reporting) is even more complicated. Such an assessment is out of the scope of the present work and presentation. However, an indirect indicator for the importance of the different communication tools is the degree of its diffusion, e.g. - Number of labelled products - Amount of sales

32 Tendances observées Les étiquettes ISO de type I restent les outils de communications les plus utilisées pour les consommateurs finaux Cependant, des limitations importantes des eco-labels (éco étiquettes)  Autres outils de communication augment la prise de conscience et parrainent un meilleur usage des produits Simplification de l’information complexe du cycle de vie en déclarations ISO de type II, Toutefois des questions de crédibilité Les déclarations ISO de type III pour B2B – en croissance mais diffusion limitée Combinaison d’outils et de production de rapports pour les différentes parties prenantes ISO-type I labels are still the EPI tools most widely used by industry and business for their communication to consumers in several countries. As far as these specific communication tool are concerned, an indirect measure of their effectiveness can be provided, in terms of: ·The number of product groups for which award criteria have been developed ·The number of awarded products and firms participating to the scheme, reflecting the adoption by industry and the behaviour (change) of producers ·The market sales and shares of eco-labelled goods and services, which are meant to reflect the actual change in behaviour of consumers. However, ISO-type I labels have a set of important limitations. Therefore industry has been devoloping and using also other tools to increase the awareness of life cycle environmental impacts of products among consumers and to encourage the latter to be more closely involved in reducing impact via better use of the product. Communication materials include information on pack, in product catalogs and/or advertising campaigns via internet, media and information brochures. Another trend observed (e.g. in Japan) is the simplification of complex life cycle information into ISO-type II labels, through which the consumers can understand more easily how products are improved in a life cycle perspective. This kind of information is spread out via the web, product catalogues and environmental and sustainability reports. As for business-to-business communication, the use of ISO-type III environmental declarations has been significantly increasing, especially in Sweden and Japan. Moreover, a number of initiatives have been taken in several industry sectors (e.g. in the electronics and car sectors) at international level to standardise the format of life cycle information data gathered from suppliers. Other initiatives aiming to standardise the format of EPI to other stakeholders in the supply chain, i.e. retailers, distributors and recyclers, are also being developed, e.g. in the white good sector. Product life cycle information is also increasingly being included in environmental and sustainability reports. The latter are meant as important communication tools for a variety of both private (e.g. financial) and public stakeholders. Finally, it is worth highlighting that industry and business have been increasingly using a combination of tools for communication with stakeholders. For instance, in Japan, some companies carry out ISO-type III declarations on their products but at the same time use simplified communication to consumers. Moreover, a set of different tools is used for communication to public administrations for green public procurement (GPP). Source: Frankl et al (2004)

33 Exemples et diffusion des outils de communication en fonction du groupe cible
Communication aux: Consommateurs finaux Clients d’affaires Administrations publiques Différentes parties prenantes Fournisseurs Communication interne

34 I.1 – Consommateurs finaux - Labels ISO de type I
Diffusion des labels ISO de type I jusqu’en Octobre 2006 Country (Status) Year of establishment Product groups Firms Products Japan (October 2006) 1989 47 2107 5152 South Korea (June 2006) 1992 7 (groups) 103 (categories) 1001 4100 Germany (State July 2006) 1978 89 529 3,650 Nordic Countries (2006) 61 680 n.a. EU (October 2005) 24 309 The Netherlands (Milieukeur, October 2006) 69 257 360 Catalonia (DGQA) 1994 26 171 895 Austria 1991 49 France 19 Spain (AENOR) 11 52 275 Sweden (Falcon) (October 06) China (2005) 1993 56 India (October 2006) 16 n.a Brazil (ABNT Qualidade Ambiental) 10 (under development) The table summarises the indicator numbers of product groups, participating firms and awarded products for the main existing ISO-type I labelling schemes in different countries. As shown, the two Asian countries Japan and Korea have the largest number of ecolabelled products, followed by Germany and the Nordic Swan in the Scandinavian Countries. The European ecolabel EU-Flower has much lower diffusion and a limited set of product groups, but is rapidly increasing (see next slide) Important ISO-type I ecolabeling systems do exist also in emerging countries like China, India and Brazil Source: Frankl et al (2006)

35 I.1 – Consommateurs finaux - ISO-type I labels
Exemple de diffusion: Évolution des ventes des produits étiquéttés EU-Flower Valeur des ventes départ usine (en millions d’euros) Example of diffusion via the indicator of sales Source:

36 I.2 - Consommateurs finaux - “Labels s’apparentant au type ISO-type I”
Labels et certifications s’apparentant au type ISO I, ex. FSC – Forest Stewardship Council 4945 chaînes de certificats de garde dans 73 pays en Septembre 2006 854 Certificats de gestion des forêts/COC dans 74 pays PEFC – Pan European Forest Certification Blue Flag Eco-Tex standard Des milliers de prix de distinction Other relevant EPI schemes are not covered by the ISO standards. They include product certifications, like the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the Oeko-tex Standard 100, etc. They usually refer to one product group only. Because they are based on some major elements of the ISO type I standard (i.e. third-party verification, multi-criteria based, and partly open stakeholder participation), some authors classify them as “ISO-type I like” labels in literature, as opposed to “classical” ISO-type I labels like the EU-Flower, the Blue Angel in Germany and the White Swan in the Nordic countries (Rubik & Frankl 2005). Example: The Forest Stewardship Council is an international non-profit organisation founded in 1993 to support environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial, and economically viable management of the world's forests. It is an association of Members consisting of a diverse group of representatives from environmental and social groups, the timber trade and the forestry profession, indigenous people's organisations, community forestry groups and forest product certification organisations. Diffusion is relevant (e.g. thousands of FSC or Eco-Tex certificates), but of course restricted to a specific sector

37 I.3 - Consommateurs finaux –Déclarations ISO de type II
Exemples: UKCRA The United Kingdom Cartridge Recyclers Association (Royaume Uni) NAPM The National Association of Paper Merchants (Royaume Uni) Ecological Woodparticle board (Italie) DIGODREAM- 100% textile de revêtement de sol recyclable (Italie) The easiest way for companies to communicate about the environemantal performance of their products is by using ISO-type II self-declared environmental claims. As mentioned, The claims may take the form of statements, symbols or graphics on product or package labels, or in product literature, technical bulletins, advertising, publicity, telemarketing, as well as digital or electronic media, such as the Internet. The relationship with the product life cycle is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains. Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.

38 I.3 – Consommateurs finaux –Déclarations ISO de type II
A large variety of statements and symbols, sometimes causing confusion in consumers and/or clients

39 I.4 – Consommateurs finaux – Publicité
Exemple: Fujitsu développe des déclarations ISO de type III et le publie dans des journaux In Japan, several companies involved in the EcoLeaf ISO-type III declaration system also seek strategic ways to make the most out of their life cycle information made available to stakeholders. As a matter of fact, while life cycle information is being gradually more developed in industry, the concept of “life cycle thinking” itself has not yet been much acknowledged by purchasers and consumers. Previously, product-related life cycle information was usually to be provided through environmental reporting. However, environmental reportis tends to be read only by environmental conscious stakeholders. Therefore, recently, Japanese companies carrying out Type III declarations have also begun to address various kinds of stakeholder target groups through a variety of communication tools. As a consequence, life cycle information has been emerging in advertisements, sales and marketing communication. For instance, Fujitsu is one of the companies which are eager to promote life cycle information, which has issued more than 10 Eco-Leaf declarations for their note-book personal computers. Recently, the firm began to feel the necessity of communicating the idea of life cycle perspective as well as providing life cycle data. As a result, life cycle information was explained in newspapers advertising (see box) and included in marketing promotion kits (see section 4.3). Fujitsu believe information should be disclosed to promote environmental friendly products and eagerly pursues environmental information disclosure. Another example is Toyota, which has included the life cycle information gathered through its in-house developed system ECO-VAS in the product catalogues of two models, i.e. the Premio and Allion. LCA information is expected to be disclosed in all product catalogues in the future. Source: Frankl et al (2004)

40 I.5 – Consommateurs finaux – Campagnes d’Information
Exemple: La campagne AISE Washright parraine une meilleure utilisation des produits détergents As mentioned, several companies in different industry sectors are concerned by the fact that ISO-type I labels mostly focus on the production phase and not the whole product life cycle. This is particularly important for all those products for which the use phase is the source of the largest impacts over the life cycle. As a response to this issue, some industries have carried out information campaigns with the aim of increasing consumer awareness and providing guidance for the best use of products. For instance the case of campaign Washright carried out by the European Soaps and Detergents Industry Association( AISE) within its Code of Good Environmental Practice. The latter was the industry’s response to the European Commission’s Fifth Environmental Action Programme. It aimed to reduce the environmental load created by the manufacture and use of household laundry detergents. A Voluntary Agreement with measurable targets on detergent consumption, packaging consumption, use of poorly biodegradable organic substances and energy consumption in use was concluded with the European Commission in 1998 and resulted in an EU Recommendation 98/480/EC. It was implemented in the then 15 members of the EU plus Switzerland, Norway and Iceland. The commitments and targets in the Code were based on risk assessment and life cycle analysis which indicate that most of the environmental impact occurs in home during consumer use. A data collection system was organised with independent consultants and auditors to allow reporting on progress at both national and European level. All together more than 180 companies representing more than 90% of the total market participated. The companies committing to the code undertook to continue environmental progress when formulating products and packaging for household laundry detergents and to encourage consumers to be more closely involved in reducing impact via better use of the product.

41 II.1 – Clients d’affaires déclarations ISO de type III
Programmes nationaux EPD: Suède (107 déclarations en Octobre 2006, les entreprises de plusieurs pays y participent) Japon (210 decl en Oct 2006) Corée du Sud (96 EDP en Oct 2006) Norvège (96 déclarations) Plusieurs programmes EPD des secteurs spécifiques Particulièrement dans le secteur de la construction et du bâtiment Secteur de la technologie de l’information Secteur de l’automobile Several national EPD programmes + many sector-specific programmes (in particular in the building & construction sector) EPD are a more recent communication tool, and their diffusion and adoption is fairly limited in absolute numbers. As of October 2006, in total 107 EPDs are reported in the official website of the Swedish EPD® system, 94 of which are certified. Additional 23 declarations are registered in the programs “On the way to EPD” and “Stepwise EPDs” (http://extra.ivf.se/StepwiseEPD/default.asp). Not only Swedish companies participate in the system. Italian, Japanese, Korean, Belgian, Polish, Czech, Russian, Portuguese, Lithuanian and Latvian EPDs have been also registered in the Swedish system. Table 4 shows the number of EPDs registered under the Swedish system per country of provenance. As shown, a significant number of Italian companies[1] are participating in the system. This is the consequence of the Italian-Swedish LIFE project INTEND. Also some Japanese companies have issued EPDs certified under the Swedish system, further showing the increasing international dimension of the latter. EPDs in the Swedish system cover a wide set of products and services, ranging from consumable products like washing machines to the electricity produced by a nuclear power plant. [1] The number of companies belonging to the same corporate group are aggregated In Japan, JEMAI launched the “EcoLeaf Type III environmental labelling program” in the1st half of As of summer 2003, the Japanese system overcame the number of 50 EPDs, which shows a very good reaction of the market. As of October 2006, the number of EcoLeaf declarations has further grown up to more than 200, with 40 companies involved A key feature of the Japanese ISO-type III declaration system is that, unlike other countries’ Type III programmes, several companies have issued declarations within the same product category. This allows for a real comparison of products of different companies by clients and customers. This is also facilitated by the existence of a common national reference LCA database. Though the absolute number of products is still limited, companies perceive that (ISO-type II) environmental claims without proof are just self-declaration with limited credibility and recognize on the contrary that certified ISO-type III declarations are a valuable tool to compete on the market with respect to environmental performance of products. The Korean EDP - Environmental Declaration of Products Program (http://www.koeco.or.kr) was established by the Korean Eco-products Institute (KOECO), the Environmental Management Corporation (EMC) and the Korean Environmental Preservation Association (KEPA). The system is supported by Korean Ministry of Environment (MOE) The focus of the system is in EEE (electric and electronic equipment). Up to now (October 2006) 96 EDPs are registered within 24 product groups The Norwegian EPD program (http://www.epd-norge.no) was founded in 2000 by NHO - Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise and is supported by Byggforsk, NTNU and Østfoldforskning. The focus of the program is on furniture, building, energy and paper products. 8 PCRs have been developed, 2 for construction products. 96 EPD are registered, most of them for furniture, 28 EPDs are registered for construction products Source: Frankl et al (2006)

42 II.1 – Clients d’affaires Déclarations ISO de type III
Exemples: Japanese Eco-leaf and German AUB EPD Several national EPD programmes + many sector-specific programmes (in particular in the building & construction sector) This is just to give an example of how an EPD looks like

43 II.2 – Clients d’affaires Rapports Marketing et de durabilité
Exemple de marketing de Eco-leaf pour les émissions de CO2 émissions chez Fujitsu In Japanese companies, sales and marketing departments increasingly make use of life cycle information. For example, at Fujitsu Co. the environmental department and sales & marketing department work together successfully in order life cycle information to be understood and accepted by consumers. Fujitsu, which emphasizes “environmental friendly consciousness” as their product competitiveness, calls attention of its clients by using life-cycle environmental information both in its sustainability report and in its product promotion kits. During sales promotion, EcoLeaf is used as one of persuasive tools to prove the sincere attitude of the company. Type III declarations prove its activities of evaluating eco-design and recycling. Promotion staffs favor life cycle information because it can provide quantitative data steadily. Though clear outcomes of using Eco-Leaf have not been yet identified, client’s response seems fairly good Source: Frankl et al (2004)

44 II.4 – Clients d’affaires Eco-efficacité + ISO de type II
Exemple: BASF Analyse Eco-efficicacité combinée avec la déclaration “améliorée” ISO de type II (revue critique par une tierce partie) A relevant example of the use of “improved” ISO-type II environmental claims is provided by BASF. The latter has developed a new label for products that have been evaluated through an Eco-Efficiency Analysis. The awarding of the label is dependent on specific requirements. For example, a third party evaluation (critical review) of the eco-efficiency analysis is requested. In addition, the results of the analysis have to be published on the Internet. The label is allowed for three years. After that period, a revision of the analysis is required in order to cover market developments and product diversity. More specifically, the procedure for the awarding of the label is based on the following steps: Accomplished Eco-Efficiency Analysis according to the methodology certified by TÜV Rheinland/ Berlin-Brandenburg, Germany. Verification of the investigated product to be more eco-efficient for the defined customer benefit than other alternatives as result of the analysis. Presentation of a third party evaluation (so-called Critical Review according ISO ff.). Publication of the results via internet on website which is referred to on the label. 5.       Payment of the licence fee for the duration of three years The following products have been granted the label so far: Styrodur in Pitched Roof Insulation above Rafter (Northern Italy) Inosoly 400 Fotopur® - Electronic Chemicals - Systems® Acid quench with the ionic liquid BASIL® Astaxanthin for Salmon Production Propylene Carbonate as Solvent in Wire Coarings Ibuprofen Production Automotive Refinish Primers for Small Surface Damage Repair Injection Moulding with Ultradur® High Speed The eco-label system developed by BASF can actually be considered an “ISO-type II and a half” tool, since it requires a third party verification according to pre-determined standards, and a quite detailed and complete declaration. As an example, the one issued for roof insulating materials is a document of 30 pages. (source:

45 II.5 – Tous les clients Publicité (ISO de type II)
Exemple: DOW BUILDING MATERIALS Déclaration qualitative Visuel Auto-déclaration II.5 - All clients –ddd A US survey shows that many building products firms are attempting to communicate environmental messages in national campaigns in the US (specialized magazines). Approximately 10% of ads contain an environmental message; probably a bigger number in media targeting architects more directly. However, very little quantitative and/or disaggregated information communicated. Information is predominately presented in the form of qualitative self-claims. Information usually refers to a single aspect (e.g. energy saving) and no life cycle information in a strict sense is presented in the advertisements. Third-party certifications are being integrated into ads, but still in minor ways. On the contrary, there is a fairly significant sophistication with regards to mode of execution (visual, lexical, etc.). Source: Smith (2005) [Source: T.Smith 2005]

46 III.1 Administrations Publiques Directives GPP
Directives d’achats verts au Danemark Actuellement pour 50 groupes de produits Directives en document typique de 4-pages Liste de vérification pour plus de d’éclairage Of course, in order to implement GPP, public authorities do need proper information on products. Therefore, the Danish EPA has provided the purchasers with environmental purchasing guidelines based on life cycle thinking from the last many years. As of the end of 2004 guidelines for about 50 product groups are available and they are currently being updated. All guidelines and background documents are available for free (in Danish) on the Internet for both public and private purchasers. A guideline is typically a 4-page document, but for those who do not want to go into more specific requirements a simple checklist is included. For each of these guidelines, however, there is also a background report describing the life cycle of the product going into more detail. All guidelines and background documents are available for free (in Danish) at the Internet, which means that both public and private purchasers can use them to set up life cycle requirements to their suppliers in an easy way. Source: Frankl et al (2004)

47 III.2 Administrations Publiques Combinaison d’outils
Combinaison d’outils utilisés par les compagnies Japonaises pour fournir des informations sur le cycle de vie aux acteurs clés pour l’acquisition écologique publique Autorités locales Total Eco-mark (ISO-I) Energy Star FSC Eco-Leaf (ISO III) Préfecture 56 55 52 7 4 100 % 98.2 % 92.9 % 12.5 % 7.1% Municipalité -circonscription électorale & ville 449 441 247 11 20 55.0% 2.4 % 4.5% Ville & village dans la préfecture 917 846 161 5 39 92.3 % 17.6 % 0.5 % 4.3 % 1422 1342 460 23 63 100% 94.4 % 32.3 % 1.6 % 4.4 % A variety of communication tools are used by industry and business to inform public administrators who are responsible for green public procurement. The Table summarises the different EPI tools used to communicate to different local administration authorities in Japan [Source: Resource: Japanese Ministry of Environment, 2003 Report of Green procurement]

48 IV.1 Parties prenantes diverses Rapport de durabilité
IV.1 Various stakeholders Sustainability reporting Coûts de cycle de vie évités chez Johnson&Johnson Johnson & Johnson tracks the life cycle costs avoided as a result of projects implemented by facilities to meet the Next Generation Goals. Total life cycle costs include the costs of purchasing, transporting, storing, treating and disposing of materials. By tracking both annual cost reductions and cumulative savings from prior years, Johnson & Johnson has built a strong business case for its environmental goals and programs. [Source: J&J sustainability report 2003]

49 IV.1 Parties prenantes diverses Rapport de durabilité
Henkel: Premier rapport environnemental d’entreprise Depuis 2000 Rapport de durabilité Procter&Gamble: 1993 Premier rapport environnemental d’entreprise Depuis 1999 Rapport de durabilité Unilever: 2000 Premier rapport environnemental d’entreprise Depuis 2001 Rapport Environnemental + Rapport Social Johnson&Johnson: Depuis 2000 Rapport de durabilité de l’entreprise Life cycle information is increasingly being included in environmental and/or sustainability reports. These are communication documents meant for precise private and/or public stakeholders, which are issued by several global players around the world. For instance, in the packaging and chemical sectors, world leader companies Henkel, Johnson&Johnson, Procter&Gamble and Unilever all report LCA activities or other life cycle information in their sustainability reports.

50 IV.1 Rapports de durabilité & Information du cycle de vie
ASPECTS Instruments mentionnées dans les rapports Henkel J&J P&G Unilever Qualité ISO9000 N.a. Environnement ISO14000 Depuis toutes les unités d’affaires N.d. Depuis 2003 pour tous les principaux sites EMAS - LCA Responsabilité sociale SA8000 En cours OHSAS18011 7 usines Durabilité Directives GRI (en accord) No DJSI (Eco-rating) Autres Utilisation des sources d’énergie renouvelables Reported aspects and instruments in sustainability reports of four leading global companies in the health&care sector All four global companies report about their LCA activities in their sustainability reports [Source: Menichetti, in Largo Consumo 1/2004]

51 IV.1 – Production de rapport – Diffusion par pays
Rapport de rendement par pays depuis 1992 Life cycle information is increasingly being included in environmental and/or sustainability reports. These are communication documents meant for precise private and/or public stakeholders. Apart from the already mentioned Japanese examples of Fujitsu and Panasonic, there are several other global players doing so. For instance, in the packaging and chemical sectors, world leader companies Henkel, Johnson&Johnson, Procter&Gamble and Unilever all report LCA activities or other life cycle information in their sustainability reports. For instance the P&G sustainability report 2004 mentions the development and use of state-of-the-art science and product LCA for the assessment of P&G environmental technology and monitoring progress towards environmental goals. The report also describes the company’s forest resource policy, including the purchase only from suppliers who demonstrate (e.g. by third-party certification) forestry practices and sourcing commitments consistent with the principles of sustainable forestry. Another example is given by Johnson & Johnson, which reports on the life cycle approach taken to evaluate environmental issues associated with their products [source: J&J sustainability report 2002]. In the 2003 report, the company shows a strong business case, by indicating the life cycle costs avoided taking into account the savings associated with avoided purchasing, transporting, storing, treating and disposing of materials. For 2003, total cost savings from avoidance and cost reduction projects exceeded $155 million. Moreover, in another report “Healthy People, Healthy Planet”, the company describes in a detailed manner the used tool of Design for Environment (DfE) based on a life cycle approach and LCA [source: Healthy People, Healthy Planet Explorer, Issue two, August 2002]. Although the report is primarily meant to be published by J&J Worldwide Environmental Affairs for the employees, it is fully available for other stakeholders on the corporate website. There are thousands of reports worldwide. However it is not known how many of them report LCM results. Excluant 48 pays qui ont moins de 25 rapports

52 V.I - Fournisseurs – Codes de conduite
Exemple: LEGO Code de conduite introduit en 1997 Éthique Social Environnemental Santé et sécurité Exigences internes + étendues à 200 fournisseurs Fournisseurs audités par des auditeurs indépendants The Danish-based company LEGO is the sixth-largest manufactures of toys with production in several countries. It has an annual revenue of about 1 billion € and more than 5000 employees around the world. In 2003 LEGO joined as the first play material manufacturer the UN Global Compact Initiative and its principles. As early as 1997 LEGO introduced a set of guidelines – a Code of Conduct – outlining what ethical, social and environment, health and safety requirements it expected of itself and of its about 200 supplier companies at that time. This code covers: Child labour Coercion and disciplinary practices Compensation and working hours Discrimination Forced and compulsory labour Freedom of association Health and safety Environment The suppliers are audited by independent auditors. Source: A.A. Jensen (2006)

53 V.II - Fournisseurs – Systèmes de vérification
Exemple: INMINSUR, Pérou ISO au principal site minier d’Antapite Application étendue de l’EMS aux fournisseurs (10) Application étendue pour couvrir les aspects santé & sécurité “Politique d’évaluation du fournisseur”: Conformité avec la loi Attention aux H&S des employés et des sous contractants Impacts positifs sur le voisinage Minimiser la pollution des cours d’eau Inversiones Mineras del Sur S.A. (INMINSUR) is one of Compañia de Minas Buenaventura S.A.A.’s ten subsidiaries. The later is a Peruvian mining company that ranks among the top 10 gold producers worldwide. INMINSUR extracts gold from its mine called Antapite, located in the southern Andes of Peru, in the poorest region of Peru with 95.4% of its population under the “poverty line”. Antapite provides work to more than 1,200 people; where 85.2% of them comes from 10 supplier companies. Antapite has a certi.ed environmental management acc. to ISO 14001, which has extended its application to also cover health and security aspects and its scope to also cover Antapite’s suppliers. The suppliers provide services previous to the extraction stage as shown in the .gure below. Antapite has supported the implementation of EMSs by its 10 suppliers and furthermore Antapite has a “supplier assessment policy”, which requires compliance with at least the following criteria: Compliance with the law, attention to health and security aspects of employees or sub-contractors, positive impacts on the neighborhood, and minimum pollution of water courses. The implementation of an extended EMS in Antapite (INMINSUR) and its 10 suppliers, har lead to the following results along the Life Cycle: • less utilization and consumption of: explosives (then less air and dust emissions), water, and consumption and fuel for the workers transportation (then less air emissions and waiting times) • less generation of construction wastes (e.g. rests of cement) • non use of toxics in the exploration phase. • controlled disposal of sludge from exploration processes • less number of accidents in the mine site Source: Cia de Minas Buenaventura (2006) Déchets Travaux civils Transport Exploration Perforation Forage Extraction Concentration Dynamitage Enlèvement des ordures Fournisseurs INMINSUR

54 VI.1 – Communication Interne Matrice GCV chez 3M Brésil
LA GCV est une partie formelle du processus d’introduction des nouveaux produits de 3M dans le monde entier Les équipes d’introduction de nouveaux produits, transversales utilisent la matrice GCV pour une évaluation systématique et holistique La matrice d’analyse GCV appliquée chez 3M Brésil sur un produit adhésif Comme conséquence de la matrice d’analyse GCV, les opportunités ont été identifiées pour le stade de procédé, le stade d’utilisation et le stade de mise en décharge en prenant en considération le changement de la forme des bâtons à la forme des boulettes [For more information see case study in section II)Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a formal part of 3M's new product introduction process worldwide. Cross-functional, new product introduction teams use a LCM matrix to systematically and holistically address the environmental, health and safety opportunities and issues from each stage of their product's life. The Adhesive HOT MELT BR-7065A is manufactured at 3M Brazil for the local market. It is mainly used to close cardboard boxes, and it is applied using an electrical melting pot. As a consequence of LCM matrix analysis, opportunities were identified for process stage, use stage and disposal stage taking into consideration the changing from sticks shape to pellets shape. According to technical service representative there were complains about long time of product melting, product loses in the wall of the equipment (residuals in the melting pot) and skin burning due to adhesive splashing during sticks melting pot loading. In order to save energy (melting time), to minimize risk of burning and product losses, a new shape for the product was proposed: in pellets. The process line was optimized and instead long cooling water hopper the matrix of the extruder is cooled. This changing is also a benefit in terms of maintenance and cleaning. The adhesive product was analyzed and classified according local normative (NBR10004 – Solid Waste Classification) as no dangerous and inert for waste disposals after use. Source: Lienne Pires – 3M Brazil [Source: Lienne Pires – 3M Brazil]

55 VI.2 –Communication Interne Modèle STEP®- chez Hartmann
Model- STEP®- (Outil systématique pour le Progrès Environnemental) depuis 1997 Intègre les impacts environnementaux avec les évaluations de la santé, la sécurité et les relations sociales sur tout le cycle de vie du produit Le siège du Département pour le Développement Durable de l’entreprise Hartmann au Danemark est responsable de l’orientation des sites de production Outil simple pour les non-experts Développé et mis en oeuvre à travers toute l’organisation - Intégration progressive dans les prise de décision de tous les jours Hartmann has been a front-runner of Life Cycle Management (LCM) since 1997, where the STEP®-model (Systematic Tool for Environmental Progress) was introduced. The LCM approach at Hartmann integrates environmental impacts with assessments of health, safety and social relations into the product life cycle (product profile). By implementation of LCM and carrying out of life cycle assessment (LCA) for major products, Hartmann has achieved a sufficient overview of environmental aspects of its major products, processes, operations, and other activities throughout the life cycle. This information is used to support all relevant business decisions - from strategic planning, product development, purchase and production to distribution and sales. The responsibility for progress towards sustainability is placed at the specific production sites but the Department for Sustainable Development at Hartmann Corporate Headquarter in Denmark is responsible for guiding the production sites. This Department is continuously using STEP in order to maintain an overview of company performance and potentials for improvements. Simple tools for non-experts in regards to sustainable development have been developed and implemented throughout the organization; thus environmental and social consideration is gradually integrated in the everyday decision-making. In 2006, Hartmann will introduce a new internet-based supplier assessment concept, which includes the social dimension of sustainability. Source: A.A. Jensen (2006) [Source: A.A.Jensen 2006]

56 VI.3 - Communication Interne KEPIs chez Nokia
Indicateurs clés de performance environnementale (KEPIs) Basés sur les résultats de l’ACV d’un projet KEPI par Motorola, Nokia, Panasonic et Philips Méthode qui réduit de façon significative la fiabilité sur la chaîne d’approvisionnement pour les données sur les flux de matériaux Identifie les composants et les matériels qui compte pour la plupart des impacts environnementaux sur tout le cycle de vie Chaînes de communication interne avec les employés: Intranet Deux grands événements annuels Bulletins internes, bulletin électronique global environnemental, bulletins mensuels et plusieurs autres publications internes Nokia has been involved with LCAs and developing them since mid 1990s. This firm uses LCAs as a strategic tool to assess the environmental impacts of its products and conducts periodic LCAs whenever there is a major technology shift like from 2G mobile phones to 3G mobile phones. This organization also has an IPP (Integrated Product Policy) approach to “reduce the environment impacts from products through their life-cycle, harnessing, where possible, a market-driven approach, within which competitiveness concerns are integrated”. The company is working on developing suitable methods for environmental assessments of electronic products, an example of this being the Key Environmental Performance Indicators (KEPIs). KEPI consists of a small number of product environmental performance indicators validated as representative of the most important environmental impacts of an electronic product life cycle, and may provide a good and simple assessment tool for use in electronics industry. Nokia also applied other tools such as the Ecological Footprint Analysis (EFA) and MIPS (Material Input per Service Unit). Nokia does not consider that EFA and MIPS deliver useful measures for the mobile phone industry; therefore, this firm is trying to develop MIPS into a new method called ImPACT that is more relevant to product development cycles of mobile phones. Source: Nokia, Integrated Product Policy Pilot Project – Stage 1 Final Report: Life Cycle Environmental Issues of Mobile Phones, Finland, April 2005. [Source: Nokia, Integrated Product Policy Pilot Project – Stage 1 Final Report: Life Cycle Environmental Issues of Mobile Phones, Finland, April 2005]

57 Résumer les considérations
Éco-labels ISO de type I Plus adapté pour la communication à l’endroit des consommateurs, permet des décisions rapides, des milliers de produits étiquetés Avantages: Crédibilité (critères, implication des parties prenantes, vérification par une tierce partie) Inconvénients: Plusieurs limitations (approche contrôlée par le haut, nombre limité des groupes de produits, format pas toujours approprié, bureaucratie) labels s’apparentant à ceux d’ISO de type I Bien adaptés pour la communication à l’endroit des consommateurs, permet des décisions rapides, des milliers de produits étiquetés Avantages : Crédibilité (critères, vérification par une tierce partie) Inconvénients: restreint aux secteurs spécifiques (ex. bois, textiles) Déclarations environnementales ISO de type II Bien adaptées pour la communication à l’endroit des consommateurs, des milliers de déclarations Avantages: Flexibilité (approche contrôlée par le bas) Inconvénients: crédibilité limitée, généralement pas tout le cycle entier du produit, juste un paramètre environnemental Some summarising considerations about the presented tools: The positive feature of Type I environmental labels is that they provide consumers with concise information, which enables them to make quick purchasing decisions. Among the drawbacks of ISO-type I labels, the following ones are often mentioned, which limit the effective use for marketing purposes: · Not all product groups are covered by the label · The hurdle evaluation principle does not allow for competition within labelled products and does not award environmental excellence · Criteria removal is too slow and not compatible with product innovation cycles at industry level · In many cases, criteria focus mostly on the production phase and do not actually cover the whole life cycle · Format is not appropriate for all product groups · Criteria are sometimes too strict These and other drawbacks are reflected in a large set of zero-product groups ISO-type I-like labels are product certifications, like the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), the Oeko-tex Standard 100, etc. They usually refer to one product group only. Because they are based on some major elements of the ISO type I standard (i.e. third-party verification, multi-criteria based, and partly open stakeholder participation), some authors classify them as “ISO-type I like” labels in literature, as opposed to “classical” ISO-type I labels like the EU-Flower, the Blue Angel in Germany and the White Swan in the Nordic countries (Rubik & Frankl 2005). They have a similar credibility of ISO-type I ecolabels, but they are of course restricted to one sector only. The relationship with the product life cycle of ISO-type II environmental claims is implicit, and generally weak. Usually, just one life cycle phase is taken into account. Moreover, often just a single environmental criterion is considered. The positive aspect of ISO-type II for industry is quite obviously the high flexibility of the tool. However, the problem of credibility often remains (depends very much on the company and brand). Many existing labels do not fully satisfy the ISO requirements and the possibility of misleading claims is a matter of fact. Environmental claims are subject to national legislation and to EC Directives aiming at protection of consumers.

58 Résumer les considérations – (suite)
Les déclarations environnementales ISO de type III Plus adaptées pour la communication B2B, complexe pour les consommateurs, permet de faire des comparaisons, des centaines de déclarations dans le monde entier Avantages: Crédibilité (PCR avec l’engagement des parties prenantes, vérification par une tierce partie), grand nombre d’information détaillée, cycle de vie entier Inconvénients: information complexe sans repère, exigeant en ressources (ACV complet), compliqué pour les SME (système simplifié nécessaires, actuellement en essai) Codes de conduite, systèmes de vérification des fournisseurs Bien adaptée pour la communication avec les fournisseurs et permet de rassembler des informations venant d’eux Avantage: Simplicité et flexibilité, bien adapté pour impliquer les SMEs Inconvénients: Limité « du berceau à la porte de l’usine » (cradle-to-gate), pas nécessairement vérifié par une partie tierce ISO-type III declarations base explicitly on LCA, therefore they give the most complete and holistic picture about environmental performance of products. However, there are a set of limits of current EPD systems, e.g. related to: -Format and understandability of information -Choice and use of indicators for decision-making -Costs and other barriers for SMEs -Comparability -Verification vs. certification -Need for harmonization at international level At present these issues strongly hamper the applicability of EPD in business. On the contrary, codes of conduct, supplier screening systems and checklists are well suited to communicate with and gather info from suppliers. This is also an easy way to involve SMEs in LCM. Of course, not the whole life cycle is covered

59 Approches des secteurs spécifiques & études de cas

60 Aspects clés des études de cas
Présence d’une stratégie de communication Conducteurs des secteurs spécifiques Combinaison d’outils Production de rapport au niveau de l’entreprise Communication orientée vers le produit (combinaison de labels) éco-labels ISO de type I labels et certifications "s’apparentant à ISO de type I" Déclarations environnementales ISO de type II Déclarations environnementales ISO de type III Labels sociaux Publicité & marketing Accent sur la durabilité Deux secteurs: Énergie Électronique What makes the difference between episodic and systematic use of LCM communication? The existence of a communication strategy Such a strategy is usually driven by sector-specific drivers In most LCM communication strategies there are clear objectives, programmes and communication tools. Always, a combination of tools is used Moreover, generally the focus is on sustainability and not just environmental aspects

61 Énergie Conducteurs du secteur spécifique
Pression de la réglementation / Directive de l’UE sur les marchés d’électricité Divulgation de l’information sur les mélanges de carburants Information publiques sur les impacts environnementaux, au moins en terme d’émissions de CO2 émissions et de déchets radioactifs Demande d’information des clients d’affaires Marchés émergents pour “Électricité Verte” Tarif verts Labels d’électricité Verts Programme d’acquisition publique écologique des administrations publiques Questions d’acceptation sociales / Dialogue avec les parties prenantes ex. le nucléaire, mais aussi les renouvelables

62 Énergie Exemples de Communication du cycle de vie
Vattenfall (SE) Enel (IT) British Energy (UK) Electricité de France (FR)

63 Secteur I. Énergie Étude de cas 1: Vattenfall (Sweden)
Ancienne expérience en ACV Production intensive de rapport Rapports environnementaux Analyse du cycle de vie de la fourniture d’électricité de Vattenfall’ en Suède en 2005 Plusieurs EPD EPD Lule River 1999 premier EPD® absolu dans le système Suédois Ecolabel ISO de type I pour la certification de “l’Énergie Verte” Vattenfall retains a long tradition of disclosure and reporting. Several publications are publicly available and directly accessible from the company’s website, including various editions of Environmental reports, Life Cycle Assessment reports, and EPDs. As far as LCA is specifically addressed, Vattenfall has a long-standing experience, which covers all types of generation technologies, ranging from fuel-fired power plants to nuclear, hydropower and wind, as well as cogeneration plants for district heating. In addition, she provided quantitative data deriving from the assessment of the environmental performance of electricity generation and delivery at Vattenfall. The main motivations for “translating” this experience in LCA into credible and transparent life cycle communication tools for customers and stakeholders were threefold, i.e. to: - Respond to Vattenfall’s strategic goals, with specific respect to aiming at being the number one for the customer and for the environment - Respond to Vattenfall’s core values of openness and accountability Comply with the forthcoming EU directive on fuel mix disclosure. Source: Bodlund, in Frankl et al (2006)

64 I.1 Vattenfall Combinaison des EPIS pour la communication
Vattenfall peut appliquer, pour l’étiquetage de l’électricité ca 1 TWh, Bra Miljöval, ”Bon choix environnemental” Vattenfall applies a combination of EPIS to communicate with its clients Today, Vattenfall has approximately 1 TWh of electricity certified under the Swedish Bra Miljoval quality ISO-type I eco-label system. In addition, the company has issued certified EPDs for 95% of its entire electricity production 95% de la production est certifié avec une Déclaration environnementale du produit [Source: Bodlund 2005]

65 I.1 Vattenfall Valeur ajoutée de l’EPD® certifié- plus que l’ACV
Système d’Information ouvert pour tous les produits et services Basé sur ISO/DIS 14025 Vérifiée et certifiée par une tierce partie Une EPD® pour l’électricité et le district de chaleur contient L’Analyse du Cycle de Vie (ACV) L’étude des incidences sur la biodiversité Évaluation du Risque Environnemental (ERA) Radiologie (énergie nucléaire) The main advantages of EPD identified by Vattenfall are: -          The possibility to provide information to customers -          EPDs are useful tool to orientate purchasing decisions -          Environmental Management -          To provide support for Sustainability Reporting -          Evidence for continuous improvement -          Environmental licensing The EPD process also helped Vattenfall identify and carry out a series of environmental actions, which resulted in further benefits in terms of environmental impacts mitigations, costs cuts, and improved dialogue with suppliers and other stakeholders. In addition, EPDs are used to enable a dialogue with public administrations for permitting licenses. Generally improved awareness and commitment among the staff have led to an increased used of life cycle thinking as an integral part in the planning for refurbishments and investments. EPDs are also mostly used to exchange information along the supply chain, to orientate investment decisions and to choose among different technical solution alternatives Source: Bodlund, in Frankl et al (2006) [Source: Bodlund 2005]

66 I.1 Vattenfall Stratégie et conclusions clés chez Vattenfall
ACV vers une pratique commune Crédibilité nécessaire, assurée par la vérification de la tierce partie et les Règles de Catégorie du Produit (PCR) avec la participation des parties prenantes Ne met pas l’emphase seulement sur les questions environnementales mais sur plusieurs facteurs La DEP (déclaration environnementale de produit) est unilatérale, choisie par les pays de Vattenfall Nordic par avoir toujours l’information Valeurs clés: “Ouverture et comptabilité” At Vattenfall: -          LCA-based information is useful and is becoming common practice -          Credibility is needed, and certification improves the credibility -          The focus is not just on one environmental issue, but on several aspects -          EPD is an effective tool that Vattenfall Nordic countries have adopted to measure their progress -          EPD is also a powerful communication tool It is also a precious tool to meet the key company value “Openness and accountability [Source: Bodlund 2005]

67 Secteur I. Énergie Étude de cas 2: Enel (Italie)
Activités ACV Depuis 1999 au niveau R&D Au niveau corporatif seulement à une date récente (Direction de l’Environnement) Deux premières DEPs en au sein du projet LIFE-INTEND DEP sur deux technologies d’énergie renouvelables Le vent (première DEP des systèmes d’électricité en Italie) Géothermique (première DEP mondiale) DEPs utilisée pour la communication avec les administrations locales Enjeux d’acceptation sociale (vent) Fournir une approche holistique et de nouvelles perspectives sur les comparaisons de technologies Canaux de Communication: site Internet + rapport de durabilité Tarif écologique: adoption d’un label de garantie de “100% energia verde” Since 2003 Enel, one of the most important European and the largest Italian utility, has been involved in the preparation of Environmental Product Declarations (EPD) of selected renewable power plants. The EPDs are carried out within the EU-LIFE project INTEND, co-funded by the European Commission. As of August 2004, the EPD of a wind power plant has been published and the EPD of a geothermal power plant is in preparation. The former is the first EPD on electricity ever carried out in Italy; the latter is going to be the first EPD on geothermal energy worldwide. The EPDs have been carried out with the scientific support of Ecobilancio Italia. The main motivation for the involvement in the project INTEND and the development of several EPD at Enel is the potential external use of the latter as communication tool for the involvement of local stakeholders. In fact, despite their significantly lower emissions over the whole life cycle compared to conventional fossil fuel power plants, the installation of wind power plants is facing severe social acceptance problems in Italy, as in many other European countries. Local stakeholders often lack of comprehensive information and might oppose to the construction of new wind farms based on a limited picture of the problem. Enel is currently exploring new and innovative ways to involve local decision-makers in a participative multi-stakeholder approach based on complete life cycle information, in order to increase the social acceptance of new power plants. In this initiative, EPDs is to play a major role as communication tool, providing comprehensive, as well as reliable and credible life cycle information to stakeholders

68 I.2 Enel DEPs chez Enel Covers of the two published EPDs and related information on Enel’s website

69 I.2 Enel - Etiquetage de l’Électricité verte pour les Clients d’affaires et consommateurs
Enel is also using another type of label to communicate to consumers: The ISO-type I-like label “100% energia verde” on green electricity. The interesting aspect is that this label is also attached on the final product of the company buying renewable energy from Enel, thus being an important vehicle of LCM information both for Enel and the client L’étiquette de l’électricité verte est aussi jointe aux produits des clients d’affaires achetant de l’énergie renouvelable chez Enel (e.g. producteur d’eau minérale)  Importants moyens de communication du cycle de vie

70 I.2 Enel GCV et rapport de durabilité
Les résultats de la GCV (ex. étiquetage de l’électricité verte) sont communiqués à travers les rapports de développement durable LCM and the involvement in green pricing are reported in the Corporate Sustainability Report

71 Secteur Électronique Conducteurs des secteurs spécifiques
L’environnement est intégré dans la structure de gestion L’ACV/PCV et l’éco conception avec des cibles claires Programme d’approvisionnement publique écologique des administrations publiques Japon, Chine, autres pays et administrations publiques Pression des réglementations WEEE, RoHS, Directives sur les batteries et les accumulateurs contenant du mercure, etc. Demande d’information des clients d’affaires Diversification et compétitivité sur les marchés Augmentation de l’attention des parties prenantes de la finance The second key sector, in which clear LCM communication strategies can be identified is the electronic sector. Japanese companies are particularly active.

72 Secteur Électronique Exemples de communication du CV
Samsung Seiko Epson Canon Konica Minolta Matsushita Electric / Panasonic Ricoh

73 Secteur II. Secteur Électronique Étude de cas 1: Samsung (Corée du Sud)
Rapport de Gestion écologique depuis 1999 Comité de gestion de la sécurité/environnement dirigé par le CEO L’ACV a été d’abord adopté en 1995, actuellement appliqué pour la conception et le développement des produits, en combinaison avec DfX (conception pour le recyclage/service/démontage/montage) Outil interne EPS – Système de l’Eco-Produit 5 modules: ACV, écoconception, comptabilité environnementale, approvisionnement vert, service à la clientèle Large gamme de EPIS appliquée Since 1999 Samsung has published a “Green Management Report.” In addition to environmental information and ambitious targets, it also reports the main social activities, as well as the achievements in terms of health, safety and the security of products. Green Management policies and strategies are established by an Environment/Safety Management Committee, which periodically appraises the performance. The Committee is headed by the CEO and supervises five subcommittees in charge of eco-design, eco-products, green production, lead-free soldering and eco-devices. In order to boost the production of environmentally sound products, every factory both at home and abroad is subject to the activities promoted by the Committee. LCA was first adopted in 1995 to assess the environmental burden of microwave ovens. Currently, it is constantly applied for the design and development of new products, together with the DfX methodology[1]. After the introduction of the EPD system in Korea, Samsung Electronics is using the tool as a way of marketing and to provide customers with reliable environmental information on its products. In 2003, an EPD for a VCR model was issued, which was the first to obtain the certification under the new born Korean system. The company was also awarded the 2003 Green Marketing Grand Prize from the Ministry of the Environment and the Maeil Business Newspaper, for the VCR’s excellence in such environmental factors as recyclability, energy consumption and non-toxicity. Prize winners are selected through a multi-tier process of screening which is based also on a consumer survey. Regarding the semiconductor sector, in 2001 a "green" semiconductor product entered into mass production. The device uses no halogen compound, which contain such toxic substances as lead, chlorine and bromine. In September 2003, Samsung opened a web site on environment-friendly semiconductors[2], in order to respond to customers' increasing requests concerning the environmental characteristics of semiconductors’ devices, with particular respect to the content of banned or toxic materials. The web site provides information on semiconductors such as Samsung Electronics' environment-friendly semi-conductor development strategies, status of products in development and production, quality, reliability tests and future roadmap. Releasing this professional and practical information is a demonstration of Samsung’s commitment to leading in standardization and development of environment-friendly semiconductors. Finally, the company has developed an internal tool which is called Eco-Product System (EPS). The tool is composed of five modules: LCA, Eco-Design, Environmental Accounting, Green Procurement and Environmental Customer Service. The single outcomes are shared for a systematic total assessment. EPS provides publicly available LCA data for both the general public and experts. The system also provides a database on environmental suitability of raw and semi-raw materials. It will be further used to provide environmental information on work processes, loadings of substance, costs of products, evaluation of suppliers, and accreditation of eco-partners. In addition, EPS is equipped with the green procurement capability (for acquiring environmentally friendly raw materials) and Eco-DB (for providing customers with product-related environmental data in real time). [1] Design for Recycle/Service/Disassembly/Assembly. [2] The URL is Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

74 II.1 Samsung Combinaison des EPIS appliquées
ISO TYPE I Kela (depuis 1995) Plus de 60 produits, dont: 7 modèles d’imprimantes 1 modèle de télécopieur 5 modèles de téléviseurs 20 modèles d’ordinateurs+ écrans 8 modèles de purificateurs d’air 19 modèles d’autres produits (non spécifiés) TCO 15 modèles d’écrans Blue Angel 1 modèle d’imprimante ISO TYPE II Label de conformité Eco – RoHS (pour les mémoires, PwBs, DVDs, caméras numériques, etc. ISO TYPE III EMC (Korean EPD system) 1 modèle de camera numérique 1 modèle de lecteur de disque optique 1 modèle de LCD-TFT écran plat 1 modèle d’écran CRT 1 modèle de vidéo projecteur TFT 1 modèle de TV PDP 1 modèle de climatiseur 1 modèle de VCR 1 modèle de réfrigérateur ménager 1 modèle d’imprimante laser Différents EPIS appliqués pour les différents produits et différents marchés With respect to EPI tools, the company started adopting ISO-type I ecolabels in Currently the ecolabels are still considered as one of the most promising instruments, according to the Environmental manager contacted. Samsung believes in fact that new regulations like the EuP directive or the green public procurement will necessarily boost the market of ecolabelled products. In this sense, Samsung has first started to obtain ecolables for its products under the Korean system but has turned its interest also to European schemes like the TCO label and the Blue Angel. The table provides an overview of all the EPI tools adopted by the company. Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

75 II.1 Samsung Combinaison des EPIS appliquées (suite)
Labels d’Energie EU Energy Star 10 modèles d’écran d’ordinateur US Energy Star 15 modèles d’écrans d’ordinateur 2 modèles d’imprimante/télécopieur 36 modèles d’imprimante/télécopieur 16 modèles d’imprimantes 75 modèles d’imprimantes 8 modèles de MFD 14 modèles de MFD 3 modèles de télécopieur 18 modèles de télécopieurs Plan d’étiquetage d’efficacité de Hong Kong Energy 3 modèles d’imprimante Label D’économiseur d’énergie Corée du Sud Plusieurs produits, y compris: les TV, répertoires, téléphones portables, climatiseurs Labels d’énergie utilisés dans les marchés pertinents en complément des déclaration et labels et environnementaux (cont.) A very interesting label developed by Samsung is related to products that comply with the EU RoHS Directive. The type II Eco-label developed is applied to products that do not contain internationally banned toxic chemicals. The label is also a practical response to an increasing request of transparency risen by customers. As pointed out by the manager contacted (and publicly reported), from 2000 the interest in eco-products has continuously increased. Customers are particularly interested in the application of the Eco-products, touted as the high performance digital product, which would lead the future market. The most frequently asked questions are about the substitution plans for banned products, followed by requests on the material component and the availability of a guarantee letter for products. In average, more than 90% of questions are on hazardous materials. In addition, Samsung is also supplier to NEC and other Japanese companies. NEC, in particular, requires Samsung to provide LCA data on its products. Other Japanese purchasers apply eco-labels for their products therefore requiring their suppliers to submit the information about hazardous materials. These circumstances can well explain Samsung’s interest in EPI tools. In order to show its environmental commitment to both the general public and the industrial customers, the company discloses a lot of environmental information in its website, makes dedicated advertisement, has developed its own ecolabel and has applied to both ISO I and III labels. According to the environmental manager, type I ecolabels and environmental self-claims are seen as the most promising. The first because the EuP directive and the green public purchasing will increase the number of ecolabelled products, the second because the variety of functions and the environmental characteristics of products can be best highlighted by self-declarations. In addition, the manager honestly believes that an environmental certification cannot be requested for all products. Currently the use of different EPI tools is dependent on the type of customer and its particular requests or needs, as well as the expected effect of marketing. The marketing component is particularly important at Samsung. In fact, EPI tools have been promoted jointly by the R&D and marketing departments which collaborate together for the promotion and the exploitation of the mentioned instruments Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

76 Secteur II. Secteur Electronique Etude de cas 2: Seiko-Epson (Japan)
Auto-definition: “Société visionnaire” CEO: “le but de la corporation est d’être en avance de cinq ou dix ans dans la mise en oeuvre des eco-programmes globaux, n’excédant ainsi les attentes de ses parties prenantes” Rapport environnemental depuis 1999, rapport de durabilité et RSE depuis 2003 Cible environnementale et progrès ACV à la fois sur le produit et au niveau de l’usine Réductions des émissions fortes appliquées dans les nouvelles usines Groupes cibles de PCV à chaque niveau: conception, approvisionnement, fabrication, ventes, récupération/recyclage L’obtention des labels de qualification environnementaux est un objectif des départements conception et ventes Epson defines itself as a “visionary company”, which is engaged in “progressive activities”. As an example, it was the first company in the world to completely eliminate CFC gas from its manufacturing processes. The aim of the corporation, as made explicit by its CEO, is to be five or ten years ahead of other companies in implementing comprehensive eco-programs, thus exceeding the expectations of its stakeholders. Among the companies contacted, Epson was the first one to have already prepared its new report for the year Epson began publishing its Environmental report in In 2003, it issued the first Sustainability report, which is now in its third edition. The document contains information on CSR. In addition, it highlights the continuous improvement recorded in the environmental performance of the Group. Within the environmental programs and targets, LCA plays a major role. The tool is used in fact both at the factory and product levels. With respect to the first issue, for example, Epson has carried out an extensive LCA in the Chitose plant in Hokkaido in order to assess the environmental performance of the newest electronic device production plant, which began full-scale operations in April The plant manufactures high-temperature polysilicon TFT LCD panels, a core device for LCD projectors and large-screen LCD projection televisions. Since the production process accounts for 70% of total energy consumptions of the Group, Epson wants to monitor its plants in order to improve the energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions. The LCA conducted on the Chitose plant has allowed the company to achieve a CO2 reduction rate of 55% per m2 of wafer processed with respect to other plants. As far as LCA for products is concerned, Epson has a specific program to quantify the environmental impact throughout the lifecycle and plans to deploy LCA Groupwide in order to produce high quality performing products. The LCA approach is part of a Life Cycle Thinking which establishes several targets at every stage: from the design phase to the procurement, manufacturing, transportation, sales, use and recovery/recycling. Obtaining environmental label qualifications (type I, II, III) is an established objective both for the design and the sales departments. This is a confirmation that the R&D and the commercial/marketing activities are considered synergic by the Group. Unlike other companies, the sales are assigned the second largest amount of environmental targets to be reached, after the design unit. In addition to a series of targets to be accomplished by the offices (like zero emissions, to comply with green purchasing laws, etc.), there is a specific focus on the environmental information disclosure, to be carried out by each regional site. The disclosure must be obtained through websites, catalogues, environmental labels. Data must be quantified and the information must reach the customers Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

77 II.2 Seiko-Epson Combinaison de l’EPIS appliqué
ISO TYPE I Eco Mark Imprimantes Inkjet, laser, et SIDM rs + papier Blue Angel 2 modèles d’imprimante Taiwan Green Mark 41 produits, dont les imprimantes laser, les imprimantes inkjet et les cartouches ISO DE TYPE II 50% de tous les produits et 43% des ventes totales dans toutes les affaires pour le label Epson Écologie ISO DE TYPE III Ecoleaf 1 modèle de répertoire de PC 15 modèles d’imprimante 1 modèle d’ordinateur de bureau 20 modèles de projecteur 1 modèle d’écran d’ordinateur 4 modèles d’imprimante à large format Labels d’Énergie International Energy Star 4 modèles d’ordinateurs US Energy Star 1 modèle de MFD 6 modèles d’imprimantes 25 modèles d’imprimante 3 modèles de scanner 7 modèles de scanner Energy Saving Label Corée du Sud N.A. Energy Conservation Product Certification Chine Plusieurs modèles d’imprimantes (inkjet, laser, SIDM) Différents EPIS appliqués pour les différents produits et les différents marchés With respect to EPI tools, Epson has already achieved compliance with various international environmental labels standards, including Eco-Mark, Blue Angel, Taiwan Green Mark, China Energy Conservation Product Certification label, Energy Star, and Ecoleaf. In addition, the company has developed its own voluntary label program. The label is granted to products that achieve industry-leading levels or demonstrate improved environmental performance over conventional models, in terms of in-operation energy savings, resource savings and elimination of hazardous substances. The label thus communicates a product’s proven environmental performance to customers. The latter can also obtain environmental specifications through the Epson Ecology Profile sheets which are part of the ecology label program. The data sheets show the environmental specifications of the product itself, the packaging and the consumables. For electronic devices, they also include the quantities of chemical substances contained in the device. Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

78 II.2 Seiko-Epson Stratégie de Communication
Existence d’une stratégie globale de communication Chaque type de EPIS a sa propre audience cible et ses objectifs Le Label ISO de type II “Epson Écologie” démontre une performance environnementale améliorée sur des modèles conventionnels (à la fois IT et semiconducteurs) Les consommateurs peuvent obtenir des spécification avec le Profile Epson Écologie Les labels spécifiques ISO de type II pour l’approvisionnement durable Eco Déclaration IT dans les pays scandinaves Label PC vert au Japon (indique la promotion “société de recyclage” et l’atteinte des cibles volontaires de l’industrie) As a further step, Epson uses two specific ISO-type II labels in the European Nordic countries and in Japan. In Scandinavia, it presents its environmental claims according to the IT Eco Declaration format, a voluntary label developed by the Swedish Environmental Management Council which aims at supporting sustainable procurement. In Japan, it makes use of the PC green label to commercialise its PCs. The use of the label indicates the producer’s intent to promote the establishment of a “recycling society” and the fact that it has met industry-wide voluntary targets. The table summarizes the number of environmental labels with which Epson complies [Source: Menichetti 2005]

79 II.2 Seiko-Epson Stratégie de Communication – (cont.)
Haute priorité aux ecolabels ISO de type I du Japon, Taiwan et l’Allemagne En Taiwan a augmenté les ventes  Epson vise à certifier au moins 80% de la gamme entière de ses produits Répondre au nombre croissant de réglementations écologiques d’approvisonnement publique (ex. certifié pour la certification du produit de la conservation d’énergie) 42 modèles ont la déclaration Ecoleaf ISO de type III Forte communication interne de la GCV Utilisation d’outils de communications basés sur l’Internet As a further tool to disclose environmental product information, in 2004 Epson issued a leaflet titled “Environmental Newsline”, which was sent by the CSR manager contacted. In this document, Epson declares to be committed to proactively disclosing product environmental data through environmental labels. In order of priority, the company seeks for ISO type I labels. Environmental self-declarations and EPDs are seen as very important, too. EPI tools are considered to be a distinctive feature which enhances the competitive advantage of the companies. With this respect, Epson reports that Green Mark ecolabelled products in Taiwan have had a very positive impact on the market, thus increasing the product sales. As a consequence, Epson Taiwan has decided to get the Green Mark for at least 80% of the entire production. Such a cause-effect relation is usually difficult to be recorded. None of the other companies contacted had a clear perception of a possible correlation between the use of EPI tools and the sales increase. Other justifications were given for their interest in the tools, first of all the need to respond to a growing number of green public procurement regulations all over the world. This is an important issue for Epson, as well. For example, the Chinese government has adopted a policy to give priority to products compliant with China’s energy conservation product certification in public procurement. In response, Epson has immediately obtained qualification for the mark and was recognised as a certified manufacturer in the first round of certification. Beyond using different types of ecolabels, the company has set its own type II label with the objective to disclose product environmental data. Besides its commitment to cut CO2 emissions, Epson has developed a method, which is available on the website, to calculate the emissions of PFC (Perfluorocarbons) gases used in the manufacturing of semiconductors, in order to allow other companies to reduce their GHG emissions. In the list of high-priority activities, the following are included: improve corporate citizenship activities by collaborating with environmental organisations in each region of the world, and support environmental education for the next generation. The environmental education and awareness raisings of employees is a key issue at all levels, both inside the Group and with respect to affiliates. Briefings are regularly carried out with local administrations and representatives of local communities and positive feedbacks in terms of confidence and sense of security have been received by the population representatives. Another interesting example is related to the education of final consumers. Epson has included an environmental page in printer catalogues to help customer understand their environmental performance and the recovery and recycling system. On the same page, the company also requests their cooperation for an effective recovery and recycling [1] Perfluorocarbons. Source: Menichetti (2005) [Source: Menichetti 2005]

80 Qu’est ce qui vient après ? Perspectives

81 Tendances récentes et dans un futur proche
Production de rapport: Plus d’approches de cycle de vie La communication relative au produit : vers l’amélioration comparative Évaluation de durabilité (aussi liée au produit) intégrant les aspects environnementaux, sociaux et économiques Un outil ne suffit pas! Combinaison de EPIS et du cycle de vie du produit

82 Production de rapports de développement durable
Oct 2006: Révision des directives GRI (G3) Augmentation de l’attention à la gestion du cycle de vie In the current revision of Global Reporting Initiatives (GRI) there is an increase in attention on LCM

83 Communiquer le progrès (relatif au produit) Nouvelles déclarations ISO de type II
Exemple: ISO de type II labels au Japon Panasonic: Factor X fournit une information concise sur l’amélioration des nouveaux produits en rapport avec les anciens There is another trend that can be observed in Japan, where life cycle information is usually considered to be complex, but at the same time companies want to report their progress. As a consequence, some electronics companies in Japan have tried to simplify such complex life cycle information so that consumers can easily understand how products are improved in a life cycle perspective. For instance, Matsushita, generally known as Panasonic, has invented Factor X, which represents the improvement ratio from the product life cycle viewpoint. They have applied the Factor X to most of their products. Purchasers and consumers can access to the converted life cycle information easily, from the web and product catalogues. Matsushita and Hitachi have established an alliance about sharing those factor methods. Hitachi also implements the same concept. The main indicators to communicate environmental performance improvement are the greenhouse gas (GHG) factor and the Resource Factor, defined as follows: GHG factor = (GHG efficiency of the new product) / (GHG efficiency of the old product), where GHG efficiency = (Product life x Product functions) / (GHG emissions over the entire life cycle)   Resource factor = (Resource efficiency of the new product) / (Resource efficiency of the old product) Resource efficiency = (Product life x Product functions) / (Resources that do not circulate over the entire life The Factor X by Panasonic The Factor X developed by Matsushita / Panasonic in the electronic sector is an ISO-type II label, which provides final consumers with concise information about the improvement of new products with respect to old ones in a product life cycle perspective. Focus is on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), resource consumption and product-specific environmental issues (e.g. lead-free) cycle) Source: Frankl et al (2004) Facteur GHG = (efficacité GHG du nouveau produit) / (efficacité GHG de l’ancien produit), efficacité GHG = (vie du produit x fonctions du produit) / (émissions GHG sur toute la durée du cycle de vie)

84 EPDs futur avec des repérages
Étude récente (2006) sur les exigences du consommateur sur les déclarations environnementales de Type III Recommandation: Repère avec une présentation graphique Repère économique reflétant le ratio qualité/prix Repère avec les catégorie du produit et la moyennes des marchandises The information currently reported in most EPDs is still too difficult to be understood by the majority of people. Results are often reported in terms of tables and absolute values of mid-term life cycle indicators, which are generally not understandable for non-experts. The format and length of an EPD is generally not standardized and can be very variable, possibly leading to further confusion. Moreover, information recipients need a benchmark, i.e. reference values to compare with. A first step is to standardize the format or EPDs as much as possible. Moreover, the complete information should be always presented by a four-page summary. Furthermore, it was proposed to develop sector-specific “average” EPDs, which should serve as benchmark value for the specific product group. This kind of work might be supported and commissioned by the relevant industry association. This is actually what is going on in France in the building sector. This also goes in a similar line with the indication of the recent survey on Consumer demands on type-III environmental declarations carried out in Denmark (Christiansen et al. 2006). Among other things, this study recommends to present results also in graphic form, comparing the impacts of the product with the ones from spending the same amount of money on an average product form the same product group. Source: Frankl et al (2006) Impacts à partir d’un produit A relatifs aux impacts à dépenser la même somme d’argent sur "un produit moyen“ (d’un groupe de produits) Impacts à partir d’un produit A relatif aux impacts à dépenser la même somme d’argent sur" des bien de consommation moyens“ [Source: K.Christiansen et al 2006]

85 Vers une communication de durabilité relative au produit
“Analyse Socio-Eco-Efficiency” (SEEbalance®) at BASF Utilisée pour les objectifs internes (eco-conception, développement du produit ) mais aussi: Marketing, appui aux consommateurs externes et acceptation sociale du produit Pour communiquer les enjeux ex. Rapport de développement durable de l’entreprise BASF is the largest chemical company in the World. In the 1990s BASF developed the “Eco-Efficiency Analysis” as a standard tool for a comprehensive assessment of products and processes; until August 2005 more than 240 analyses had been carried out. Recently, this tool has been amended to include a social dimension, “Socio-Eco-Efficiency Analysis” (SEEbalance®), when needed. The products are analyzed from the angle of the end customer, and ecological, economic and social aspects are given equal weight in assessments. It is possible to evaluate future scenarios and effects of various action options. BASF uses Eco-Efficiency Analysis or SEEbalance® for Strategic decisions on investments, products and markets. Comparison of production sites and markets. Prioritization of research and product development. Discussion with opinion makers in political decisions. Marketing, support to external customers and social acceptance of product. For communication issues e.g. corporate sustainability reports Source: A.A. Jensen (2006) [Source: A.A.Jensen 2006

86 Formation en gestion du cycle de vie - Plan
Introduction à la GCV Première session Comment la GCV est utilisée en pratique Deuxième session Communiquer les résultats de la GCV Troisième session La GCV et les attentes des parties prenantes Quatrième Session Christiansen et al (2006): K. Christiansen, M. Wesnaes, B. Weidema: “Consumer demands on Type III environmental declarations”, Report to ANEC, Brussels (2006) Frankl et al (2004): “Communication of Life Cycle Information”, P. Frankl et al., in Background Report for a UNEP Guide to Life Cycle Management – A bridge to sustainable products, UNEP, vers. Feb. 2006, retrievable at Frankl et al (2006): “Communication of Life Cycle Information in the Building and Energy Sectors” Report of the Barcelona expert workshop organized by the UNEP/SETAC Task Force on Communication of Life Cycle Information, Rome and Barcelona (2006) INTEND (2005): Final Report of LIFE-Project INTEND “Definition of an Environmental Product Declaration system that can be applied at international level and its implementation in two pilot countries (Sweden and Italy)”, Macroscopio, Italy (2005) Menichetti (2006): E. Menichetti: “The use of LCA for environmental communication and sustainable marketing – A methodological framework and sector-specific empirical findings”, St. Gallen, Switzerland (2005); presented at SETAC Europe Annual Meeting, Den Haag (2006) Rubik & Frankl (2005): F. Rubik and P. Frankl: “The Future of Eco-labeling - Making environmental product information systems effective”, Greenleaf, UK (2005) Smith (2005): T. Smith: “LCA information in marketing communications: addressing communication effectiveness in the building materials industries”, Barcelona TF Expert workshop (2005) TNO (2004): Final Report to EC/DG Environment “Making Life-Cycle Information and Interpretative Tools available”, TNO, The Netherlands (2004)


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