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An Introduction to Multimodal Biometric Identity Recognition

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1 An Introduction to Multimodal Biometric Identity Recognition
Dijana Petrovska-Delacrétaz

2 Outline What is Biometry ? Why is it important ?
Some history and actuality What are/could be the applications ? Biometric modalities, physiological and behavioral characteristics Multimodal Identity Verification

3 What is BIOMETRICS ? Definition :
Biometrics are automated methods of recognizing a person (identification and verification) based on repeatable physiological or behavioral characteristics.  It is a hot topic for security and prevention of identity theft

4 Historical context Before: Bertillon’s measurements in french prisons
Early 1900 fingerprints begin to be used mainly for forensic applications and security “Modern” biometrics: For global security: governmental ID’s, forensics For personal convenience Development of computing technologies towards personal devices The public do care about convenience (remember passwords, cary multiple ID’s…) Biometrics could solve some of these problems

5 Illustration of the Bertill’s person identification system
A. Bertillon, French anthropologist. chief of criminal identification for the Paris police (from 1880) developped a system for the identification of persons by a physical description based upon anthropometric measurements, notes of markings, deformities, color, impression of thumb lines, etc.

6 Short Application History
No “techno killer” application found yet Mostly in the US and UK Some local governmental trials and special applications (ex. home incarceration) Banks do not trust biometrics Security problems DO exist The governments begin to apply it since 1998 Malaysian chip ID card and Passport, used by millions of people American Visa problems: passports according to their specifications or visas => We will have no choice

7 Some “google” info:
Le fichage des passagers aériens Les Etats-Unis menacent d'interdire le survol de leur territoire à toute compagnie aérienne qui ne fournirait pas ses Passenger Name Records (PNR) au FBI. … Bruxelles accepte que les compagnies aériennes d'Europe violent - au profit de Washington - ses propres règles de protection de la vie privée ! 12/11/ h03 France / Libertés / Sécurité Roissy va tester le contrôle d'identité des voyageurs par empreintes digitales Client d'Air France, donne tes doigts La biométrie en vogue Les Etats-Unis exigent qu'à compter du 26 octobre 2004, les pays dont les ressortissants n'ont pas besoin de visa pour entrer sur le sol américain, émettent des passeports comportant des éléments d'identification biométrique. L'Union européenne débat actuellement d'un projet de passeport biométrique pour tous ses citoyens. A Thessalonique en juin 2003, les pays membres ont déjà validé le principe d'inclure dès 2005 dans les visas des ressortissants extra-communautaires une photo numérisée et une image de leurs empreintes digitales. Une mesure que la France vient de confirmer lors du vote de la récente loi Sarkozy. C'est officiel : les passeports européens devront bientôt être dotés d'une puce contenant l'empreinte digitale et celle de l'iris de leurs détenteurs. Telle est la volonté affichée lors du sommet de Porto Carras (Grêce) par les membres du Conseil européen, qui souhaitent "accélérer la mise en oeuvre des procédures liées à l'élaboration d'une politique européenne commune en matière d'asile et d'immigration". En 2002, ce budget s'élevait à 6 millions d'euros. Suivant les recommandations d'un rapport préparatoire au sommet de Thessalonnique, rendu public le 3 juin dernier, les membres du Conseil Européen ont décidé que ces fonds passeront à 140 millions d'euros sur une durée de trois ans.

8 “google” cntd. from Statewatch
monitoring the state and civil liberties in the European Union ... Biometrics - EU takes another step down the road to 1984: Report - biometric documents for visas and resident third country nationals to be introduced by 2005 - biometric passports/documents for EU citizens to follow - "compulsory" fingerprints and facial images - data and personal information to be held on national and EU-wide databases - admission that powers of data protection authorities vary and are "under-resourced" no guarantees that data will not be made available to non-EU states … EU Summit: Agreement on "harmonised" biometric identification linked to EU databases The EU Summit has backed the allocation 140 million euros to developing controls at borders and of databases. This includes the Visa Information System (VIS) and the next generation Schengen Information System (SIS II): "a coherent approach is needed in the EU on biometric identifiers or biometric data, which could result in harmonised solutions for documents for third country nationals, EU citizens' passports and information systems (VIS and SIS II)" The Visa Information System will log all applications for visas to enter the EU, the length of stay, arrival and departure date, and those to be refused entry. The SIS holds list of those to be refused entry (Article 96) and people or vehicles to be placed under surveillance (Article 99). As at 5 March 2003 data was held on a total of 780,992 people under Article 96 and there were 16,016 entries under Article 99. It also holds the names and details on a number of protestors detained over the past two years. The demand for the introduction of harmonised biometric data (eg: fingerprints, DNA or iris scans) has been lead by the US post-11 September who have been backed by the UK. This was first announced in the US Enhanced Border Security and Visa Reform Act of May 2002 and is to be introduced from October 2004 at an estimated cost of $3.8 billion. All passports and visas for those entering the USA will be compulsory. The proposal was discussed at the G8 meeting in May. At this meeting UK Home Secretary said that biometric data would be included on UK passports from 2006 embedded in a microchip - which may contain other unspecified data. Tony Bunyan, Statewatch editor, comments: "This will mean the mandatory introduction of biometric and maybe other data on all travellers - whether migrants, visitors or EU citizens. The adoption of this decision for the wholesale surveillance of peoples' movements by the EU Council (the 15 Prime Ministers) has been taken without any public consultation or debate in parliaments. The EU Council cannot legislate but its decisions are routinely translated into EU law - it is a totally undemocratic procedure."

9 Better public awareness is needed

10 What are the challenges
Combine security and convenience issues Need for standards Not forget the personal privacy issues Neither the Law and Societal ones ….. A lot of problems exist Different applications require different levels of security Research challenges for mono and multi modal biometrics

11 How to verify the identity of a person ?
Control a specific knowledge (password, PIN,...) they can be forgotten, or imitated Use something that we possess (passeport, key, badge,...) they can be stolen or lost Use the physiological data (Face, iris, finger print, hand shape,…) or behavioural (speech, signature, keystroke, gait, ...) of a person they can not be forgotten nor stolen they can vary (age, accidents, …) (not a clear disctinction between them: a fingerprint depends on the behaviour during the fingerprint capture…)

12 Modalities for identity verification

13 Physiological Biometric Modalities
Face (visible light, infra-red, thermogram, 3D, …) Fingerprint Retinal scan, Iris Hand geometry, Veins, Palmprint Ear shape, Genetic code ... (some of them are influenced by the behaviour also… problem of the human variability)

14 Behavioral Biometric Modalities
Speech (is the prefered modality over the telephone) Hand writing, signature Gesture, Gait Keystroke pattern on a keyboard Usually less reliable

15 Desired properties of a Biometric modality
Easy to measure (for real time applications) Efficient (precision, speed, cost) Unique (2 persons should not have identical characteristics) Has no temporal variability or aging (NO temporal drift) User should accept it Impossible to duplicate (robustness to forgery) That makes a lot of difficulties

16 Multimodal biometrics
Why biometric person authentication is not deployed on a large scale ? algorithmic performances are not robust implementation and cost acceptance by the users (human factor) Answer: fusion of monomodal systems for person recognition better performance people can choose their preferred authentication system

17 Need of common evaluation of the multimodal biometry
Need of a common evaluation platform (databases and publically available reference systems) Existing mono and multimodal person authentication databases and common evaluations (not an exhaustive listing) NIST -audio: database + yearly evaluations (no reference system) fingerprint evaluations (uni-bologna) XM2VTS , BANCA - audio and video MCYT- fingerprint and signature ….. Need of common evaluation platform: common evolving databases reference systems

18 Schematic view of a biometric system

19 Registration of a new client
Acquisition of biometric patterns to be used as reference. For a number of modalities (signature, vocal password,...), several repetitions are desired. A reference model may be infered from the reference patterns. This model could be adapted to follow temporal drifts.

20 Recognition of a person
Is he really the person he claims to be ? Identity verification Who am I ? Identification (the closest person in a closed set) Followed by verification to reject unknown individuals Deliberate imposture is a major problem in identity verification Liveness checking , simultaneity « artificial » fingers, artifical fingerprint images, photographs, contact lenses, masks-disguise, tape recording, voice transformation, …. These problems are not yet addressed in a methodological way

21 Perspectives A lot of interest from governments, telecom and financial operators,… Fusion of modalities. A number of R&D projects within the EU. Smart cards to support biometric references and to perform identity verification

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