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Sagem A wide range of embedded Optronic Systems

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Présentation au sujet: "Sagem A wide range of embedded Optronic Systems"— Transcription de la présentation:

0 Aerospace days Airborne Vision systems for situation awareness
15/10/2014 Emmanuel KLING Optronics & Defence Division Sight Programs Department

1 Sagem A wide range of embedded Optronic Systems
I.R. Seekers AASM Dismounted Soldier UAVs Aerosurveillance Airborne Optronics Naval Optronics Land Optronics Hand-held Optronics Thermal Imagers Maîtrise technologique des solutions embarquées vidéo Couverture de l’ensemble des domaines Terrestre : fantassin et véhicule Marine surface et périscopie Aéroporté hélicoptère et drone Une organisation programmes / métiers / technologies Mutualisation des briques technologiques Economies d’échelle sur les coûts pour des marchés « étroits » Favorise l’éclosion de nouveaux produits Synergie avec les métiers connexes Information Tactique et Géographique Navigation et Localisation CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

2 Proprietary key technologies
Optronic Sensors Cooled and uncooled InfraRed Any bandwidth Lasers ITAR Free Robust to bad weather conditions Fog / low visibility Critical HW & SW DAL level D to B DO 178 B or C DO254 Line of sight management Stability Geo location Proved design Airborne application standards Robust / simple / reliable Low weight Real Time Video Processing 3D-Obstacle detection Image Fusion Enhanced reality Tracking CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

3 Sagem Optronics in airborne applications
Observation EUROFLIRTM : Gyro-stabilized Electro-Optical Airborne gimbals for SPERWER Tactical UAS PATROLLER UAS NH90, PANTHER, COUGAR helicopters Fixed-wings aircrafts Targeting Helicopter sights STRIX familiy (for TIGER HAP, HAD, ARH) Osiris (for TIGER UHT) Situation Awareness To reduce the risk of accident during all phases of the flight Mid Air Collisions between aircrafts CFIT (Controlled Flight into Terrain) Obstacle collisions on ground Additional Operational credit during landing phase All aircrafts : airliners, business jet, small aircraft, helicopters, UAs

4 Some “Situation Awareness” devices in Avionics
LOAS SWORD HELLAS LOAM Obstacle Warning Systems Terrain Awareness & Warning Systems Collision Avoidance Systems Synthetic Vision Systems Enhanced Vision Systems

5 Traffic Separation Rules
« In flight » Helicopter Flight Approach

6 Collision Avoidance products
TCAS – Transponders – PCAS – ADS-B TCAS (Traffic collision Avoidance Systems) involves communication between all aircrafts equipped with an appropriate transponder builds a three dimensional map of aircraft in the airspace Is only able to interact with aircraft that have a correctly operating mode C or mode S transponder Elaborates avoidance tactics PCAS (Portable Collision Avoidance System) Passive devices “hearing” transponder communications ADS-B (Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast) Active systems broadcasting aircraft current track, position and altitude given by GPS to ATC and to other equipped ADS-B aircraft Aircraft sensing by cooperative means Effective but requires that all aircraft in flight should be equipped with TCAS / ADS-B High Certification cost (TCAS & transponders) PCAS & ADS-B not yet certified worldwide Fixed and limited channel data bandwidth (ADS-B)

7 The need of a non cooperative and independent traffic surveillance system
Mid Air UAV and helicopters Operates mainly in uncontrolled airspaces TCAS and transponders are not well designed for helicopters since they are not installed on every following aircrafts helicopters gliders ULM UAV Balloons Paragliders We propose to increase the capability in traffic separation with a Traffic Sensing product using non-cooperative and independent means Independant The aircraft is not dependent on any external element (eg GPS) to make traffic surveillance in its environment. Non-cooperative Traffic monitoring is done without dedicated radio emission provided by other aircrafts. Therefore, it applies to all types of aircraft.

8 Controlled Flight Into Terrain - Existing equipments
TAWS (Terrain Awareness and Warning System) Electronics coupled to the navigation system and to a Digital cartographic and terrain database Developed since the 2000s, initially for military aviation Also for airliners and business aircraft, and now for helicopters Returns alerts about CFIT if the extrapolated trajectory of the plane "cuts" the ground SVS - Synthetic Vision System synthetic Image generation on the basis of terrain and cartographic database, and according to the trajectory of the aircraft Eventually merge with the images provided by an EVS, Becomes a CVS (Combined Vision System) CVS and SVS are subject to regulations set by D0315 (aircraft only). There is no equivalent regulation for such equipment on board helicopters. On airplanes, SVS shall display obstacles which are higher than 200 feet … (DO309)Helicopters operate in widely diverse environment, including under visual and instrument flight rules (VFR and IFR) and in both on- and off-airport operations, often with significant low altitude exposure. These systems seem not well-suited to helicopter operations since the used database is DTED1 or lower (100 m cell size) and not robust to ground asperities

9 HTAWS Regulation (RTCA DO 309)
Position Source Some recommendations (no requirements) regarding the type of GPS or WAAS used. If the position source is corrupted, the HTAWS must be switch off Terrain and Obstacle database No requirement on the quality of the database or its accuracy, nor on the recurrence of its update “The highest resolution database should be used where necessary and available.”(DO309) “The HTAWS does NOT guarantee successful recovery from a conflict due to factors such as pilot response, aircraft performance and database limitation” (DO309) Typical Terrain Database accuracies For a DTED level 1 : Individual Cell size : 100m Horizontal Accuracy Dr = (x2+y2)1/2 < 50 Altitude Accuracy D z < 30 It appears that: Only a database with metric accuracy allows to show the ground surface and generate alerts on small obstacles (buildings, rocks, pylons…) in low or very low altitude High resolution Databases (metric accuracy) are often classified and localized mainly around strategic sites (airports, military bases) The accuracy of the navigation data and spatial accuracy of the database must be compatible and constistent. Therefore, the operational interest of HTAWS is still relatively low compared to the challenge of helicopter flight => the need of a system for detecting obstacles on real measurements: these systems are the OWS (Obstacle Warning Systems)

10 Enhanced Flight Vision Systems
Situational awareness Approach stability in low visibility conditions

DO315 - Glossary RVR : Runway Visual Reference ,in aviation meteorology, is the distance over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. RVR is normally expressed in feet or meters. « Enhanced Flight Visibility » : “average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent topographical objects may be clearly distinguished and identified by day or night by a pilot using an enhanced flight vision system -> An EFVS, then, is the means by which the pilot meets the enhanced flight visibility requirement THRE : THReshold Elevation TDZ : TouchDown Zone CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION 11

Visual References Approach light system, if installed; or Visual references: Runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following: Beginning of the runway landing surface, Threshold lights, or Runway end identifier lights AND Touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following: Runway touchdown zone landing surface, Touchdown zone lights, Touchdown zone markings, or Runway lights. CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION 12

13 Active Obstacle Warning Systems for low altitude flights
AOWS – Active Obstacle Warning System Principle : Scanning the space by a RADAR or LASER beam Range measurement allows to detect possible obstacles.

14 Active OWS Example (ASC Inc.)
3D Flash LADAR Helicopter Landing Sensor for Brownout and Reduced Visual Cue CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

15 Active Obstacle Warning Systems for low altitude flights
Some products Lord / Sword (ELOP) : FO LASER, 24 kg, 600w Eagle Owl (BAe Systems) : FO LASER, 20 kg LOAM (Finmeccanica) : FO LASER, 25 kg LOAS (Goodrich) : FO LASER, 15 kg OAsys (Amphitec) : RADAR FMCW (Ka band) HELLAS (Airbus Defence) : FO LASER, 25 kg Typical sell prices : 150 k$ k$ The OWS provide a real answer to the problem of obstacles in the flight at very low altitude, especially on cable detection. Like all active systems, this capability shall not be at the expense of human safety -> need to switch off active systems during final approach to preserve personal safety (LASER) or electronic devices (RADAR). Cost, size, consumption and the lack of any certification rules associated with these products are some reasons why this market is reserved to military markets

16 POSAS Concept : A passive optronic situation awareness system dedicated to UAS and helicopters
to offer standard EFVS operational credit in approach phase (with Runway Visual References Recognition) to strengthen the traffic separation capability using non-cooperative and independent means in addition to cooperative means to offer a credible, passive, compact and low cost alternative compared to current active obstacle warning systems based on LASER or RADAR to provide solutions to extend TAWS and SVS operational credit at low altitude. POSAS Wide FOV EVS Traffic Surveillance Passive OWS 3D Mapping

17 POSAS Concept : How should it work ?
Integration of distributed low cost optronic sensors Uncooled infrared sensors operating in the LWIR spectral band Day and night “hot spot” detection Low light level sensors operating in the visible and near infrared spectral bands Aircraft strobe ligths, helipad lights, buildings warning lights… Integration of advanced image processing technologies Stereovision & Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping 3D Terrain mapping Navigation data accuracies improvement Hot spot detection Algorithms Reminder : tracks with a constant bearing are on a collision trajectory

18 Mid Air collision avoidance system
CAS MIDCAS Programme (AED contract, 2008) : UAV insertion in the traffic Wide selection of sensors / devices to be tested : Distributed Uncooled Infrared Sensors (Sagem) Near Infrared Sensors (Diehl BGT Defence) RADAR (THALES) Cooperative devices : TCAS, ADS-b Sensors installed on a Sky-Y UAV (Alenia Aeronautica) and DGA EV testbed (CASA Aircraft) Sensor Head Uncooled LWIR micro camera DGA EV Testbed

19 POWS Demonstrator Application : Flight Safety for Rotary Wings in degraded visual environment Flight cleared demonstrator currently under test 6 uncooled Infrared Cameras 1 visible HD camera Wide area surveillance : 150°x 80° 3D StereoVision Automatic obstacle detection Fly test on a DGA EV helicopter Test Bed (PUMA)

20 POWS Demonstrator

21 Stereovision Left image Right image Goal: compute a dense distance map (one distance for each pixel) from a pair of images Prerequisite: need to know precisely the geometry of the stereo rig (focal, pitch, baseline, etc.) Steps: Rectification: adjust the images as if they were co-planar (linear operation) Block matching: for each pixel of the left image, find its correspondent in the right image Triangulation: compute the distance map (meters) from the disparity map (pixel) Rectification Rectification Rectified left image Rectified right image Block matching Disparity map (pixel) Triangulation Distance map (m)

22 Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping
Low level extraction Temporal association High level Interest point detection (Harris, SIFT, Kanade…) 3D non-linear filtering Tracks (3D over time) Partant d’une position connue, le système gère sa position en utilisant un système inertiel et une caméra. La position affichée en temps réel montre la qualité du résultat. En l’absence d’informations sur l’inertie, difficile de quantifier l’apport. Images INS/Vision hybridation Associated data

23 POSAS : Main Operational Capabilities
Enhanced Vision (Wide FOV) Obstacles detection and ground mapping (3D) Obstacle Detection performances Between 0,6 NM and 10 NM (according to object type and meteorological conditions) Localisation and ranging performances Angular accuracy (azimut, elevation) : < 3s Range Accuracy : < 3s up to 1Mile

24 POSAS : Additional Operational Capabilities
Providing of a “USER” obstacle and terrain database for HTAWS and SVS Metric-class accuracy (obstacle location) 3D terrain mapping on a corridor along the path of the helicopter with a width of about 1 km Terrain Aided Navigation : the software compares the measured 3D mapping of the terrain with its internal database. The correlation peak gives the position of the aircraft in geographic coordinates. Improvement of navigation Data accuracies by INS / Vision hybridization Compared to the INS alone, the gains expected by hybridization with vision are: Attitude: error reduction of 35% Position: error reduction of 90% Speed: error reduction of 85% Strong gains are expected in z (better than GPS) Average standard error in z: 30 cm! (between 5cm and 2m on a typical scenario)

25 DVE System Architecture (NIAG SG 167)
OBSTACLE WARNING SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE À L’ÉTUDE DTED 2+ MSD ACFT Geo Position MAGRS/EGI (GPS) Current Equipment Augmenting Equipment Optional Equipment 1553/Ethernet Terrain Database Generator and SV Processor Flight Control Computers Dig Map Synthetic Vision Data DAS Uncooled-IR / LLLTV DTED/HRTI Update Display System (CMS) 1553/Ethernet HDD EV_SV Fusion Symb Processor DEUs DEUs POWS AOWS 1553/Ethernet DEUs : Display Electronic Units DTED : Digital Terrain Elevation Data EV : Enhanced Vision SV : Synthetic Vision HMD : Helmet Mounted Display CMS : Cockpit Management System DAS : Distributed Aperture System HRTI : High Resolution Terrain Information POWS : Passive Obstacle warning System AOWS : Active Obstacle Warning System HDD : Head Down Display HMD Head Tracker I2HMD Proc I2HMD Proc DIRECT HMD Tracked FOR - Display I2HMD (COTS/GDE) HMD Head Tracker DIRECT HMD Tracked FOR - Display

26 Conclusion A Passive Optronic System to increase Situation Awareness
to strengthen the traffic separation capability using non-cooperative and independent means OK, by using distributed staring sensors and air surveillance algorithms to offer a credible, compact and low cost alternative compared to current obstacle warning systems based on LASER or RADAR OK, by using distributed staring sensors and SLAM/Stereovision algorithms, the system can provide alerts when detecting obstacles on ground to provide solutions to extend HTAWS and SVS operational credit at low altitude. OK, by using SLAM / stereovision Algorithms : the system may elaborate a “user” 3D mapping of the neighborhood and may improve the accuracies of the navigation data (INS/Vision hybridization, Terrain Aided Navigation) to provide day / night enhanced vision for HDD, HuD, Helmet Mounted Display…

27 Questions ?

28 Optronique de surveillance Planches complémentaires
15/10/2014 Optronique de surveillance Planches complémentaires 28

29 Technical characteristics Comparison
TCAS + HTAWS + OWS Optronic surveillance D weight 30 – 35 kg ~ 5 kg D Consumption 600 W – 1000 W < 100 W D Cost class 400 k$ less than an order of magnitude

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