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The cradle of civilization in the Middle-East

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1 The cradle of civilization in the Middle-East
Mesopotamia… M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10 The cradle of civilization in the Middle-East

2 Mesopotamia…where is it?
La Mésopotamie M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

3 Mesopotamia Mesopotamians had many gods, and each god represented something different Gods were anthropomorphic This means that they Had the appearance of a human Experienced the same emotions as humans There were more than 3000 deities, which means they were also Polytheistic (believed in more than one god; monotheistic is a belief in only one god) M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

4 Sumerians 4 main deities
It is important to understand that the gods changed with the four main civilizations in Mesopotamia…the Sumerians, the Amorites, the Assyrians and the Chaldeans. Here are the four main gods of the Sumerians, the first of the four civilizations in Mesopotamia. An, god of heaven. Temple located in the city of Uruk. Enlil, the god of air. Temple located in Nippur. Enki, the god of water and earth. Temple located in Eridu. Ninhursag, the mother goddess of all living things. Temple located in Lagash. Other notable deities were: Utu, sun god Nannar, moon god Innana, goddess of love M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

5 Mesopotamian religion
M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10 Mesopotamian religion The mesopotamians constructd huge temples of stone, known as ziggourats. There was one for each city-state and it was only the priests who were allowed to enter therein. The priests, it was believed, received word from the gods that they would translate and share with the people. 1200 priests and servants per ziggourat. daily offering to the gods, then consumed by the priests and the servants.

6 The belief in life after death
Sumerians believed in an after life, and they were fearful of it…with no wonder, it was a place of darkness where one would live forever, alone. It was a place of no return with seven walls and no gates…therefore you were buried with all you would need in the next life. Kings and queens were once buried with servants, who would go to the afterlife with their king or queen (however later it was only statues of the servants that would be buried with the deceased king or queen). M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

7 Social organization in Mesopotamia
The Priests The King The Scribes Merchants & Artisans The Commoners Slaves M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

8 Daily life in Mesopotamia
The family was very important in Mesopotamia and the man was the undisputed leader of the family. Unique from other ancient civilizations (Egypt, India, China), women had certain rights… To own property To own a business They were, however, not allowed to take part in the political arena. This was considered a man’s domain. Women who were part of wealthy families, like the Greeks, had their own part of the house, a place where only the young children and the women were allowed. M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

9 Important inventions from the Mesopotamians…
The Wheel Writiong The first civilization to use agriculture extensively… Canals (for irrigation of fields) Cattle (to pull the plows) Plows (to replace hoes) Seed-drills M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

10 La Mésopotamie…quelques questions
Dans quelle région du monde se trouvait la Mésopotamie? Utilisant les mots anthropomorphe et polythéiste, décrivez la religion de la Mésopotamie dans une bonne phrase. Nommez les 4 dieux les plus importants en Mésopotamie avec leurs villes principaux. Que penses-tu est vraiment important aux Mésopotamiens si tu avais seulement les 4 dieux que je vous ai présenté comme information sur laquelle tu pourrais basé ta réponse. Décrivez les ziggourats et leur place dans la civilisation mésopotamienne. Comment est-ce que la vie des femmes était-elle différente des autres civilisations anciennes? Nommez les inventions que les mésopotamiens nous ont donné. Laquelle était la plus importante, selon toi? Pourquoi? Pourquoi est-ce que la Mésopotamie est connue comme ‘le berceau de la civilisaition?’ Qu’est-ce que cela signifie? M. Bridgeo, WHS FISS 10

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