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Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Alain Blondel University of Geneva Neutrino Physics 1. What are neutrinos and how do we know ? 2. The neutrino questions.

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Présentation au sujet: "Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Alain Blondel University of Geneva Neutrino Physics 1. What are neutrinos and how do we know ? 2. The neutrino questions."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Alain Blondel University of Geneva Neutrino Physics 1. What are neutrinos and how do we know ? 2. The neutrino questions 3. Neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations 4. neutrino oscillations and CP violation 5. on-going and future neutrino experiments on oscillations 6. on-going and future neutrino-less double-beta experiments 7. Conclusions

2 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Les neutrinos interagissent très peu et ont une masse extrêmement faible. Pourtant il se pourrait bien qu'ils détiennent la clé de plusieurs questions fondamentales en physique des particules. On passera en revue les expériences les plus marquantes par lesquelles les propriétés des neutrinos ont été établies, puis on fera un bilan des questions actuelles et du programme d'expériences prévu pour y répondre. 1. Propriétés des neutrinos: découverte, hélicité, neutrinos et antineutrinos, les familles de neutrinos. 2. Interactions des neutrinos, courant charges et courants neutres, les neutrinos dans le Modèle Standard. 3. La découverte des neutrinos du soleil, et le mystère des neutrinos solaires. Les neutrinos atmosphériques et la découverte des transmutations de neutrinos. 4. Propriétés des neutrinos massifs, les oscillations. Oscillations de neutrino oscillations avec trois familles. Les expériences neutrino auprès des réacteurs nucléaires. 5. La recherche de l'angle manquant theta_13. Les effets de matière et la violation de CP, le programme expérimental futur sur les oscillations. 6. Les mesures directes de la masse des neutrinos. Les neutrinos et la cosmologie. 7. Questions théoriques sur les masses des neutrinos, masses de Dirac ou de Majorana ? La recherche de la désintégration double beta sans neutrinos. Envoi sur le rôle des neutrinos pour façonner l'univers. Evaluation Examen oral. Sessions : Juin - Août/Septembre ECTS : 3.5

3 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Neutrinos have mass and mix This is NOT the Standard Model why cant we just add masses to neutrinos?

4 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel e+ e– since Charge(e+) = – Charge(e–). But neutrinos may not carry any conserved charge-like quantum number. There is NO experimetal evidence or theoretical need for a conserved Lepton Number L as L( ν ) = L(l–) = –L( ν ) = –L(l+) = 1 Majorana neutrinos or Dirac neutrinos? then, nothing distinguishes from ! violation of fermion number….

5 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Adding masses to the Stadard model neutrino 'simply' by adding a Dirac mass term implies adding a right-handed neutrino. No SM symmetry prevents adding then a term like and this simply means that a neutrino turns into a antineutrino (the charge conjugate of a right handed antineutrino is a left handed neutrino!) this does not violate spin conservation since a left handed field has a component of the opposite helicity (and vice versa) L m/E

6 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel In the most general way: M R 0 m D 0 Dirac + Majorana M R = 0 m D 0 Dirac only, (like e- vs e+): L R R L ½ 0 ½ 0 4 states of equal masses m I weak = Some have I=1/2 (active) Some have I=0 (sterile) M R 0 m D = 0 Majorana only L R ½ ½ 2 states of equal masses m I weak = All have I=1/2 (active) M R 0 m D 0 Dirac + Majorana L N R R N L ½ 0 ½ 0 4 states, 2 mass levels m I weak = m1 have I=1/2 (active) m2 have I=0 (sterile)

7 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Note that this is not necessary As one can have M anywhere…

8 Neutrinos : the New Physics there is… and a lot of it! SMDirac mass term only Majorana mass term only Dirac AND Majorana Mass terms L R I= ½ ½ L R R L ½ 0 ½ 0 L R ½ ½ N R N L 0 0 L R ½ ½ X 3 Families 6 massless states 3 masses 12 states 3 active neutrinos 3 active antinus 6 sterile neutrinos… 3 mixing angles 1 CP violating phase 0v = 0 3 masses 6 active states No steriles 3 mixing angles 3 CP violating phases 0v 0 6 masses 12 states 6 active states 6 sterile neutrinos… More mixing angles and CPV phases 0v 0 Leptogenesis and Dark matter Mass hierarchies are all unknown except m 1 < m 2 Preferred scenario has both Dirac and Majorana terms … … many physics possibilities and experimental challenges wrong

9 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel The mass spectrum of the elementary particles. Neutrinos are times lighter than other elementary fermions. The hierarchy of this spectrum remains a puzzle of particle physics. Most attractive wisdom: via the see-saw mwchanism, the neutrinos are very light because they are low-lying states in a split doublet with heavy neutrinos of mass scale interestingly similar to the grand unification scale. m M 2 with ~= m top =174 GeV for m eV M ~10 15 GeV

10 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel One often considers that M R ~ M GUT ~ to GeV

11 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Pion decay with massive neutrinos L + L 1 (m /E) 2 (.05/ ) 2 = no problem L c = R

12 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel The smallest possible flavor neutrino mass? Valeurs présentes e m would measure a distribution with three values of mass with the following probabilities ¦U 1e ¦ 2 ¦U 2e ¦ 2 ¦U 3e ¦ 2 =¦U 1e ¦ 2 m ¦U 2e ¦ 2 m ¦U 3e ¦ 2 m

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16 have Majorana mass term

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19 ce que mesure le est : m 1 m 2 m 3 are physical masses of active neutrino (I=1/2) which in this case are just the same as in oscillation experiments

20 (G F ) 4

21 GIF2004 Alain Blondel Criteria to select events: 2 tracks with charge < 0 2 PMT, each > 200 keV PMT-Track association Common vertex Internal hypothesis (external event rejection) No other isolated PMT ( rejection) No delayed track ( 214 Bi rejection) Deposited energy: E 1 +E 2 = 2088 keV Internal hypothesis: ( t) mes –( t) theo = 0.22 ns Common vertex: ( vertex) = 2.1 mm Vertex emission typical 2 evenement NEMO

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27 GERDA has accumulated enough statistics now to confirm of not HdM result by summer 2013

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36 KAMLAND

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39 Alain Blondel NUFACT Sterile neutrinos ( right handed neutrinos) Sterile neutrinos can have masses extending from (essentially 0) all the way to GUT-inspired GeV! We have many hints for something that could be indications for sterile neutrinos in the ~ few eV 2 range In general these hints are not performed with the desired methodological quality -- no near detector -- no direct flux measurement -- no long target hadroproduction with full acceptance -- etc.. etc… -- none is 5 sigma -- need decisive experiments (> 5 significance) -- look wide! other ranges than LSND effect

40 1989 The Number of light neutrinos ALEPH+DELPHI+L3+OPAL in 2001 N = Error dominated by systematics on luminosity.

41 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel At the basis of the experiment: background to golden channel is low, because there is no known neutrino interaction that produces a fast electromagnetic signal followed by a slow neutron capture signal However we do not know all neutrino reactions at these low energies.

42 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel Can be fit by oscillation signal

43 Alain Blondel NUFACT

44 Thierry Lasserre

45 Alain Blondel NUFACT Shaewitz Neutrino 2012

46 Alain Blondel NUFACT Sterile neutrino search a global view: Detected by mixing between sterile and active neutrino ideal experiments: known process active, known process sourcedetector sterile active, 1. disappearance, not necessarily oscillatory best is NC disappearance 0. if sterile cannot be produced (too heavy) apparent deficit in decay rate 2. appearance (at higher order)

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51 Neutrino physics -- Alain Blondel CONCLUSIONS 1.Neutrinos were a cornerstone of the construction of the Standard Model helicity of neutrinos is LEFT (???) discovery of neutral currents and determination of nucleon structure of quarks 2. Neutrinos have mass there is no unique answer to this in the Standard Model Dirac or Majorana mass term, or both? 3. There are three families of neutrinos and they mix This is the source of neutrino oscillations and could lead to observable CP violation 4. If neutrinos have both Majorana and Dirac mass terms A possible explanation of small masses of active neutrinos Predicts the existence of neutrinoless double beta decay Predicts the existence of massive sterile neutrinos 5. AND…. Provide a beautiful dark matter candidate Provide an explanation for the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Univers


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