interest for the patterns the material seen in a dynamic way, as a flow between 2 human beings who communicate => interest for processes of production and reception these processes constraint forms of the flow (and its order) study of processes is to include into the study of the forms of the flow">

La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-1- Linear order of constituents : towards a generalisation Jacques Vergne GREYC - Université.

Présentations similaires


Présentation au sujet: "English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-1- Linear order of constituents : towards a generalisation Jacques Vergne GREYC - Université."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-1- Linear order of constituents : towards a generalisation Jacques Vergne GREYC - Université de Caen France séminaire TALANA

2 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-2- introduction : the order of constituents How to pose in a general way the question of the order of words in a sentence in a language towards a study of the order of X in a Y (independently of the language) i.e. while generalising : - in the dimension of constituents - in the dimension of languages We will propose some links :with prosody and with NL parsing

3 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-3- 2 eyes on the material => 2 significations of "order" the material seen in a static way, as a motionless object => interest for the patterns the material seen in a dynamic way, as a flow between 2 human beings who communicate => interest for processes of production and reception these processes constraint forms of the flow (and its order) study of processes is to include into the study of the forms of the flow

4 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-4- the question of the language of the flow some properties of the flow are independent of its language constraints on the flow are independent of its language : - the flow is unidimensional - 2 human beings communicate :. same vocal system. same cognitive system. same search of the least effort (optimisation)

5 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-5- a flow of constituents, of segments the flow is discrete : a sequence of segments, organised into a hierarchy (hierarchies are multiple, but not recursive : several partitions = several eyes) cuts, discontinuities are placed by the speaker these cuts allow the receiver to rebuild, restore, recompute segments, their hierarchy, and links between segments (discontinuity is a foundation of perception) the flow is a coding, a temporary (and protective) compression of the produced, transmitted and received complex structures

6 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-6- flow of segments => production order of segments the question of the order in a flow : production order of segments in the production process hence the plan of the lecture : - segments : non recursive hierarchies - a model of the production process - some constraints on the production process. constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space. cognitive constraint of the least effort

7 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-7- plan of the lecture 1. Segments : non recursive hierarchies 2. A model of the production process 3. Some constraints on the production process. 3.1 Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space. 3.2 Cognitive constraint of the least effort 4. Links with prosody 5. Links with NL parsing

8 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-8- segments : non recursive hierarchies examples of non recursive hierarchies : in physics : molecules, atoms, particules in astrophysics : galactic clusters, galaxies, stellar systems in syntax of writing : document, textual zone, paragraph, sentence, between ponctuations, physical words, characters in speech syntax : breath group, prosodic group, accentual group, syllables, phonemes in a recursive hierarchy, an element of a level is composed of elements of the same level or of the lower level in a non recursive hierarchy, an element of a level is composed of elements of the lower level 1.

9 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-9- segments : non recursive hierarchies in a non recursive hierarchy : - an element of a level is composed of elements of the lower level (or of lower levels : heterogeneous hierarchy) - the number of levels is fixed a priori a hierarchy is a model, a representation of an object, only a particular eye on this object (it is not a truth on this object) it is a tool for thinking, representing an object, for act on the object (this action can help to validate the model) 1.

10 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-10- plan of the lecture 1. Segments : non recursive hierarchies 2. A model of the production process 3. Some constraints on the production process. 3.1 Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space. 3.2 Cognitive constraint of the least effort 4. Links with prosody 5. Links with NL parsing

11 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-11- a model of the production process let us see the production process as : or the transformation of a graph into a chain (the flow) or the transformation : structural order --> linear order (Tesnière) or the enumeration of the nodes of a graph or the linearisation of a graph the graph = the linked elements to produce the chain = the flow = the linked elements produced into a certain order 2.

12 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-12- plan of the lecture 1. Segments : non recursive hierarchies 2. A model of the production process 3. Some constraints on the production process. 3.1 Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space. 3.2 Cognitive constraint of the least effort 4. Links with prosody 5. Links with NL parsing

13 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-13- constraints on the production process 3.1. Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space : - the time of the speech - or the line of the text 3.2. Cognitive constraint of the least effort of memory : - limit of embedding number - limit of distance between linked segments - minimisation of distances between linked segments in the flow 3.

14 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-14- constraint : flow = 1 dimension space question : how to place linked nodes onto an axis ? graphs linearised graphs 3.1.

15 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-15- constraint : flow = 1 dimension space question : how to place linked nodes closer ? metrics : in the flow, distance between 2 nodes = number of nodes between these 2 nodes (contiguity null distance) graphs linearised graphs ∑=0 ∑=1 ∑=3 3.1.

16 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-16- constraints on the production process 3.1. constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space : - the time of the speech - or the line of the text 3.2. cognitive constraint of the least effort of memory : - limit of the number of embeddings - limit of distance between linked segments - minimisation of distances between linked segments in the flow 3.

17 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-17- limit of embeddings Un amour de Swann Pour faire partie du "petit noyau", du "petit groupe", du "petit clan" Verdurin, une condition était suffisante, mais elle était nécessaire: il fallait adhérer tacitement à un Credo dont un des articles était que le jeune pianiste, protégé par Mme Verdurin cette année-là et dont elle disait: "Ça ne devrait pas être permis de jouer Wagner comme ça!", "enfonçait" à la fois Planté et Rubinstein et que le docteur Cottard avait plus de diagnostic que Potain. Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux étaient ennuyeuses comme la pluie, se voyait immédiatement exclue. Les femmes étant à cet égard plus rebelles que les hommes à déposer toute curiosité mondaine et l'envie de se renseigner par soi-même sur l'agrément des autres salons, et les Verdurin sentant d'autre part que cet esprit d'examen et ce démon de frivolité pouvait par contagion devenir fatal à l'orthodoxie de la petite famille, ils avaient été menés à rejeter successivement tous les "fidèles" du sexe féminin. À la recherche du temps perdu (Marcel Proust) 3.2.

18 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-18- limit of embeddings Un amour de Swann Pour faire partie du "petit noyau", du "petit groupe", du "petit clan" Verdurin, une condition était suffisante, mais elle était nécessaire: il fallait adhérer tacitement à un Credo dont un des articles était que le jeune pianiste, protégé par Mme Verdurin cette année-là et dont elle disait: "Ça ne devrait pas être permis de jouer Wagner comme ça!", "enfonçait" à la fois Planté et Rubinstein et que le docteur Cottard avait plus de diagnostic que Potain. Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux étaient ennuyeuses comme la pluie, se voyait immédiatement exclue. Les femmes étant à cet égard plus rebelles que les hommes à déposer toute curiosité mondaine et l'envie de se renseigner par soi-même sur l'agrément des autres salons, et les Verdurin sentant d'autre part que cet esprit d'examen et ce démon de frivolité pouvait par contagion devenir fatal à l'orthodoxie de la petite famille, ils avaient été menés à rejeter successivement tous les "fidèles" du sexe féminin. À la recherche du temps perdu (Marcel Proust) 3.2.

19 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-19- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

20 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-20- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui... ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

21 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-21- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ? ? 2 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

22 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-22- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader... ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

23 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-23- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que... ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

24 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-24- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées... ? 2 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

25 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-25- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens ? 2 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

26 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-26- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui ? ? 3 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

27 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-27- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas... ? 2 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

28 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-28- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux ? 2 subjects waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

29 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-29- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux étaient ennuyeuses... ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

30 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-30- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux étaient ennuyeuses comme la pluie, ? 1 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

31 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-31- limit of embeddings Toute "nouvelle recrue" à qui les Verdurin ne pouvaient pas persuader que les soirées des gens qui n'allaient pas chez eux étaient ennuyeuses comme la pluie, se voyait immédiatement exclue. 0 subject waiting for a verb in the flow 3.2.

32 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-32- limit of embeddings the limit of clause embeddings is 1 embedded clause inside 1 embedded clause in the flow 3.2.

33 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-33- limit of embeddings the limit of clause embeddings is 1 embedded clause inside 1 embedded clause = the limit of the number of waiting subjects is 3 subjects waiting for their verb in the flow 3.2.

34 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-34- limit of embeddings the limit of clause embeddings is 1 embedded clause inside 1 embedded clause = the limit of the number of waiting subjects is 3 subjects waiting for their verb hypothesis : it is a limit of memory in the flow 3.2.

35 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-35- constraints on the production process 3.1. constraint of the flow as a space à 1 dimension : - the time of the speech - or the line of the text 3.2. cognitive constraint of the least effort of memory : - limit of the number of embeddings - limit of distance between linked segments - minimisation of distances between linked segments in the flow 3.

36 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-36- limit of distance between linked segments En dehors de la jeune femme du docteur, ils étaient réduits presque uniquement cette année-là (bien que Mme Verdurin fût elle-même vertueuse et d'une respectable famille bourgeoise, excessivement riche et entièrement obscure, avec laquelle elle avait peu à peu cessé volontairement toute relation) à une personne presque du demi-monde, Mme de Crécy, que Mme Verdurin appelait par son petit nom, Odette, et déclarait être "un amour", et à la tante du pianiste, laquelle devait avoir tiré le cordon; personnes ignorantes du monde et à la naïveté de qui il avait été si facile de faire accroire que la princesse de Sagan et la duchesse de Guermantes étaient obligées de payer des malheureux pour avoir du monde à leurs dîners, que si on leur avait offert de les faire inviter chez ces deux grandes dames, l'ancienne concierge et la cocotte eussent dédaigneusement refusé. 3.2.

37 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-37- limit of distance between linked segments En dehors de la jeune femme du docteur, ils étaient réduits presque uniquement cette année-là (bien que Mme Verdurin fût elle-même vertueuse et d'une respectable famille bourgeoise, excessivement riche et entièrement obscure, avec laquelle elle avait peu à peu cessé volontairement toute relation) à une personne presque du demi-monde, Mme de Crécy, que Mme Verdurin appelait par son petit nom, Odette, et déclarait être "un amour", et à la tante du pianiste, laquelle devait avoir tiré le cordon; personnes ignorantes du monde et à la naïveté de qui il avait été si facile de faire accroire que la princesse de Sagan et la duchesse de Guermantes étaient obligées de payer des malheureux pour avoir du monde à leurs dîners, que si on leur avait offert de les faire inviter chez ces deux grandes dames, l'ancienne concierge et la cocotte eussent dédaigneusement refusé. 3.2.

38 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-38- limit of distance between linked segments En dehors de la jeune femme du docteur, ils étaient réduits presque uniquement cette année-là (bien que Mme Verdurin fût elle-même vertueuse et d'une respectable famille bourgeoise, excessivement riche et entièrement obscure, avec laquelle elle avait peu à peu cessé volontairement toute relation) à une personne presque du demi-monde, Mme de Crécy, que Mme Verdurin appelait par son petit nom, Odette, et déclarait être "un amour", et à la tante du pianiste, laquelle devait avoir tiré le cordon; personnes ignorantes du monde et à la naïveté de qui il avait été si facile de faire accroire que la princesse de Sagan et la duchesse de Guermantes étaient obligées de payer des malheureux pour avoir du monde à leurs dîners, que si on leur avait offert de les faire inviter chez ces deux grandes dames, l'ancienne concierge et la cocotte eussent dédaigneusement refusé. 3.2.

39 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-39- limit of distance between linked segments En dehors de la jeune femme du docteur, ils étaient réduits presque uniquement cette année-là (bien que Mme Verdurin fût elle-même vertueuse et d'une respectable famille bourgeoise, excessivement riche et entièrement obscure, avec laquelle elle avait peu à peu cessé volontairement toute relation) à une personne presque du demi-monde, Mme de Crécy, que Mme Verdurin appelait par son petit nom, Odette, et déclarait être "un amour", et à la tante du pianiste, laquelle devait avoir tiré le cordon; personnes ignorantes du monde et à la naïveté de qui il avait été si facile de faire accroire que la princesse de Sagan et la duchesse de Guermantes étaient obligées de payer des malheureux pour avoir du monde à leurs dîners, que si on leur avait offert de les faire inviter chez ces deux grandes dames, l'ancienne concierge et la cocotte eussent dédaigneusement refusé. 3.2.

40 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-40- limit of distance between linked segments the greater is the distance between linked segments, the more important is the effort of production - reception the distance between 2 linked segments is a mesure of the duration which separates these 2 segments in the production - reception process (question of distance => a metric is necessary) to be able to link 2 segments, at the moment of the reception of the second one, the receiver must have the first still present in memory at this moment maintaining the first segment in memory during a certain duration requires an effort which seems to be proportional to this duration 3.2.

41 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-41- constraints on the production process 3.1. constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space : - the time of the speech - or the line of the text 3.2. cognitive constraint of the least effort of memory : - limit of the number of embeddings - limit of distance between linked segments - minimisation of distances between linked segments in the flow 3.

42 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-42- constraint of minimisation of distances between linked segments in the flow criterion of comparison between different linearisations : the sum of distances between linked units hypothesis of the least effort of memory => geometrical definition of the optimisation criterion of the linearisation : this hypothesis is corroborated on corpus : the observed linearisations are optimised optimised linearisation = the one which minimises the sum of the distances between linked units 3.2.

43 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-43- an example of a non recursive hierarchy of segments sentences clauses chunks words 3.2.

44 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-44- These chunks correspond in some way to prosodic patterns. [...] the strongest stresses in the sentence fall one to a chunk, and pauses are most likely to fall between chunks. [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) an example : a prosodic segment :(an accentual group) 3.2.

45 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-45- These chunks correspond in some way to prosodic patterns. [...] the strongest stresses in the sentence fall one to a chunk, and pauses are most likely to fall between chunks. [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) an example : a prosodic segment :(an accentual group) 3.2.

46 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-46- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. an example : These chunks correspond in some way to prosodic patterns. [...] the strongest stresses in the sentence fall one to a chunk, and pauses are most likely to fall between chunks. a prosodic segment :(an accentual group) 3.2.

47 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-47- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. an example : The typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words, matching a fixed template. internal structure : 3.2.

48 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-48- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. an example : The typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words, matching a fixed template. internal structure : 3.2.

49 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-49- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) [I begin] [with an intuition] : [when I read] [a sentence], [I read it] [a chunk] [at a time]. an example : The typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words, matching a fixed template. internal structure : 3.2.

50 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-50- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) The typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words, matching a fixed template. A simple context-free grammar is quite adequate to describe the structure of chunks. the word order inside chunks : 3.2.

51 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-51- Abney's concept of chunk in "Parsing by Chunks" (1991) The typical chunk consists of a single content word surrounded by a constellation of function words, matching a fixed template. A simple context-free grammar is quite adequate to describe the structure of chunks. the word order inside chunks : the chunk order inside a sentence : By contrast, the relationships between chunks are mediated more by lexical selection than by rigid templates. [...] the order in which chunks occur is much more flexible than the order of words within chunks. 3.2.

52 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-52- the concept of chunk illustrated by Molière in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme : 3.2.

53 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-53- the concept of chunk illustrated by Molière [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux] [me font] [mourir] [d'amour]. in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme : 3.2.

54 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-54- the concept of chunk illustrated by Molière [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux] [me font] [mourir] [d'amour]. in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme : [d'amour] [mourir] [me font], [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux]. 3.2.

55 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-55- the concept of chunk illustrated by Molière [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux] [me font] [mourir] [d'amour]. in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme : [d'amour] [mourir] [me font], [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux]. [vos beaux yeux] [d'amour] [me font], [Belle marquise], [mourir]. 3.2.

56 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-56- the concept of chunk illustrated by Molière [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux] [me font] [mourir] [d'amour]. in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme : [d'amour] [mourir] [me font], [Belle marquise], [vos beaux yeux]. [vos beaux yeux] [d'amour] [me font], [Belle marquise], [mourir]. Molière permutes chunks (not words) 3.2.

57 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-57- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause 3.2.

58 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-58- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [L'auteur] [remercie] the case of verb complements in the clause 3.2.

59 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-59- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [L'auteur] [remercie] [le Professeur Hubert J. CECCALDI] the case of verb complements in the clause 1 chunk

60 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-60- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [L'auteur] [remercie] [le Professeur Hubert J. CECCALDI] [pour l'intérêt soutenu] [qu'il a manifesté] [au cours] [de ce travail]. the case of verb complements in the clause 1 1 chunk 4 chunks

61 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-61- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [Les travaux] [de Kuhn] [décrivaient] the case of verb complements in the clause 3.2.

62 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-62- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [Les travaux] [de Kuhn] [décrivaient] [pour la première fois] the case of verb complements in the clause 1 chunk

63 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-63- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [Les travaux] [de Kuhn] [décrivaient] [pour la première fois] [la présence] [d'astacine] [chez le homard] [comme "caroténoïde] [différent] [de ceux] [des végétaux]." the case of verb complements in the clause 1 1 chunk 7 chunks

64 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-64- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [verb] the case of verb complements in the clause 3.2.

65 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-65- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [verb] [complement 1 : 1 chunk] the case of verb complements in the clause

66 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-66- example of distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : [verb] [complement 1 : 1 chunk] [complement 2 : >1 chunk] the case of verb complements in the clause

67 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-67- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] 3.2.

68 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-68- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] [complement 1 : x chunks]

69 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-69- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] [complement 1 : x chunks] [complement 2 : y chunks] x

70 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-70- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] [complement 1 : x chunks] [complement 2 : y chunks] x 0 linearisation 1 : ∑ 1 = 0+x = x 3.2.

71 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-71- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] [complement 1 : x chunks] [complement 2 : y chunks] x 0 linearisation 1 : ∑ 1 = 0+x = x linearisation 2 : ∑ 2 = 0+y = y 3.2.

72 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-72- distance minimisation between linked segments in the flow : the case of verb complements in the clause [verb] [complement 1 : x chunks] [complement 2 : y chunks] x 0 linearisation 1 : ∑ 1 = 0+x = x linearisation 2 : ∑ 2 = 0+y = y hypothesis of the least effort of memory => the optimised linearisation minimises ∑ => ∑ 1 x < y => the shorter branch is said the first 3.2.

73 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-73- plan of the lecture 1. Segments : non recursive hierarchies 2. A model of the production process 3. Some constraints on the production process Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space Cognitive constraint of the least effort 4. Links with prosody 5. Links with NL parsing

74 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-74- links with prosody À l'issue de la réunion de son cabinet, ont provoqué la fuite de nombreux réfugiés. le président a déclaré que les combats qui ont débuté au mois de décembre 4.

75 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-75- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre] 4.

76 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-76- links with prosody 0 0 [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

77 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-77- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

78 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-78- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

79 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-79- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

80 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-80- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

81 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-81- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

82 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-82- links with prosody [À l'issue] [de la réunion] [de son cabinet], 0 0 [ont provoqué] [la fuite] [de nombreux réfugiés]. [le président] [a déclaré] [que les combats] [qui ont débuté] [au mois] [de décembre]

83 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-83- links with prosody ,

84 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-84- links with prosody 3 3 0, if accentual groups (= chunk) are contiguously linked, they are said without a pause, and together form a prosodic group 4.

85 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-85- links with prosody 3 3 0, if accentual groups (= chunk) are contiguously linked, they are said without a pause, and they together form a prosodic group if 2 contiguous accentual groups are not linked, they are separately said by a pause which is proportional to the length of the link this pause is a cut between 2 prosodic groups (discontinuity is a foundation of perception) 4.

86 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-86- links with prosody question : what is prosody used for ? why first text to speech systems without prosody (constant F0, constant durations, no pause) were so hard to understand ? 4.

87 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-87- links with prosody question : what is prosody used for ? why first text to speech systems without prosody (constant F0, constant durations, no pause) were so hard to understand ? hypothesis : the prosody generated by the speaker helps the hearer to segment in accentual groups, and to restore, recompute links between accentual groups 4.

88 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-88- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

89 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-89- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

90 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-90- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

91 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-91- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

92 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-92- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

93 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-93- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4.

94 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-94- links with prosody this model of prosody is the base to compute prosody in the text to speech system KALI 4. demonstration on line :

95 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-95- plan of the lecture 1. Segments : non recursive hierarchies 2. A model of the production process 3. Some constraints on the production process Constraint of the flow as a 1 dimension space Cognitive constraint of the least effort 4. Links with prosody 5. Links with NL parsing

96 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-96- links with NL parsing NL parsing is a simulation of the reception process : or the transformation of a chain (the flow) into a graph or the transformation : linear order --> structural order (Tesnière) or the reconstruction of a graph from its enumerated nodes 5. how to process the flow ? segmenting it, and linking segments graph = elements with their links computed, restored chain = flow = received elements in a certain order analyseur

97 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-97- links with NL parsing structures of constituents : - not to be explicited in a formal grammar as input - but to be computed and produced en output the parsing process : - not a combinatory process (or arborescent) - but a determinist process of linear complexity, explicited by rules applied to grains of the flow 5.

98 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-98- links with NL parsing which segments ? hierarchised segments 2 non recursive hierarchies (-> constituency links) a hierarchy of physical segments : document, textual zone, paragraph, sentence, between ponctuations, physical words, characters a hierarchy of computed segments : tokens, chunks, clauses,... 5.

99 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-99- links with NL parsing segmenting with which resources ? - without exhaustively knowing segments a priori (written forms and tags of words in dictionaries + constituent structures in formal grammars) - but segmenting with properties of borders between segments option : not modelling the flow with a formal grammar example of border between 2 chunks : morphemes of end] (punctuation) [morphemes of beginning resources to recognise borders are possible to enumerate : prepositions, determiners, punctuations, word endings 5.

100 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-100- links with NL parsing which segmentation process ? - not a combinatory process to recognise the structure of the sentence in a formal grammar - but applying to the input flow, rules using properties of the borders between segments (linear complexity) it is a computation on data with computing rules (// multiplying rules but not multiplying tables, operators but not operands) 5.

101 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-101- links with NL parsing which linking process ? 5.

102 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-102- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5.

103 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-103- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i step 1 rule 1

104 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-104- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit step 1 rule 1 invokable at any moment in the conditions

105 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-105- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type step 1 rule 1 invokable at any moment in the conditions

106 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-106- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type invokable at any moment in the conditions

107 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-107- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type invokable at any moment in the conditions

108 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-108- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type invokable at any moment in the conditions

109 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-109- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type unit j step 2 rule 2 invokable at any moment in the conditions

110 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-110- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit type unit j step 2 rule 2 type invokable at any moment in the conditions

111 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-111- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit unit j step 2 rule 2 type

112 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-112- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit unit j type

113 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-113- links with NL parsing which linking process ? a 2 steps process 5. unit i virtual unit unit j type process of linear complexity, independent of units arriving between the 2 linked units

114 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-114- links with NL parsing how to be independent of the language of the flow ? - first rules package : written forms --> attributes of units - following packages : computation on the attributes, independent of the language of the flow in the GREYC parser, common operations on English and French : segmentation into clauses linking chunks inside clauses segmentation into sentences debugging rules on English and French corpora 5.

115 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-115- end of the lecture you can download this presentation on

116 English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-116- your questions ?


Télécharger ppt "English version 4/12/2000 © Jacques Vergne séminaire TALANA-1- Linear order of constituents : towards a generalisation Jacques Vergne GREYC - Université."

Présentations similaires


Annonces Google