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0 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation.

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Présentation au sujet: "0 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 0 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Aerospace days Airborne Vision systems for situation awareness 15/10/2014 Emmanuel KLING Optronics & Defence Division Sight Programs Department

2 1 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Sagem A wide range of embedded Optronic Systems CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION I.R. Seekers AASM Dismounted Soldier UAVs Aerosurveillance Airborne Optronics Naval Optronics Land Optronics Hand-held Optronics Thermal Imagers

3 2 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Proprietary key technologies CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION Composants optroniques Stabilisation & Localisation Ligne de Visée Intégration Optomécanique Optronic Sensors Cooled and uncooled InfraRed Any bandwidth Lasers ITAR Free Robust to bad weather conditions Fog / low visibility Real Time Video Processing 3D-Obstacle detection Image Fusion Enhanced reality Tracking Critical HW & SW DAL level D to B DO 178 B or C DO254 Line of sight management Stability Geo location Proved design Airborne application standards Robust / simple / reliable Low weight

4 3 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem.  Observation EUROFLIR TM : Gyro-stabilized Electro-Optical Airborne gimbals for -SPERWER Tactical UAS -PATROLLER UAS -NH90, PANTHER, COUGAR helicopters -Fixed-wings aircrafts  Targeting  Helicopter sights  STRIX familiy (for TIGER HAP, HAD, ARH)  Osiris (for TIGER UHT)  Situation Awareness  To reduce the risk of accident during all phases of the flight  Mid Air Collisions between aircrafts  CFIT (Controlled Flight into Terrain)  Obstacle collisions on ground  Additional Operational credit during landing phase  All aircrafts : airliners, business jet, small aircraft, helicopters, UAs Sagem Optronics in airborne applications

5 4 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Some “Situation Awareness” devices in Avionics Obstacle Warning Systems LOAS SWORD HELLAS LOAM … Collision Avoidance Systems Enhanced Vision Systems Synthetic Vision Systems Terrain Awareness & Warning Systems

6 5 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Traffic Separation Rules « In flight » Approach Helicopter Flight

7 6 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Collision Avoidance products  TCAS – Transponders – PCAS – ADS-B  TCAS (Traffic collision Avoidance Systems)  involves communication between all aircrafts equipped with an appropriate transponder  builds a three dimensional map of aircraft in the airspace  Is only able to interact with aircraft that have a correctly operating mode C or mode S transponder  Elaborates avoidance tactics  PCAS (Portable Collision Avoidance System)  Passive devices “hearing” transponder communications  ADS-B (Automatic dependent surveillance-broadcast)  Active systems broadcasting aircraft current track, position and altitude given by GPS to ATC and to other equipped ADS-B aircraft  Elaborates avoidance tactics  Aircraft sensing by cooperative means  Effective but requires that all aircraft in flight should be equipped with TCAS / ADS-B  High Certification cost (TCAS & transponders)  PCAS & ADS-B not yet certified worldwide  Fixed and limited channel data bandwidth (ADS-B)

8 7 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem.  Mid Air UAV and helicopters  Operates mainly in uncontrolled airspaces  TCAS and transponders are not well designed for helicopters since they are not installed on every following aircrafts  helicopters  gliders  ULM  UAV  Balloons  Paragliders  We propose to increase the capability in traffic separation with a Traffic Sensing product using non-cooperative and independent means  Independant  The aircraft is not dependent on any external element (eg GPS) to make traffic surveillance in its environment.  Non-cooperative  Traffic monitoring is done without dedicated radio emission provided by other aircrafts. Therefore, it applies to all types of aircraft. The need of a non cooperative and independent traffic surveillance system

9 8 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem.  TAWS (Terrain Awareness and Warning System)  Electronics coupled to the navigation system and to a Digital cartographic and terrain database  Developed since the 2000s, initially for military aviation  Also for airliners and business aircraft, and now for helicopters  Returns alerts about CFIT if the extrapolated trajectory of the plane "cuts" the ground  SVS - Synthetic Vision System  synthetic Image generation on the basis of terrain and cartographic database, and according to the trajectory of the aircraft  Eventually merge with the images provided by an EVS, Becomes a CVS (Combined Vision System)  CVS and SVS are subject to regulations set by D0315 (aircraft only).  There is no equivalent regulation for such equipment on board helicopters. On airplanes, SVS shall display obstacles which are higher than 200 feet …  (DO309)Helicopters operate in widely diverse environment, including under visual and instrument flight rules (VFR and IFR) and in both on- and off-airport operations, often with significant low altitude exposure.  These systems seem not well-suited to helicopter operations since the used database is DTED1 or lower (100 m cell size) and not robust to ground asperities Controlled Flight Into Terrain - Existing equipments

10 9 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. HTAWS Regulation (RTCA DO 309)  Position Source  Some recommendations (no requirements) regarding the type of GPS or WAAS used.  If the position source is corrupted, the HTAWS must be switch off  Terrain and Obstacle database  No requirement on the quality of the database or its accuracy, nor on the recurrence of its update  “The highest resolution database should be used where necessary and available.”(DO309)  “The HTAWS does NOT guarantee successful recovery from a conflict due to factors such as pilot response, aircraft performance and database limitation” (DO309)  Typical Terrain Database accuracies  For a DTED level 1 :  Individual Cell size : 100m  Horizontal Accuracy  r = (x 2 +y 2 ) 1/2 < 50  Altitude Accuracy  z < 30  It appears that:  Only a database with metric accuracy allows to show the ground surface and generate alerts on small obstacles (buildings, rocks, pylons…) in low or very low altitude  High resolution Databases (metric accuracy) are often classified and localized mainly around strategic sites (airports, military bases)  The accuracy of the navigation data and spatial accuracy of the database must be compatible and constistent.  Therefore, the operational interest of HTAWS is still relatively low compared to the challenge of helicopter flight => the need of a system for detecting obstacles on real measurements: these systems are the OWS (Obstacle Warning Systems)

11 10 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems  Situational awareness  Approach stability in low visibility conditions

12 11 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. DO315 - Glossary  RVR :  Runway Visual Reference,in aviation meteorology, is the distance over which a pilot of an aircraft on the centreline of the runway can see the runway surface markings delineating the runway or identifying its centre line. RVR is normally expressed in feet or meters.  « Enhanced Flight Visibility » :  “average forward horizontal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight, at which prominent topographical objects may be clearly distinguished and identified by day or night by a pilot using an enhanced flight vision system  -> An EFVS, then, is the means by which the pilot meets the enhanced flight visibility requirement  THRE : THReshold Elevation  TDZ : TouchDown Zone CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

13 12 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Visual References  Approach light system, if installed;  or  Visual references: Runway threshold, identified by at least one of the following:  Beginning of the runway landing surface,  Threshold lights, or Runway end identifier lights  AND Touchdown zone, identified by at least one of the following:  Runway touchdown zone landing surface,  Touchdown zone lights,  Touchdown zone markings, or Runway lights. CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

14 13 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Active Obstacle Warning Systems for low altitude flights  AOWS – Active Obstacle Warning System  Principle :  Scanning the space by a RADAR or LASER beam  Range measurement allows to detect possible obstacles.

15 14 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Active OWS Example (ASC Inc.) 3D Flash LADAR Helicopter Landing Sensor for Brownout and Reduced Visual Cue CONFIDENTIEL / DATE / DIRECTION

16 15 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Active Obstacle Warning Systems for low altitude flights  Some products  Lord / Sword (ELOP) : FO LASER, 24 kg, 600w  Eagle Owl (BAe Systems) : FO LASER, 20 kg  LOAM (Finmeccanica) : FO LASER, 25 kg  LOAS (Goodrich) : FO LASER, 15 kg  OAsys (Amphitec) : RADAR FMCW (Ka band)  HELLAS (Airbus Defence) : FO LASER, 25 kg  Typical sell prices :  150 k$ k$  The OWS provide a real answer to the problem of obstacles in the flight at very low altitude, especially on cable detection.  Like all active systems, this capability shall not be at the expense of human safety -> need to switch off active systems during final approach to preserve personal safety (LASER) or electronic devices (RADAR).  Cost, size, consumption and the lack of any certification rules associated with these products are some reasons why this market is reserved to military markets

17 16 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. POSAS Concept : A passive optronic situation awareness system dedicated to UAS and helicopters  to offer standard EFVS operational credit in approach phase (with Runway Visual References Recognition)  to strengthen the traffic separation capability using non-cooperative and independent means in addition to cooperative means  to offer a credible, passive, compact and low cost alternative compared to current active obstacle warning systems based on LASER or RADAR  to provide solutions to extend TAWS and SVS operational credit at low altitude. POSAS Wide FOV EVS Passive OWS Traffic Surveillance 3D Mapping

18 17 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. POSAS Concept : How should it work ?  Integration of distributed low cost optronic sensors  Uncooled infrared sensors operating in the LWIR spectral band  Day and night “hot spot” detection  Low light level sensors operating in the visible and near infrared spectral bands  Aircraft strobe ligths, helipad lights, buildings warning lights…  Integration of advanced image processing technologies  Stereovision & Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping  3D Terrain mapping  Navigation data accuracies improvement  Hot spot detection Algorithms  Reminder : tracks with a constant bearing are on a collision trajectory

19 18 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Mid Air collision avoidance system  MIDCAS Programme (AED contract, 2008) :  UAV insertion in the traffic  Wide selection of sensors / devices to be tested :  Distributed Uncooled Infrared Sensors (Sagem)  Near Infrared Sensors (Diehl BGT Defence)  RADAR (THALES)  Cooperative devices : TCAS, ADS-b  Sensors installed on a Sky-Y UAV (Alenia Aeronautica) and DGA EV testbed (CASA Aircraft) Sensor Head Uncooled LWIR micro cameraDGA EV Testbed

20 19 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. POWS Demonstrator  Application : Flight Safety for Rotary Wings in degraded visual environment  Flight cleared demonstrator currently under test  6 uncooled Infrared Cameras  1 visible HD camera  Wide area surveillance : 150°x 80°  3D StereoVision  Automatic obstacle detection  Fly test on a DGA EV helicopter Test Bed (PUMA)

21 20 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. POWS Demonstrator

22 21 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. STEREOVISION  Goal: compute a dense distance map (one distance for each pixel) from a pair of images  Prerequisite: need to know precisely the geometry of the stereo rig (focal, pitch, baseline, etc.)  Steps:  Rectification: adjust the images as if they were co- planar (linear operation)  Block matching: for each pixel of the left image, find its correspondent in the right image  Triangulation: compute the distance map (meters) from the disparity map (pixel) Rectified left image Left image Rectification Rectified right image Right image Rectification Block matching Disparity map (pixel) Triangulation Distance map (m)

23 22 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Simultaneous Localisation and Mapping Associated data Images Low level extraction 3D non-linear filtering High level Interest point detection (Harris, SIFT, Kanade…) Temporal association INS/Vision hybridation Tracks (3D over time)

24 23 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem.  Enhanced Vision (Wide FOV)  Obstacles detection and ground mapping (3D)  Obstacle Detection performances  Between 0,6 NM and 10 NM (according to object type and meteorological conditions)  Localisation and ranging performances  Angular accuracy (azimut, elevation) : < 3   Range Accuracy : < 3  up to 1Mile POSAS : Main Operational Capabilities

25 24 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. POSAS : Additional Operational Capabilities  Providing of a “USER” obstacle and terrain database for HTAWS and SVS  Metric-class accuracy (obstacle location)  3D terrain mapping on a corridor along the path of the helicopter with a width of about 1 km  Terrain Aided Navigation : the software compares the measured 3D mapping of the terrain with its internal database. The correlation peak gives the position of the aircraft in geographic coordinates.  Improvement of navigation Data accuracies by INS / Vision hybridization  Compared to the INS alone, the gains expected by hybridization with vision are:  Attitude: error reduction of 35%  Position: error reduction of 90%  Speed: error reduction of 85%  Strong gains are expected in z (better than GPS) Average standard error in z: 30 cm! (between 5cm and 2m on a typical scenario)

26 25 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. OBSTACLE WARNING SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE À L’ÉTUDE AOWS EV_SV Fusion Symb Processor DEUs Terrain Database Generator and SV Processor Flight Control Computers ACFT Geo Position MAGRS/EGI (GPS) I2HMD (COTS/GDE) DTED 2+ MSD DIRECT HMD Tracked FOR - Display I2HMD Proc HMD Head Tracker DTED/HRTI Update Synthetic Vision Data Dig Map Dig Map I2HMD Proc HMD Head Tracker POWS 1553/Ethernet HDD Display System (CMS) 1553/Ethernet DIRECT HMD Tracked FOR - Display DEUs Current Equipment Augmenting Equipment Optional Equipment DEUs : Display Electronic Units DTED : Digital Terrain Elevation Data EV : Enhanced Vision SV : Synthetic Vision HMD : Helmet Mounted Display CMS : Cockpit Management System DAS : Distributed Aperture System HRTI : High Resolution Terrain Information POWS : Passive Obstacle warning System AOWS : Active Obstacle Warning System HDD : Head Down Display DVE SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE (NIAG SG 167) DAS Uncooled-IR / LLLTV

27 26 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Conclusion A Passive Optronic System to increase Situation Awareness  to strengthen the traffic separation capability using non-cooperative and independent means  OK, by using distributed staring sensors and air surveillance algorithms  to offer a credible, compact and low cost alternative compared to current obstacle warning systems based on LASER or RADAR  OK, by using distributed staring sensors and SLAM/Stereovision algorithms, the system can provide alerts when detecting obstacles on ground  to provide solutions to extend HTAWS and SVS operational credit at low altitude.  OK, by using SLAM / stereovision Algorithms : the system may elaborate a “user” 3D mapping of the neighborhood and may improve the accuracies of the navigation data (INS/Vision hybridization, Terrain Aided Navigation)  to provide day / night enhanced vision for HDD, HuD, Helmet Mounted Display…

28 27 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Questions ?

29 28 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Optronique de surveillance Planches complémentaires 15/10/2014

30 29 / Ce document et les informations qu’il contient sont la propriété de Sagem. Ils ne doivent pas être copiés ni communiqués à un tiers sans l’autorisation préalable et écrite de Sagem. Technical characteristics Comparison TCAS + HTAWS + OWS Optronic surveillance  weight 30 – 35 kg~ 5 kg  Consumption 600 W – 1000 W< 100 W  Cost class 400 k$ less than an order of magnitude


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