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Information technology and the health sciences

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Présentation au sujet: "Information technology and the health sciences"— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Information technology and the health sciences
Pr. François MANIEZ Directeur du CRTT (Centre de Recherche en Terminologie et Traduction) Responsable du Master Langues (Mention Langues Étrangères Appliquées) Responsable du Master 2 et du doctorat LTMT (Lexicologie et Terminologie Multilingues, Traductologie) Université Lumière Lyon 2, 86 rue Pasteur  Lyon Cedex  

2 The Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential
Information technology and the health sciences

3 Information technology and the health sciences

4 Information technology and the health sciences

5 Information technology and the health sciences

6 Information technology and the health sciences
medulla oblongata TA alternative for myelencephalon; the truncated cone of nerve tissue continuous above with the pons and below with the spinal cord. bulbe rachidien n. m. spinal bulb, medulla oblongata GDT : Partie basse du tronc cérébral située entre la moelle cervicale et la protubérance annulaire […]. Information technology and the health sciences

7 A translation tool combining an editorial dictionary and a search engine with which you can search through hundreds of millions of bilingual texts for words and expressions. The Linguee search results are divided into two sections. On the left hand side you will see results from our reliable editorial dictionary. The results are displayed clearly and offer you a quick overview of the translation options. On the right hand side, you will find example sentences from other sources to provide you with an impression of how your search expression has been translated in context. Linguee will show translations for expressions such as "strong evidence", "strong relationship" or "strong opinion", and even for rare expressions or specific technical terms.

8 Search for "thoracic wall" on Linguee
General thoracic surgery is a surgical specialty and is dedicated to diseases and injuries of the thoracic wall and all the organs in the chest with the exception of the heart and aorta. [...] générale est spécialisée dans les maladies et traumatismes de la paroi thoracique et de tous les organes à l'intérieur de la cage thoracique, à l'exception du cœur et de l'aorte. Projection of thoracic viscera on the  thoracic wall. Projections des viscères thoraciques sur la paroi du tronc. [...] significantly higher assessment in the vicinity of the thoracic wall using image processing. Nos évaluations sont nettement meilleures au voisinage de la paroi thoracique avec le traitement d'image. Pectoral Anatomy: the great pectoral is shaped like a fan and it occupies most part of the thoracic wall. [...] pectoral a la forme d'un éventail et occupe la plus grande partie de la paroi thoracique. [...] the body, neither too close to the thoracic wall nor turned out. Coudes: Dans l'axe du corps, pas trop serrés contre la paroi thoracique ni en dehors .

9 Information technology and the health sciences
Observation #1 The problems of specialized translation are not restricted to the mastery of specialized terminology. Common words are more likely to be polysemous and are consequently another source of difficulty. Information technology and the health sciences

10 Information technology and the health sciences

11 Information technology and the health sciences
Pattern William J. Gladstone (2002) (1) évolution caractéristique, aspect, motif, disposition, schéma, pattern, scénario, configuration. (2) modèle, dessin (3) morphologie d’un tracé, d’un graphique Information technology and the health sciences

12 Information technology and the health sciences
American Heritage Dictionary 1.a. A model or an original used as an archetype. b. A person or thing considered worthy of imitation. […] 5. A consistent, characteristic form, style, or method. [Middle English patron, from Old French. from Medieval Latin patronus, from Latin, from pater, patr-, father. Information technology and the health sciences

13 Information technology and the health sciences
crawling William J. Gladstone (2002) crawl = 0 crawling (adj) : rampant AHD 1. To move slowly on the hands and knees or by dragging the body along the ground; creep. Information technology and the health sciences

14 Information technology and the health sciences
The lessons I learned Be terminologically prepared! The accuracy of a translation given by a simultaneous interpreter very often cannot be checked by either party. It is translators’ moral duty not to abuse the power they are entrusted with Form is at least as important as content for the recipient of a written translation Information technology and the health sciences

15 The Master CISS curriculum
Language skills (translation, writing) Knowledge in the medical field Information Technology Master 2 de Communication Internationale en Sciences de la Santé (Google: m2ciss) Information technology and the health sciences

16 Information technology and the health sciences
Core medical subjects Anatomy Physiology Semiology Immunology Cellular biology Statistics Information technology and the health sciences

17 The role of information technology
An ally for physicians and medical writers An ally, but also a potential threat for translators (CAT vs. MT) Information technology and the health sciences

18 Google Translate With the increasing availability of nonsurgical therapies for conditions previously treated by surgery (peptic ulcer disease and reflux oesophagitis come to mind), the pool of patients who may benefit from some of the new approaches is shrinking. Avec la disponibilité de thérapies non chirurgicales pour augmenter préalablement traitées par des conditions de la chirurgie (ulcère gastroduodénal et de l'oesophagite de reflux de l'esprit), le bassin de patients qui bénéficient de certaines des nouvelles approches peuvent se rétrécit.

19 Google : travauxmaniez
MANIEZ, François (2008) : « Traduction automatique et ambiguïté syntaxique : le cas de la coordination dans les groupes nominaux complexes en anglais médical » in HEIDEN, Serge et Bénédicte PINCEMIN (dir.) JADT 2008 : actes des 9es journées internationales d'analyse statistique des données textuelles, Lyon, mars 2008, pp Lyon: Presses universitaires de Lyon (http://www.cavi.univ-paris3.fr/lexicometrica/jadt/jadt2008/pdf/maniez.pdf).

20 Information technology and the health sciences
This technique is very attractive conceptually, although many important questions about the physiologic function and duration of effect of the expressed gene will need to be addressed before its importance in the modification of vascular diseases can be determined. Cette technique est très attrayante conceptuellement, bien que beaucoup de questions importantes au sujet de la fonction physiologique et de la durée de l'effet du gène exprimé doivent être abordées avant que son importance dans la modification des maladies vasculaires puisse être déterminée. Information technology and the health sciences

21 GT and syntactic ambiguities
We compared the antiemetic efficacy and safety of ondansetron with that of two other drugs. Nous avons comparé l'efficacité antiémétique de l'ondansétron et la sécurité avec celle des deux autres médicaments.

22 Management algorithms would be more useful than figures showing anecdotal responses to cholesterol-lowering medications or photographs of patients doing push-ups Algorithmes de gestion serait plus utile que des chiffres montrant des réponses anecdotiques aux hypocholestérolémiants ou des photographies de patients faisant push-ups Le push-up, mouvement vulgairement connu sous le nom de « pompe », a pour dénomination scientifique le terme «redressement brachial». Le terme est toutefois peu usité.

23 In general, the probability of physical dependence increases as the daily dose and duration of treatment increase. En général, la probabilité de dépendance physique augmente à mesure que la dose journalière et la durée de l'augmentation de traitement.

24 The acquisition of information on the overall diagnosis and management of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding has become easier with the availability of this book. L'acquisition d'information sur le diagnostic et la gestion globale des patients atteints de saignements gastro-intestinaux est devenu plus facile avec la disponibilité de ce livre.

25 Repeated endoscopic examinations and analyses of stools did not reveal pathologic findings.
La répétition des examens endoscopiques et des analyses de selles n'ont pas révélé de résultats pathologiques.

26 The options for treatment include corticosteroids, cerebrospinal fluid shunting procedures, and surgical removal or decompression of cysts. Les options de traitement comprennent les corticostéroïdes, les procédures de triage céphalo fluide, et l'ablation chirurgicale de décompression ou de kystes.

27 Second, hemochromatosis can be detected before any clinical signs or symptoms of disease develop and even before hepatic iron loading occurs. Deuxièmement, l'hémochromatose peut être détectée avant que des signes ou symptômes cliniques de la maladie de développer et avant même que la surcharge en fer hépatique survient.

28 French for ‘hepatic iron loading’?
GDT : iron loading test = épreuve d'hypersidérémie provoquée  G : Aucun résultat trouvé pour "hypersidérémie hépatique". G : "hepatic iron loading" hépatique Il est défini par l'association d'une surcharge hépatique en fer de type ... Les mécanismes aboutissant à une surcharge hépatique en fer sont une absorption intestinale Implications for hepatic iron loading in iron overload states. ...

29 "surcharge hépatique en fer"  > 3m
"surcharge en fer hépatique" >1,5m

30 What skills should be mastered?
Word processing Data Base Management programs (compiling glossaries) Computer Assisted Translation software Corpus linguistics Finding relevant medical and linguistic information on line Assessing the linguistic validity of Internet content Information technology and the health sciences

31 Corpus building and information retrieval
The duplex scan confirmed severe reflux (grades III and IV) in ... valves in 4 other limbs. Severe reflux was seen on the descending ... descending phlebography, more severe reflux was found on duplex scanning. ... 0.076) limbs with severe reflux (grades III or IV) detected ... while only 2 limbs with severe reflux on descending phlebography would have ... with post-thrombotic changes had severe reflux on duplex scan (chi sup ... Information technology and the health sciences

32 Automatic detection of syntactically ambiguous structures
The ability of PET to detect cancer is based on the altered substrate requirements of malignant cells, which result from increased nucleic acid and protein synthesis and glycolysis. Information technology and the health sciences

33 Using search engines to access online multilingual translation corpora
"acharnement thérapeutique" inurl:europarl.  over-treatment, aggressive treatment encarnizamiento terapéutico >32m, accanimento terapeutico 512m, encarniçamento terapêutico >1,5m  obstinação terapêutica >9m, verbissenen Einsatzes der Medizin (1) Linguee :therapeutic intervention, aggressive (medical) treatment, therapeutic obstinacy, artificial prolongation of life, life-prolonging measures, intrusive medical interventions Information technology and the health sciences

34 Using search engines to check the currency of a given phrase
Search engines can be used to look for translations of multi-word units or collocations Whole « chunks » can be reproduced by non-native English speakers for writing or translation purposes  Do not be afraid to translate into English. Information technology and the health sciences

35 Assessing the linguistic validity of Internet content
Dispelling a tendency to an overly naive approach Much of the content is not peer-reviewed A non-negligible amount of the scientific information that is available online is posted by non-natives Information technology and the health sciences

36 Information technology and the health sciences
Detection and search of online glossaries, translators’ mailing lists and web sites, medical data bases Glosspost ProZ The Unified Medical Language System Information technology and the health sciences

37 Information technology and the health sciences

38 Sources for translation equivalents
60% : paper dictionary 10% : online data base or dictionary 10% : human expert 20% : found on the Web Information technology has become an ally that cannot be ignored by language specialists who work in the medical field. Information technology and the health sciences

39 Polysemy problems in the definition of a medical term
the pyramidal region between the upper thoracic wall and the upper limb, its base formed by the skin and apex bounded by the approximation of the clavicle, coracoid process, and first rib […] Google images : coracoid process GT : La région pyramidale entre la paroi supérieure thoraciques et du membre supérieur, sa base formée par la peau et l'apex délimité par le rapprochement de la clavicule, coracoïde, et la première côte. Information technology and the health sciences

40 Information technology and the health sciences
approximate Function:adjective Etymology:Late Latin approximatus, past participle of approximare to come near, from Latin ad- + proximare to come near 1 : located close together *approximate leaves* 2 : nearly correct or exact *an approximate solution* Function:verb 1 a : to bring near or close b : to bring (cut edges of tissue) together2 : to come near to or be close to in position, value, or characteristics *a child tries to approximate his parents' speech* Information technology and the health sciences

41 Information technology and the health sciences
approximation 1 : the act or process of drawing together 2 : the quality or state of being close or near *an approximation to the truth* *an approximation of justice* 3 : something that is approximate; especially : a mathematical quantity that is close in value to but not the same as a desired quantity Information technology and the health sciences

42 Information technology and the health sciences
process Function:noun Etymology:Middle English proces, from Middle French, from Latin processus, from procedere 1 a : PROGRESS, ADVANCE *in the process of time* b : something going on : PROCEEDING 2 a (1) : a natural phenomenon marked by gradual changes that lead toward a particular result *the process of growth* (2) : a natural continuing activity or function *such life processes as breathing* b : a series of actions or operations conducing to an end; especially : a continuous operation or treatment especially in manufacture 3 a : the whole course of proceedings in a legal action b : the summons, mandate, or writ used by a court to compel the appearance of the defendant in a legal action or compliance with its orders 4 : a prominent or projecting part of an organism or organic structure *a bone process* Date:14th century Sens 3 a : cf. "due process of law", = "garanties d'une procédure régulière” (fifth amendment) bone process = éminence osseuse Information technology and the health sciences

43 Information technology and the health sciences
the pyramidal region between the upper thoracic wall and the upper limb, its base formed by the skin and apex bounded by the approximation of the clavicle, coracoid process, and first rib […] région de forme pyramidale située entre la partie supérieure de la paroi thoracique et le membre supérieur, et dont la base est constituée par [la peau / l’épiderme] et le sommet délimité par le point de rencontre de la clavicule, de l’apophyse coracoïde et de la première côte. Information technology and the health sciences

44 Medical terms (coracoid process) can be found in Termium or the GDT
The GDT can be used in several modes (definition) Collocations (thoracic wall) cannot always be found in those terminological data bases Syntactic ambiguities and polysemy have to be detected by the user ex: heart sound (microphone / recording) in Termium and the GDT G : "enregistrement * bruits * coeur"


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