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French I Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar.

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1 French I Tutorial: Basic Phrases, Vocabulary and Grammar

2 LES EXPRESSIONS DE BASE 1. BASIC PHRASES LES EXPRESSIONS DE BASE

3 Bonjour Bonjour /bɔ̃ʒuʀ/ Hello Good day Good morning Bonne nuit Bonne nuit /bɔn nɥi/ Good night (only said when going to bed) Bonsoir Bonsoir /bɔ̃swaʀ/ Good evening Salut Salut /saly/ Hi / Bye Au revoir Au revoir /ɔʀ(ə)vwaʀ/ Goodbye

4 S'il vous plaît S'il te plaît S'il te plaît /sil vu plɛ/ Please (formal / informal) Merci (beaucoup) Merci (beaucoup) /mɛʀsi boku/ Thank you (very much) De rien. De rien. /də ʀjɛ̃/ You're welcome Je vous en prie. Je vous en prie. /ʒəvu zɑ̃ pri/ You're welcome. (formal) / Go ahead Bienvenu(e) Bienvenu(e) /bjɛ̃vəny/ Welcome (also You're Welcome in Quebec)

5 Allons-y! Allons-y! /alɔ̃ zi/ Let's go! A tout à l'heure A tout à l'heure /a tu ta lœʀ/ See you in a little while A plus tard A plus tard /a ply taʀ/ See you later A bientôt A bientôt /a bjɛ̃to/ See you soon A demain A demain /a dəmɛ̃/ See you tomorrow

6 Je suis désolé(e) Je suis désolé(e) /dezɔle/ I'm sorry Pardon ! Pardon ! /paʀdɔ̃/ Excuse me! (pushing through a crowd) Sorry! (stepped on someone's foot) Excusez-moi ! Excusez-moi ! /ekskyze mwa/ Excuse me! (getting someone's attention) I'm sorry! (more formal apology)

7 Comment allez-vous ? /kɔmɑ̃ tale vu/ How are you? (formal) Je vais bien /ʒə ve bjɛ̃/ I'm fine. Très bien / mal / pas mal /tʀɛ bjɛ̃/ /mal/ /pa mal/ Very good / bad / not bad Ça va ? /sa va/ How are you? (informal) Ça va. /sa va/ I'm fine. (informal response to Ça va ?) Oui / non /wi/ /nɔ̃/ Yes / no

8 Comment vous appelez-vous ? /kɔmɑ̃ vu zaple vu/ What's your name? (formal) Tu t'appelles comment ? /ty tapɛl kɔmɑ̃/ What's your name? (informal) Je m'appelle... /ʒə mapɛl/ My name is... Enchanté(e) /ɑ̃ʃɑ̃te/ Nice to meet you. Monsieur, Madame, Mademoiselle /məsjø/ /madam/ /madwazɛl/ Mister, Misses, Miss Mesdames et Messieurs /medam/ /mesjø/ Ladies and gentlemen

9 Vous êtes d'où ? / Vous venez d'où ? /vu zɛt du/ /vu vəne du/ Where are you from? (formal) Tu es d'où ? / Tu viens d'où ? /ty ɛ du/ /ty vjɛ̃ du/ Where are you from? (informal) Je suis de... / Je viens de... /ʒə sɥi də/ /ʒə vjɛ̃ də/ I am from... Où habitez-vous ? /u abite vu/ Where do you live? (formal) Tu habites où ? /ty abit u/ Where do you live? (informal) J'habite à... /ʒabit a/ I live in...

10 Parlez-vous français ? Tu parles anglais ? /paʀle vu frɑ̃sɛ/ /ty paʀl ɑ̃glɛ/ Do you speak French? (formal) Do you speak English? (informal) Je parle allemand. /ʒə paʀl almɑ/̃ I speak German. Je ne parle pas espagnol. /ʒə nə paʀl pa ɛspaɲɔl/ I don't speak Spanish. Comprenez-vous? / Tu comprends? /kɔ̃pʀəne vu/ /ty kɔ̃pʀɑ̃/ Do you understand? (formal / informal) Je comprends /ʒə kɔ̃pʀɑ̃/ I understand Je ne comprends pas /ʒə nə kɔ̃pʀɑ̃ pa/ I don't understand Quel âge avez-vous ? /k ɛ l ɑʒ ave vu/ How old are you? (formal) Tu as quel âge ? /ty ɑ k ɛ l ɑʒ / How old are you? (informal) J'ai ____ ans. / ʒ e __ ɑ ̃/ I am ____ years old.

11 Pouvez-vous m'aider ? / Tu peux m'aider ? /puve vu mede/ /ty pø mede/ Can you help me? (formal / informal) Bien sûr. /bjɛ̃ syʀ/ Of course. Comment ? /kɔmɑ̃/ What? Pardon? Tenez / Tiens /təne/ /tjɛ̃/ Hey / Here (formal / informal) Je sais /ʒə sɛ/ I know Je ne sais pas /ʒən sɛ pa/ I don't know Où est... / Où sont... ? /u ɛ/ /u sɔ̃/ Where is... / Where are... ? Voici / Voilà /vwasi/ /vwala/ Here is/are... / There it is.I l y a... / Il y avait /il i a/ /il i avɛ/ There is / are... / There was / were...

12 Comment dit-on ____ en français ? /kɔmɑ̃ di tɔ̃ __ ɑ̃ fʀɑ̃sɛ/ How do you say ____ in French? Qu'est-ce que c'est que ça ? /kɛs kə sɛ kə sa/ What is that? Qu'est-ce qu'il y a ? /kɛs kil i a/ What's the matter? Ça ne fait rien. /sa nə fɛ ʀjɛ̃/ It doesn't matter. Qu'est-ce qui se passe ? /kɛs ki sə pas/ What's happening? Je n'ai aucune idée. /ʒə ne okyn ide/ I have no idea.

13 Je suis fatigué(e) / Je suis malade. /ʒə sɥi fatiɡe/ /ʒə sɥi malad/ I'm tired / I'm sick. J'ai faim / J'ai soif. /ʒe fɛ̃/ /ʒe swaf/ I'm hungry / I'm thirsty. J'ai chaud / J'ai froid. /ʒe ʃo/ /ʒe fʀwɑ/ I'm hot / I'm cold. Je m'ennuie. /ʒə mɑ̃nɥi/ I'm bored. Ça m'est égal. / Je m'en fiche. /sa mɛ teɡal/ /ʒə mɑ̃ fiʃ/ It's the same to me / I don't care. (informal) Ne vous en faites pas. / Ne t'en fais pas. /nə vu ɑ̃ fɛt pa/ /nə tɑ̃ fɛ pa/ Don't worry (formal / informal) Ce n'est pas grave. /sə nɛ pa gʀav/ It's no problem. / It's alright. J'ai oublié. /ʒe ublije/ I forgot. Je dois y aller. /ʒə dwa i ale/ I must go.

14 A vos souhaits ! A tes souhaits ! /a vo sw ɛ / /a te sw ɛ / Bless you! (formal / informal) Félicitations ! /felisitasj ɔ ̃/ Congratulations! Bonne chance ! /b ɔ n ʃɑ ̃s/ Good luck! C'est à vous ! C'est à toi ! /s ɛ ta vu/ /s ɛ ta tw ɑ / It's your turn! (formal / informal) Taisez-vous ! Tais-toi ! /t ɛ ze vu/ /t ɛ tw ɑ / Shut up! / Be quiet! (formal / informal) Je vous aime Je t'aime / ʒ ə vu z ɛ m/ / ʒ ə t ɛ m/ I love you (formal & plural / informal) Tu me manques. /ty mə m ɑ ̃k/ I miss you. (informal) Quoi de neuf ? /kw ɑ də nœf/ What's new? Pas grand-chose. /pa g ʀɑ ̃ ʃ oz/ Not a whole lot.

15 Notice that French has informal and formal ways of saying things. This is because there is more than one meaning to "you" in French (as well as in many other languages.) The informal you is used when talking to close friends, relatives, animals or children. The formal you is used when talking to someone you just met, do not know well, or someone for whom you would like to show respect (a professor, for example.) There is also a plural you, used when speaking to more than one person. Also notice that some words take an extra e, shown in parentheses. If the word refers to a woman or is spoken by a woman, then the e is added in spelling; but in most cases, it does not change the pronunciation. To make verbs negative, French adds ne before the verb and pas after it. However, the ne is frequently dropped in spoken French, although it must appear in written French.

16 2. PRONUNCIATION LA PRONONCIATION

17 French Vowels IPAPhonetic spellingSample wordsGeneral spellings [i]eevie, midi, lit, rizi, y [y]ee roundedrue, jus, tissu, usineu [e]ayblé, nez, cahier, piedé, et, final er and ez [ø]ay roundedjeu, yeux, queue, bleueu [ɛ]ehlait, aile, balai, reinee, è, ê, ai, ei, ais [œ]eh roundedsœur, œuf, fleur, beurreœu, eu [a]ahchat, ami, papa, saladea, à, â [ɑ]ah longerbas, âne, grâce, châteaua, â [u]ooloup, cou, caillou, outilou [o]oheau, dos, escargot, hôtelo, ô [ɔ]awsol, pomme, cloche, horlogeo [ə]uhfenêtre, genou, cheval, cerisee [ɑ] is disappearing in modern French, being replaced by [a]. Vowels that do not exist in English are marked in blue.

18 French semi-vowels IPA Phonetic spelling Sample words General spelling [w]w fois, oui, Louis oi, ou [ɥ]ew-eelui, suisseui [j]yuh oreille, Mireille ill, y

19 French nasal vowels IPAPhonetic spellingSample wordsGeneral spelling [ã]awngant, banc, denten, em, an, am, aon, aen [ɛ̃]ahnpain, vin, linge in, im, yn, ym, ain, aim, ein, eim, un, um, en, eng, oin, oing, oint, ien, yen, éen [œ̃]uhnbrun, lundi, parfumun [õ]ohnrond, ongle, fronton, om [œ̃] is being replaced with [ɛ̃] in modern French In words beginning with in-, a nasal is only used if the next letter is a consonant. Otherwise, the in- prefix is pronounce een before a vowel.

20 French Consonants ex + vowelegzexamen, exercice ex + consonanteksexceptionnel, expression ch (Latin origin)sharchitecte, archives ch (Greek origin)korchestre, archéologie ti + vowel (except é)seedémocratie, nation c + e, i, y; or çscent, ceinture, maçon c + a, o, ukcaillou, car, cube g + e, i, yzhgenou, gingembre g + a, o, uggomme, ganglion thtmaths, thème, thym jzhjambe, jus, jeune qu, final qkque, quoi, grecque hsilentharicot, herbe, hasard vowel + s + vowelzrose, falaise, casino x + vowelzsix ans, beaux arts final xssix, dix, soixante (these 3 only!) There are a lot of silent letters in French, and you usually do not pronounce the final consonant, unless that final consonant is C, R, F or L (except verbs that end in -r).

21 Liaison: French slurs most words together in a sentence, so if a word ends in a consonant that is not pronounced and the next word starts with a vowel or silent h, slur the two together as if it were one word. S and x are pronounced as z; d as t; and f as v in these liaisons. Liaison is always made in the following cases: after a determiner: un ami, des amis before or after a pronoun: vous avez, je les ai after a preceding adjective: bon ami, petits enfants after one syllable prepositions: en avion, dans un livre after some one-syllable adverbs (très, plus, bien) after est It is optional after pas, trop fort, and the forms of être, but it is never made after et.

22 Silent e: Sometimes the e is dropped in words and phrases, shortening the syllables and slurring more words. rapid(e)ment, lent(e)ment, sauv(e)tage / ʀ apidm ɑ ̃/ / ɑ ̃tm ɑ ̃/ /sovta ʒ / sous l(e) bureau, chez l(e) docteur /sul by ʀ o/ / ʃ el d ɔ kto ʀ / il y a d(e)..., pas d(e)..., plus d(e)... /yad/ /pad/ / plyd/ je n(e), de n(e) / ʒ ən/ /dən/ j(e) te, c(e) que / ʃ t/ /skə/ (note the change of the pronunciation of the j as well)

23 Stress & Intonation: Stress on syllables is not as heavily pronounced as in English and it generally falls on the last syllable of the word. Intonation usually only rises for yes/no questions, and all other times, it goes down at the end of the sentence.

24 3. ALPHABET / L'ALPHABET a/a/j/ʒi/s/ɛs/ b/be/k/ka/t/te/ c/se/l/ɛl/u/y/ d/de/m/ɛm/v/ve/ e/ə/n/ɛn/w/dubləve/ f/ɛf/o/o/x/iks/ g/ʒɜ/p/pe/y/igrɛk/ h/aʃ/q/ky/z/zɛd/ i/i/r/ɛʀ/

25 4. NOUNS, ARTICLES & DEMONSTRATIVES LES NOMS, LES ARTICLES & LES DEMONSTRATIFS All nouns in French have a gender, either masculine or feminine. For the most part, you must memorize the gender, but there are some endings of words that will help you decide which gender a noun is. Nouns ending in -age and -ment are usually masculine, as are nouns ending with a consonant. Nouns ending in -ure, -sion, -tion, -ence, -ance, -té, and -ette are usually feminine. Articles and adjectives must agree in number and gender with the nouns they modify. And articles have to be expressed even though they aren't always in English; and you may have to repeat the article in some cases. Demonstratives are like strong definite articles.

26 Definite Articles (The) MasculineFeminine Before Vowel Plural le lit /lə li/ the bed la pomme /la p ɔ m/ the apple l'oiseau /lwazo/ the bird les gants /le ɡɑ ̃/ the gloves Indefinite Articles (A, An, Some) MasculineFemininePlural un lit /œ̃̃ li/ a bed une pomme / yn p ɔ m/ an apple des gants /de ɡɑ ̃/ some gloves

27 Demonstrative Adjectives (This, That, These, Those) Masc. Masc, Before Vowel Fem.Plural ce lit /sə li/ this/that bed cet oiseau /s ɛ twazo/ this/that bird cette pomme /s ɛ t p ɔ m/ this/that apple ces gants /se ɡɑ ̃/ these/those gloves If you need to distinguish between this or that and these or those, you can add -ci to the end of the noun for this and these, and -là to the end of the noun for that and those. For example, ce lit-ci is this bed, while ce lit-là is that bed.

28 The expression il y a is reduced to y a in everyday speech. When il y a is followed by a number, it means ago. Il y a cinq minutes means five minutes ago. Some common slang words for money include: le fric, le pèze, le pognon, des sous and for job/work: le boulot. 5. USEFUL WORDS LES MOTS UTILES

29 It's / That'sc'est/sɛ/There is/areil y a/il i a/ There is/are voilà/vwala/Here is/arevoici/vwasi/ andet/e/alwaystoujours/tuʒuʀ/ butmais/mɛ/oftensouvent /suv ɑ ̃/ nowmaintenant /m ɛ ̃tn ɑ ̃/ sometimesquelquefois/kɛlkəfwa/ especiallysurtout/syʀtu/usuallyd'habitude/dabityd/ exceptsauf/sof/also, tooaussi/osi/ of coursebien sûr /bj ɛ ̃ sy ʀ / againencore / ɑ ̃k ɔʀ / so comme ci, comme ça /kɔm si, kɔm sa/lateen retard / ɑ ̃ ʀ əta ʀ / not badpas mal/pa mal/almostpresque/pʀɛsk/ bookle livre/lə livʀ/friend (fem)une amie/y nami/ pencille crayon /lə k ʀɛ j ɔ ̃/ friend (masc) un ami /œ̃ nami/ penle stylo/lə stilo/womanune femme/yn fam/ paperle papier/lə papje/manun homme /œ̃ n ɔ m/ dogle chien /lə ʃ j ɛ ̃/ girlune fille/yn fij/ catle chat/lə ʃa/boyun garçon /œ̃̃ ga ʀ s ɔ ̃/ moneyl'argent (m) /la ʀʒɑ ̃/ job / workle travail/lə tʀavaj/

30 6. SUBJECT PRONOUNS LES PRONOMS SUJETS Subject Pronouns je / ʒ ə/ Inous/nu/We tu/ty/ You (informal) vous/vu/ You (formal and plural) il elle on /il/ / ɛ l/ / ɔ ̃/ He She One ils elles /il/ / ɛ l/ They (masc.) They (fem.) Il and elle can also mean it when they replace a noun (il replaces masculine nouns, and elle replaces feminine nouns) instead of a person's name. Ils and elles can replace plural nouns as well in the same way. Notice there are two ways to say you. Tu is used when speaking to children, animals, or close friends and relatives. Vous is used when speaking to more than one person, or to someone you don't know or who is older. On can be translated into English as one, the people, we, they, or you. Tutoyer and vouvoyer are two verbs that have no direct translation into English. Tutoyer means to use tu or be informal with someone, while vouvoyer means to use vous or be formal with someone.

31 7. TO BE & TO HAVE ETRE & AVOIR

32 Être / ɛ t ʀ / - to be Je and any verb form that starts with a vowel (or silent h) combine together for ease of pronunciation.

33

34 Avoir /avwaʀ/ - to have

35 In spoken French, the tu forms of verbs that begin with a vowel contract with the pronoun: tu es = t'es /t ɛ /, tu as = t'as /t ɑ /, etc. In addition, it is very common to use on (plus 3rd person singular conjugation) to mean we instead of nous.

36 COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH AVOIR AND ETRE Avoir and être are used in many common and idiomatic expressions that should be memorized: avoir chaud /avwa ʀ ʃ o/ to be hotêtre de retour / ɛ t ʀ də ʀ ətu ʀ / to be back avoir froid /avwa ʀ f ʀ wa/ to be coldêtre en retard / ɛ t ʀ ɑ ̃ ʀ əta ʀ / to be late avoir peur /avwa ʀ pœ ʀ / to be afraidêtre en avance / ɛ t ʀ ɑ ̃ nav ɑ ̃s/ to be early avoir raison /avwa ʀ ʀɛ z ɔ ̃/ to be rightêtre d'accord / ɛ t ʀ dak ɔʀ / to be in agreement avoir tort /avwa ʀ t ɔʀ / to be wrongêtre sur le point de / ɛ t ʀ sy ʀ lə pw ɛ ̃ də/ to be about to avoir faim /avwa ʀ f ɛ ̃/ to be hungryêtre en train de / ɛ t ʀ ɑ ̃ t ʀɛ ̃ də/ to be in the act of avoir soif /avwa ʀ swaf/ to be thirstyêtre enrhumée / ɛ t ʀ ɑ ̃ ʀ yme/ to have a cold avoir sommeil /avwa ʀ s ɔ m ɛ j/ to be sleepy nous + être (un jour) / ɛ t ʀ œ̃̃̃ ʒ u ʀ / to be (a day) avoir honte /avwa ʀ ʽɔ ̃t/ to be ashamed avoir besoin de /avwa ʀ bəzw ɛ ̃ də/ to need avoir l'air de /avwa ʀ ɛʀ də/ to look like, seem avoir l'intention de /avwa ʀ ɛ ̃t ɑ ̃sj ɔ ̃/ to intend to avoir envie de /avwa ʀ ɑ ̃vi də/ to feel like avoir de la chance /avwa ʀ də la ʃɑ ̃s/ to be lucky

37 J'ai froid. I'm cold. Tu avais raison. You were right. Il aura sommeil ce soir. He will be tired tonight. Elle a de la chance ! She's lucky! Nous aurons faim plus tard. We will be hungry later. Vous aviez tort. You were wrong. Ils ont chaud. They are hot. Elles avaient peur hier. They were afraid yesterday. Je suis en retard! I'm late! Tu étais en avance. You were early. Elle sera d'accord. She will agree. Nous sommes lundi. It is Monday. Vous étiez enrhumé. You had a cold. Ils seront en train d'étudier. They will be (in the act of) studying. Elles étaient sur le point de partir. They were about to leave. On est de retour. We/you/they/the people are back.

38 8. QUESTION WORDS / LES INTERROGATIFS WhoQui/ki/ WhatQuoi/kwa/ WhyPourquoi /pu ʀ kwa / WhenQuand /k ɑ ̃/ WhereOù/u/ HowComment /k ɔ m ɑ ̃/ How much / manyCombien /k ɔ ̃bj ɛ ̃/ Which / whatQuel(le) /k ɛ l/

39 9. CARDINAL NUMBERS LES NOMBRES CARDINAUX 0ZeroZéro /ze ʀ o/ 1One Un/œ̃̃̃/ 2TwoDeux/dø/ 3ThreeTrois /t ʀ w ɑ / 4FourQuatre /kat ʀ / 5FiveCinq /s ɛ ̃k/ 6Six /sis/ 7SevenSept /s ɛ t/ 8EightHuit / ʽɥ it/ 9NineNeuf/nœf/ 10TenDix/dis/

40 11ElevenOnze / ɔ ̃z/ 12TwelveDouze/duz/ 13ThirteenTreize /t ʀɛ z/ 14FourteenQuatorze /kat ɔʀ z/ 15FifteenQuinze /k ɛ ̃z/ 16SixteenSeize /s ɛ z/ 17 Sevente en Dix-sept /dis ɛ t/ 18EighteenDix-huit /diz ɥ it/ 19NineteenDix-neuf/diznœf/ 20TwentyVingt /v ɛ ̃/

41 21Twenty-oneVingt et un /v ɛ ̃t e œ̃̃̃/ 22Twenty-twoVingt-deux /v ɛ ̃ dø/ 23Twenty-threeVingt-trois /v ɛ ̃ t ʀ w ɑ / 30ThirtyTrente /t ʀɑ ̃t/ 31Thirty-oneTrente et un /t ʀɑ ̃t e œ̃̃̃/̃/ 32Thirty-twoTrente-deux /t ʀɑ ̃t dø/ 40FortyQuarante /ka ʀɑ ̃t/ 50FiftyCinquante /s ɛ ̃k ɑ ̃t/ 60SixtySoixante /swas ɑ ̃t/

42 EightyQuatre-vingts/katʀəvɛ̃/ (Belgium & Switzerland) Octante/ɔktɑ̃t/ Eighty-oneQuatre-vingt-un/katʀəvɛ̃ tœ̃̃̃/ Eighty-twoQuatre-vingt-deux/katʀəvɛ̃ dø/ NinetyQuatre-vingt-dix/katʀəvɛ̃ dis/ (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante/nɔnɑ̃t/ Ninety-oneQuatre-vingt-onze/katʀəvɛ̃ ɔ̃z/ Ninety-twoQuatre-vingt-douze/katʀəvɛ̃ duz/ 70SeventySoixante-dix /swas ɑ ̃tdis/ 70 (Belgium & Switzerland) Septante /s ɛ pt ɑ ̃t/ 71Seventy-oneSoixante et onze /swas ɑ ̃t e ɔ ̃z/ 72Seventy-twoSoixante-douze /swas ɑ ̃t duz/ 80EightyQuatre-vingts /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃/ 80 (Belgium & Switzerland) Octante / ɔ kt ɑ ̃t/ 81Eighty-oneQuatre-vingt-un /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃ tœ̃̃̃/ 82Eighty-two Quatre-vingt- deux /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃ dø/ 90NinetyQuatre-vingt-dix /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃ dis/ 90 (Belgium & Switzerland) Nonante /n ɔ n ɑ ̃t/ 91Ninety-oneQuatre-vingt-onze /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃ ɔ ̃z/ 92Ninety-two Quatre-vingt- douze /kat ʀ əv ɛ ̃ duz/

43 100One HundredCent /s ɑ ̃/ 101One Hundred OneCent un /s ɑ ̃ tœ̃̃̃/ 200Two HundredDeux cents /dø s ɑ ̃/ 201Two Hundred OneDeux cent un /dø s ɑ ̃ tœ̃̃̃/ 1 000ThousandMille/mil/ 2 000Two ThousandDeux mille/dø mil/ MillionUn million /õ milj ɔ ̃/ BillionUn milliard /õ milja ʀ /

44 French switches the use of commas and periods. 1,00 would be 1.00 in English. Belgian and Swiss French useseptante and nonante in place of the standard French words for 70 and 90 (though some parts of Switzerland usehuitante for 80 and octante is barely used anymore). Also, when the numbers 5, 6, 8, and 10 are used before a word beginning with a consonant, their final consonants are not pronounced. Phone numbers in France are ten digits, beginning with 01, 02, 03, 04, or 05 depending on the geographical region, or 06 and 07 for cell phones. They are written two digits at a time, and pronounced thus: = zéro un, trente-six, cinquante-cinq, quatre-vingt-neuf, vingt-huit.

45 ORDINAL NUMBERS LES NOMBRES ORDINAUX firstpremier / première seconddeuxième / second thirdtroisième fourthquatrième fifthcinquième sixthsixième seventhseptième eighthhuitième ninthneuvième tenthdixième eleventhonzième twelfthdouzième twentiethvingtième twenty- first vingt et unième thirtiethtrentième The majority of numbers become ordinals by adding -ième. But if a number ends in an e, you must drop it before adding the -ième. After a q, you must add a u before the -ième. And an f becomes a v before the -ième.

46 10. DAYS OF THE WEEK LES JOURS DE LA SEMAINE Mondaylundi/lœ̃di/ Tuesdaymardi /ma ʀ di/ Wednesdaymercredi /m ɛʀ k ʀ ədi/ Thursdayjeudi / ʒ ødi/ Fridayvendredi /v ɑ ̃d ʀ ədi/ Saturdaysamedi/samdi/ Sundaydimanche /dim ɑ ̃ ʃ /

47 dayle jour /lə ʒ u ʀ / weekla semaine /la s(ə)m ɛ n/ todayaujourd'hui /o ʒ u ʀ d ɥ i/ yesterdayhier /j ɛʀ / tomorrowdemain /dəm ɛ ̃/ next prochain / prochaine /p ʀɔʃɛ ̃/ /p ʀɔʃɛ n/ lastdernier / dernière /d ɛʀ nje/ /d ɛʀ nj ɛʀ / day before yesterdayavant-hier /av ɑ ̃tj ɛʀ / day after tomorrowaprès-demain /ap ʀɛ dm ɛ ̃/ the following dayle lendemain /lə l ɑ ̃dəm ɛ ̃/ the day beforela veille /la v ɛ j/ Articles are not used before days, except to express something that happens habitually on a certain day, such as le lundi= on Mondays. Days of the week are all masculine in gender and they are not capitalized in writing.

48 11. MONTHS OF THE YEAR LES MOIS DE L'ANNEE Januaryjanvier / ʒɑ ̃vje/ Februaryfévrier /fev ʀ ije/ Marchmars /ma ʀ s/ Aprilavril /av ʀ il/ Maymai /m ɛ / Junejuin / ʒɥɛ ̃/ Julyjuillet / ʒɥ ij ɛ / Augustaoût/u(t)/ Septemberseptembre /s ɛ pt ɑ ̃b ʀ / Octoberoctobre / ɔ kt ɔ b ʀ / Novembernovembre /n ɔ v ɑ ̃b ʀ / Decemberdécembre /des ɑ ̃b ʀ /

49 monthle mois/lə mwa/ yearl'an / l'année /l ɑ ̃/ /lane/ decadela décennie/deseni/ centuryle siècle /lə sj ɛ kl/ millenniumle millénaire /milen ɛʀ / To express in a certain month, such as in May, use en before the month as in "en mai." With dates, the ordinal numbers are not used, except for the first of the month: le premier mai but le deux juin. Also note that months are all masculine and not capitalized in French (same as days of the week).

50 12. SEASONS / LES SAISONS Summerl'été/lete/in the summeren été/ɑ̃ nete/ Falll'automne/lotɔn/in the fallen automne/ɑ̃ notɔn/ Winterl'hiver/livɛʀ/in the winteren hiver/ɑ̃ nivɛʀ/ Springle printemps/lə pʀɛ̃tɑ̃/in the springau printemps/o prɛ̃tɑ̃/

51 13. DIRECTIONS / LES DIRECTIONS on the leftà gauche/a goʃ/ on the rightà droite/a dʀwɑt/ straight aheadtout droit/tu dʀwɑ/ Northle nord/lə nɔʀ/ Northeast le nord-est /lə nɔʀ(d)ɛst/ Eastl'est/lɛst/ Southeast le sud-est /sydɛst/ Southle sud/lə syd/ Westl'ouest/lwɛst/ Southwest le sud-ouest /sydwɛst/ Northwest le nord-ouest /lə nɔʀ(d)wɛst/

52 14. COLORS & SHAPES LES COULEURS & LES FORMES Redrouge/ʀuʒ/ Orangeorange/ɔʀɑ̃ʒ/ Yellowjaune/ʒon/ Greenvert / verte/vɛʀ/ /vɛʀt/ Bluebleu / bleue/blø/ Purpleviolet / violette/vjɔlɛ/ /vjɔlɛt/ Whiteblanc / blanche/blɑ̃/ /blɑ̃ʃ/ Brownbrun / brune marron/bʀõ/ /bʀyn/ /maʀɔ̃/ Blacknoir / noire/nwaʀ/ Pinkrose/ʀoz/ Golddoré / dorée/dɔʀe/ Silverargenté / argentée/aʀʒɑ̃te/ Graygris / grise/gʀi/ /gʀiz/

53 14. COLORS & SHAPES LES COULEURS & LES FORMES squarele carré/kaʀe/ circlele cercle/sɛʀkl/ trianglele triangle /t ʀ ij ɑ ̃gl/ rectanglele rectangle / ʀɛ kt ɑ ̃gl/ ovall'ovale/ɔval/ cubele cube/kyb/ spherela sphère/sfɛʀ/ cylinderle cylindre /sil ɛ ̃d ʀ / conele cône/kon/ octagonl'octogone/ɔktogɔn/ boxla boîte/bwat/ lightclair / claire/klɛʀ/ darkfoncé / foncée /f ɔ ̃se/

54 Some adjectives of color do not change to agree with gender or number, such as adjectives that also exist as nouns: orange, marron, rose; and compound adjectives: bleu clair, noir foncé remain masculine even if they describe a feminine noun. Remember to place the color adjective after the noun.

55 15. WEATHER / LE TEMPS QU'IL FAIT

56 Il pleut des cordes /il plø de ko ʀ d/ is a common expression meaning it's pouring. Il caille /il kaj/ or ça caille /sa kaj/ is slang for it's freezing. And remember that France uses Celcius degrees.

57 16. TIME / LE TEMPS QUI PASSE Official French time is expressed as military time (24 hour clock.) You can only use regular numbers, and not demi, quart, etc. when reporting time with the 24 hour system. For example, if it is 18h30, you must say dix-huit heures trente. The word pile /pil/ is also a more informal way of saying précise (exactly, sharp).

58

59 17. FAMILY & ANIMALS/ LA FAMILLE & LES ANIMAUX

60 Familyla famille/famij/Niecela nièce /nj ɛ s/ Relativesdes parents /pa ʀɑ ̃/ Nephewle neveu/n(ə)vœ/ Parentsles parents /pa ʀɑ ̃/ Grandchildren les petits- enfants /p(ə)tiz ɑ ̃f ɑ ̃/ Grandparents les grands- parents /g ʀɑ ̃pa ʀɑ ̃/ Granddaughterla petite-fille/p(ə)tit fij/ Mom la mère / maman /m ɛʀ / /m ɑ m ɑ ̃/ Grandsonle petit-fils/p(ə)tifis/ Stepmother/M other-in-Law la belle-mère /b ɛ lm ɛʀ / Godfatherle parrain /pa ʀɛ ̃/ Dadle père / papa /p ɛʀ / /papa/ Godmotherla marraine /ma ʀɛ n/ Stepfather/Fat her-in-Law le beau-père /bop ɛʀ / Godsonle filleul/fijœl/ Daughterla fille/fij/Goddaughterla filleule/fijœl/ Sonle fils/fis/ Distant Relatives des parents éloignés /pa ʀɑ ̃ elwa ɲ e/ Sisterla sœur /sœ ʀ / Singlecélibataire /selibat ɛʀ / Half/Step Sister la demi-sœur /dəmi sœ ʀ / Marriedmarié(e) /ma ʀ je/ Sister-in-Lawla belle-sœur /b ɛ lsœ ʀ / Separatedséparé(e) /sepa ʀ e/ Stepdaughter/ Daughter-in- Law la belle-fille /b ɛ l fij/ Divorceddivorcé(e) /div ɔʀ se/ Brotherle frère /f ʀɛʀ / Widowerveuf/vœf/ Half/Step Brother le demi-frère /dəmi f ʀɛʀ / Widowveuve/vœv/ Brother-in-Lawle beau-frère /bo f ʀɛʀ /

61 Stepson/Son-in-Lawle beau-fils/bo fis/ Twins (m)les jumeaux/ʒymo/ Twins (f)les jumelles/ʒymɛl/ Unclel'oncle/ɔ̃kl/ Auntla tante/tɑ̃t/ Grandmotherla grand-mère/gʀɑ̃mɛʀ/ Grandfatherle grand-père/gʀɑ̃pɛʀ/ Cousin (f)la cousine/kuzin/ Cousin (m)le cousin/kuzɛ̃/ Wifela femme/fam/ Husbandle mari/maʀi/ Womanla femme/fam/ Manl'homme/ɔm/ Child (m) / (f)un enfant / une enfant/ɑ̃fɑ̃/ Girlla fille/fij/ Boyle garçon/gaʀsɔ̃/ Le gendre /ʒɑ̃dʀ/ is another word for son-in-law.

62 Dogle chien / la chienne (m) / (f) / ʃ j ɛ ̃/ / ʃ j ɛ n/ Catle chat / la chatte (m) / (f) / ʃ a/ / ʃ at/ Puppyle chiot / ʃ jo/ Kittenle chaton / ʃ at ɔ ̃/ Pigle cochon /k ɔʃɔ ̃/ Roosterle coq /k ɔ k/ Rabbitle lapin /lap ɛ ̃/ Cowla vache /va ʃ / Horsele cheval / ʃ (ə)val/ Duckle canard /kana ʀ / Goatla chèvre / ʃɛ v ʀ / Goosel'oie/wa/ Sheeple mouton /mut ɔ ̃/ Lambl'agneau /a ɲ o/ Donkeyl'âne / ɑ n/ Mousela souris /su ʀ i/

63 The entire family toute la smala /tut la smala/ Sister la frangine /fʀɑ̃ʒin/ Grandma mémé / mamie /meme/ /mami/ Brotherle frangin/fʀɑ̃ʒɛ̃/ Grandpa pépé / papi /pepe/ /papi/ Sonle fiston/fistɔ̃/ Children des gosses /gɔs/Aunt tata / tatie /tata/ /tati/ Kid un gamin / une gamine /gamɛ̃/ /gamin/ Uncletonton/tɔ̃tɔ̃/ Womanune nana/nana/Dog le cabot / clébard /kabo/ /klebaʀ/ Man un mec / type / gars /mɛk/ /tip/ /gaʀ/ Catle minou/minu/ Slang words for people and pets:

64 18. TO KNOW PEOPLE & PLACES / CONNAITRE & SAVOIR connaître-to know people /k ɔ n ɛ t ʀ / connais /k ɔ n ɛ / connaissons /k ɔ n ɛ s ɔ ̃/ connais /k ɔ n ɛ / connaissez /k ɔ n ɛ se/ connaît /k ɔ n ɛ / connaissent /k ɔ n ɛ s/ savoir-to know facts /savwa ʀ / sais /s ɛ / savons /sav ɔ ̃/ sais /s ɛ / savez/save/ sait /s ɛ / savent/sav/ Connaître is used when you know (are familiar with) people, places, food, movies, books, etc. and savoir is used when you know facts. When savoir is followed by an infinitive it means to know how. There is another form of savoir commonly used in the expressions que je sache that I know (of) and pas que je sachenot that I know (of).

65 1.Je connais ton frère. I know your brother. 2.Je sais que ton frère s'appelle Jean. I know that your brother is named John. 3.Connaissez-vous Grenoble ? Do you know (Are you familiar with) Grenoble? / Have you ever been to Grenoble? 4.Oui, nous connaissons Grenoble. Yes, we know (are familiar with) Grenoble. / Yes, we've been to Grenoble. 5.Tu sais où Grenoble se trouve. You know where Grenoble is located. 6.Ils savent nager. They know how to swim. 7.Connaître can be translated several ways into English: 8.Tu connais le film, Les Enfants ? Have you seen the film, Les Enfants? 9.Tu connais Lyon ? Have you ever been to Lyon? 10.Tu connais la tartiflette ? Have you ever eaten tartiflette?

66 19. FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS LA FORMATION DES NOMS PLURIELS To make a noun plural, you usually add an -s (which is not pronounced). But there are some exceptions: Sing.Plural If a noun already ends in an -s, add nothing.bus(es)le busles bus If a noun ends in -eu or -eau, add an x.boat(s)le bateau les bateaux If a masculine noun ends in -al or -ail, change it to - aux. horse(s)le cheval les chevaux Some nouns ending in -ou add an -x instead of -s.knee(s)le genou les genoux Exceptions: festival, carnaval, bal, pneu, bleu, landau, détail, chandail all add -s. There are only seven nouns ending in -ou that add -x instead of -s: bijou, caillou, chou, genou, pou, joujou, hibou. There are, of course, some irregular exceptions: un œil (eye) - des yeux (eyes); le ciel (sky) - les cieux (skies); and un jeune homme (a young man) -des jeunes gens (young men). Notice that the only time the pronunciation will change in the plural form is for masculine nouns that change -al or -ail to -aux and for the irregular forms. All other nouns are pronounced the same in the singular and the plural - it is only the article that changes pronunciation (le, la, l' to les).

67 20. POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES / LES ADJECTIFS POSSESSIFS Masc.Fem.Plural Mymon /mɔ̃/ma /ma/mes /mɛ/ Yourton /tɔ̃/ta /ta/tes /tɛ/ His/Her/Itsson /sɔ̃/sa /sa/ses /sɛ/ Ournotre /nɔtʀ/ nos /no/ Yourvotre /vɔtʀ/ vos /vo/ Theirleur /lœʀ/ leurs /lœʀ/ Possessive pronouns go before the noun. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel, you must use the masculine form of the pronoun for ease of pronunciation. Ma amie is incorrect and must be mon amie, even though amie is feminine. Remember that adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number, not the possessor! Sa mère can mean his mother or her mother even though sa is the feminine form, because it agrees with mère and not the possessor (his or her).

68 1.C'est ma mère et mon père. This is my mother and my father. 2.Ce sont vos petits-enfants ? These are your grandchildren? 3.Mes parents sont divorcés. My parents are divorced. 4.Sa grand-mère est veuve. His grandmother is a widow. 5.Notre frère est marié, mais notre sœur est célibataire. Our brother is married, but our sister is single. 6.Ton oncle est architecte, n'est-ce pas ? Your uncle is an architect, isn't he? 7.Leurs cousines sont néerlandaises. Their cousins are Dutch.


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