Présentation au sujet: "ICZM experience in Tunisia: preliminary results and lessons learned from the SMAP III- Tunisia project Alessandra Pomé WWF Mediterranean Programme Office."— Transcription de la présentation:
1ICZM experience in Tunisia: preliminary results and lessons learned from the SMAP III- Tunisia projectAlessandra Pomé WWF Mediterranean Programme Office July Alghero, Italy
2Outline Rapid overview of ICZM in the Tunisia SMAP III-Tunisia project Lessons learned
3The Tunisian Coastline 1,300 km500 km of beaches60 islands of different size70 coastal wetlands (lagoons and Sebkha)High marine and coastal biological diversity69.2% of the population in coastal regions (2004)90% of tourism in coastal regions (190,000 beds in 2005)41 fisheries ports, 8 large commercial ports, 7 marinasLand-borne pollution in sea and coastal wetlandsOverexploitation of natural resources – over fishingDestruction of fragile marine and coastal habitats…With a total length of about 1,400 Km, a wide variety of landscapes, ranging from sandy beaches to coastal wetlands, and 60 islands of different size, and an outstanding biological diversity, the coastal areas are vital for Tunisia’s economic development. The coastal areas host almost 70% of the total population, and most economic activities: this is particularly true for tourism. Tourism contributes around 7% of Tunisia's GDP and is the country's largest foreign currency earner, making up 17% of the total. It provides jobs for an estimated 400,000 Tunisians. Investment is pouring into the sector, particularly from the Gulf area and tourism constructions and infrastrcutres are picking up pace . Marinas are becoming particularly popular areas, as resorts along the French and Italian Rivieras can no longer cope with the increasing number of visitors.Supervised by the Ministry of Equipment, Housing and Land Development, the Tunisian construction sector as a whole is seeing an increasing level of private involvement, particularly from Gulf-based companies.Sandy beaches, which occupy about 575 km of the entire coastline, are the most common landscapes along the Tunisian coast and home to most of the Tunisian population; Coastal cliffs, which occupy about 400 km of the entire coastline and are found mainly on the north-eastern coast of Tunisia; Coastal sand dunes covered with forest can be found in the coastal zones of Zoueraa, Bizerte, Gammarth, Oued Abid, Medfoun, Ghedhabna; and Coastal wetlands.
4National policiesCreation of the « Agence de Protection et d’Aménagement du Littoral » (Law n°72-95 July 1995) to implement the national policies related to the protection and management of the coastal areasNational levelRéglementation de l’aménagement du territoire et de l’urbanisme, du domaine public maritime, des rejets, des études d’impact sur l’environnement,de la lutte contre la pollution marineInternational levelTunisia is party to the Barcelona Convention and it is called to develop a national strategy on ICZM in accordance to the Protocol ICZM (Madrid 2008)Tunisia was one of the first Mediterranean countries to adopt special legislation and governance arrangements for the coastal zone. In 1995, the Coastal Protection and Planning Agency (APAL) was established as a public agency to implement government policy for coastal protection and planning and to manage the public maritime domain. It now comes under the Ministry for Environment and Sustainable Development.The role of APAL is to ensure consistency between all projects and programmes affecting the coast.For example, it handles EIA procedures and permits for coastal planning and development;Its has powers of expropriation to protect ecologically sensitive areas against property speculation and uncontrolled urban development;It enforces the law to prevent encroachments and unlawful occupation of the public maritime domain.It carries out measures to identify, protect and restore natural and sensitive areasIt conducts regular monitoring through its coastal observatory (Observatoire du Littoral).Tunisia does not yet have a national integrated coastal zone management policy but a number of regulations exist which have a direct or indirect impact on the management of the coastal zones.Special legislation was adopted for Tunisia’s public maritime domain, which covers delimitation, issue of concessions, conservation and enforcement. Natural elements of this domain are defined to include the shoreline, lakes and lagoons that are naturally connected to the sea, internal maritime waters and territorial sea (without prejudice to freedom of passage through the territorial sea). Following amendments in 2005, this law no longer covers the exclusive fishing zone or the exclusive economic zone.Priorities and actions aredetermined under five-year management plans. The legislation defines the coastal zone very generally as “the zone of contact which enables the ecological, natural and biological relationship between the sea and land and their direct and indirect interaction” (Art.1).
5Institutional framework Le Ministère de l'Environnement et du Développement DurableLe Ministère de l'Agriculture des Ressources HydrauliquesLe Ministère de l'Equipement, de l'Habitat et de l'Aménagement du territoireMinistre du Tourisme et les organismes sous sa tutelle (AFT, ONTT)Ministère de l’Intérieur et du Développement Local qui assure la tutelle des municipalitésThe Commission Nationale du Développement Durable (CNDD) was establised in 1993 to improve the national development programmes and steering them towards sustainabilityAlthough broad, APAL’s current mandate does not extend to all aspects of integrated coastal zone management.Many other ministries still play an important role in the management of the coastal areas.
6Programme Rivage Tunisie To promote the sustainable management of the coastal zones through:1. Streamlining environmental aspects into national and sectorial strategies/programmes/policies2. Promoting the ICZM3. Managing the « Zones sensibles »4. Strengthening the local governance of the coastal areasDevelopment of a national ICZM strategyImplement pilot projects on the management of « Zones Sensibles » and Marine Protected AreasDevelop a programme for the depollution of the Golf of TunisImplement an integrated programme « Rivages pour tous » to improve the management of the beachesUpdate the coastal profile and define a strategyStrengthen the role and capacity of the Observatoire du LittoralAmong its activities, APAL has launched a Programme Rivage.
7Coastal area of Kroumirie & Mogods South coast of Grand SfaxSMAP III-TunisiaCoastal zone is defined, in the Guidelines for Grant Applicants to the SMAP III, as the “the zone encompassing 1) coastal and estuarine waters, 2) the adjoining and complete inter-tidal area, 3) and the supra-tidal coastal lands, including directly connected coastal environments such as coastal watersheds, wetlands and areas subject to marine climate influence”.Region of Kroumirie & Mogods (north west of Tunisia): the coastal zone of the governatorates of Béja and Bizerte, 45 km of coastline between the airport of Tabarka (to the west) and the stream of Ourd Srbera to the east of the village of Sidi Mechreg, and inland up to the road connecting Tabarka to Bizerte to the south and north, into the sea, up to the 100 m bathymetric lineKey ecological features:Rather pristine and very vulnerable landscapes: mountains, hills, rocky cliffs (Cap Negro, Cap Zebib, Cap Serrat, Cap Blanc) and an extensive sand dune system covered by forest of pine and acacia treesRather pristine and very vulnerable seascapes: extensive Posidonia meadows and rocky bottoms, habitats for numerous marine species of commercial importanceKey socio economic features:Tourism (main economic activity); Small and medium fishing activities (lobsters) and aquaculture; Agriculture; Forestry (cork production); Sites of cultural and archaeological interestTwo concerted ICZM action plans to be used as model for a national ICZM plan
8Main ICZM issues Kroumirie & Mogods (rural quasi-pristine area) Marine/Coastal protected area as a tool for sustainable management of the coastal resourceslegal framework for the creation of the MPAmanagement plan for the MPASustainable economic development of the rural areas (tourism, fisheries and agro-forestry)Grand Sfax (second urban and industrial pole in Tunisia)A new territorial management and planning of the southern coast of Grand Sfax:Progressive de-contamination of the SIAPE and other industrial sitesCreation of a natural-cultural pole in Thyna inlcuding the existing archeological site, wetlands and urban parkIntegration of the salt mines in the urban context and promotion of tourismPromotion of sustainable tourism and fisheries managementOn the other hand, in 1998, WWF-MedPO identified the coast of the Kroumirie & Mogods (K&M) region, in the north-west of Tunisia, as one of the last coastal and marine biodiversity “hotspots” in the Mediterranean, that is areas with outstanding biological diversity in urgent need for protection. In 1998, the coastal zone of K&M was also classified as sensitive area by APAL, following a presidential Decree (No of 28 October 1998).The K&M region is characterized by a wealth of marine and terrestrial biological features of Mediterranean importance. The coastal forests are exceptional in terms of number and diversity of habitats they offer (coastal dunes, bogs, freshwater lakes). Underwater habitats feature well preserved Posidonia meadows and rocky bottoms, while extensive sand dune systems along the shore are virtually intact. The monk seal (Monachus monachus), which disappeared from the area, was observed several times in recent years and marine turtles (Caretta caretta) use these shores as migration corridors and feeding grounds.The K&M region features a disperse and rural population with relatively low living standards. Employment opportunities are limited and migration to the neighboring cities and regions is common, particularly among the youngest. Fisheries, agro-forestry and breeding are the most common income generating activities, which put pressure on the natural resources of the area, particularly, through deforestation and overgrazing, resulting in serious degradation of the land. “Sun & Beach” tourism is also rapidly growing along the coasts of the Kroumirie et Mogods region to the detriment of its outstanding natural features. Hotels, resorts and gulf clubs are built or planned to be build on sand dunes and in the forests around the city Tabarka (at the border with Algeria) and eastwards, towards Cap Negro and Cap Serrat. However, the degradation is still localized and most part of the region is in an exceptional good environmental status.Programme d’Aménagement Côtier de la zone de SFAX » (PAC-Sfax) ( )Analyse systémique et prospective. Rapport phase I » and three studies on fisheries, phosphate and oil production - UNEP/MAPSustainable Development Strategy of Grand Sfax” Med’Act 2 – Medcities/ Rome 2003/2004
9Action plan ICZM planning phases: Preparatory phase – Jan-March 2006 WORK PLAN, GOVERNANCE & PARTICIPATORY PROCESSAssessment phase – March 2006 – Jan 2007COASTAL PROFILESAnalysis, forecasting and strategy formulation – 2007ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT & CONSERVATION SCENARIOSICZM Planning – 2008As previously mentioned, special attention has been given to the full involvement of all stakeholders in the ICZM process. The project team has largely invested in meetings, workshops, training courses and field visits aimed at:informing users and other interested parties — directly or through their representatives — that ICAM plans were to be prepared for the two pilot sites (preparatory phase)training users and other interested parties on ICAM, sustainable management of natural resources, and other relevant issues (preparatory phase)seeking their contributions to information on local resources and their use (elaboration of the Coastal Areas Reports)soliciting opinions on the management options, political support, etc. (development of the scenarios)Comprehensive and participated ICZM PLANS OF ACTION, specifically tailored to the needs and potentials of the coastal area concernedStakeholders prepared to the ground implementation of ICZM plans of action
10APAL National Steering Committee Project Coordination Committee WWF MedPO, Medcities, APAL, UNDP,Sfax Municipality, TAPARURA Public SocietyENIS Sfax UniversityNational Steering CommitteeSteering CommitteeGrand SfaxSteering Committee K&MWWF MedPO has time-honoured experience in the field of marine and coastal resources conservation, sustainable tourism and physical planning in the Mediterranean basin. The successful experience of the SMAP I project, which was carried out by WWF MedPo in the Kroumirie & Mogods Region (mountain area), confirms the ability of such an organization to work and achieve results in Tunisia. WWF MedPo will supervise, coordinate and manage the whole project, as well as lead the sub-project in the Kroumirie & Mogods Region.Partner 1: Barcelona Metropolitan Entity for Hydraulic Services and Waste Treatment (BME), acting as Medcities General Secretariat, has developed many co-operation projects in coastal areas on sustainable development strategies (as Sfax SD Strategy), environment audits, plans and actions on environment vectors and integration tools. BME is active on environmental planning and management. It will lead the sub-project in “Grand Sfax”, provide expertise on waste & water management and territorial planning and disseminate results through the network.Partner 2: Agence de Protection et d’Aménagement du littoral (APAL) is responsible for the application of the national policies concerning coastal protection in Tunisia. It will contribute to the project by providing data, fostering the application of ICAM process/results, replicating the project experience at national level.Partner 3: Sfax Municipalité is currently leader of a Med’Act EC project on a Sustainable Development Strategy. It will lead the local team in Sfax, promote stakeholders’ participation and provide interface with the agencies of the Ministry of Environment (ANPE and APAL) and other Tunisian partners.Partner 4: Société d’Etudes et d’Aménagement des Côtes Nord de la ville de Sfax (TAPARURA Public Society) will provide expertise on decontamination and coastal improvement.Partner 5 : Ecole Nationale d’Ingénieurs de Sfax (ENIS) de l’Université de Sfax will provide expertise integrated coastal area management.Associates will provide technical assistance and support to the project as follows: Tunisian Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development: responsible authority for the management of environment and natural resources in Tunisia; Sardinia Regional Government (Italy): ICAM planning (as the region is in the process of establishing the first regional ICAM plan (“Regional Landscape Physical Plan”); MEDPAN, network of managers of marine protected areas in the Mediterranean: communication/visibility/outreach activities; Tunisian Urban Planners Association: coastal planning; Association for Environment Protection of Sfax: natural resources conservation; Thyna Municipality: integrate management and planning; Tunisian Towns’ Federation: financing municipal management participation; World Bank, French Development Agency, Cities Alliance, Marseilles municipality, already active in the “Great Sfax Sustainable Development Plan of action”, will collaborate.KROUMIRIE & MOGODSGRAND SFAXLocal Coordination UnitLocal Coordination UnitAPALSMAP IIIFocal PointAssistantWorking GroupWorking GroupWorking GroupWorking Group
11Kroumirie & Mogods: first results Development of a Coastal profileDevelopment and conservation scenarios elaborated through participatory process for the project pilot areaAn Integrate Coastal Zone Management Plan of priority actions for the development and conservation of the region completed (to be presented at the Final Conference June 26, 2008)Management options for the Marine and coastal protected Area Cap Serrat - Cap Negro identified and a preliminary management plan completedEstablishment of a local Steering CommitteeCapacity of local stakeholders strengthenedSupport to local stakeholders (GDA, small scale fishermen, …)in the region of K&M, the focus is on conservation of the outstanding marine and coastal biological diversity, ecosystems and land/seascapes. The region is among the national priority coastal areas to be protected through the establishment of a new MPA. The zoning plan was therefore selected as the best approach to create workable solutions for the management of this quasi-pristine coastal area. A zoning plan subdivides the area to be managed in 3 (or more) zones and specifies which activities are permitted and which are prohibited for each delineated zone, in a way that minimizes the conflicts between users. A pool of highly qualified experts were contracted to develop simple and practicable scenarios, which all feature a marine and coastal protected area (which is a “given element” for the management of the area). Three scenarios were elaborated which differ in the size and location of the 3 zones of protection (core zone, intermediate zone and buffer zone). Specific objectives were defined for each of the proposed zone:Provide protection for the most sensitive habitats, species, ecosystems and ecological processesPromote human development while ensuring the maintenance of environmental quality in the project areaAllow the rehabilitation of areas that are already damaged by human activities (diving, forestry, grazing).The scenarios were developed based on the findings of the Coastal Area Report for the region of K&M and through an intensive consultation with all local stakeholders (including administrations and fishermen’s associations). The final report includes the criteria adopted to define the 3 scenarios, a fourth scenario which was developed by stakeholders (merging two of the original scenarios to better respond to the needs and constraints of local users), indications of all conservation measures and management options identified for each zone and GIS maps. All management options were subject to the SWOT analysis to better define the objectives and expected outcomes, the advantages and disadvantages, the technical, legal and institutional feasibility, the timing for the achievement, an estimate of the resources needed and an assessment of the socio-economic impacts of the implementation of the proposed actions. The scenarios were presented and discussed with all local stakeholders throughout the year. The scenario which was finally approved by the Local Project Steering Committee is the re-elaboration of the second of the scenarios proposed.
12Grand Sfax 7 municipalities 15,570 hectares 500,000 inhabitants 30 inhabitants per hectareSecond city of Tunisia (1/12th of the national urban population)Important economic pole for production of olive oil, fisheries, energy and manufacture…Important commercial portVision 2016 (Sustainable Development Strategy for the Grand Sfax)Sfax Métropole Méditerranéenne compétitive, de la haute technologie et de l’innovation, durable, solidaire et attractive et réconciliée avec son littoralAt a sub-national level, the Coastal Area Management Programme (CAMP) in the Sfax area was completed in 1998 with MAP funding. A major report on ICZM in Tunisia was completed in 2005.
23Grand Sfax: first results Development of a Coastal profileComplementary studies (integration of the salt mines into the urban context, impacts of the city on the marine resources, ..)Development and conservation scenarios elaborated through participatory process for the project pilot areaAn plan (schema) for the management and valorisation of the south coast (to be presented at the Final Conference June 26, 2008)An ICZM plan of priority actions (ongoing)Establishment of a local Steering CommitteeCapacity of local stakeholders strengthenedClosure of the public landfillReallocation of the SIAPEIndustrial valorization of the olive oil wasteNew land use for the agricultural area
24Intégration de la saline de Sfax dans le tissu urbain Bien que le schéma directeur d’aménagement a préconisé le desserrement de la saline, l’étude a montré qu’une intégration de la saline dans le tissu urbain constituerait une meilleure opportunité dans un contexte de gestion intégrée.
25La biodiversité marine et côtière et promotion de la pêche durable Cette étude a permis d’apprécier l’état de la biodiversité floristique et faunistique du milieu marin et côtier de la zone d’étude Intégration de l’Île de Kerkennah dans le contexte GIZC Grand Sfax Évidence de création d’une aire marine protégée.Etat des lieux et plans d’actions des diverses sources de nuisance environnementaleRéhabilitation de la décharge publique : étude réalisée parl’ANGED et entérinée par le projet,Détermination des actions prioritaires de dépollutionsrelatives aux établissements industriels de la zone d’étude,Evaluation environnementale de l’activité de transformationdu phosphate dans le Grand Sfax, ( SIAPE )Aménagement paysager des bassins des margines,
265 alternative conservation and development scenarios The pilot area in Grand Sfax is characterized by serious conflicts regarding the use of space and natural resources - industrial pole, salt mines, archaeological sites, growing urban settlements and infrastructures. Given this complexity, the scenarios were developed through an extensive participatory approach aimed at obtaining, at the outset, consensus among all stakeholders and representatives of civil society of the entire Grand Sfax area. Wide consensus was reached both on the approach to be applied and on the results. Several workshops were organized to define the objectives, select the scenarios, better define the alternatives and run a cost/benefit analysis of such alternatives. Several technical meetings with the experts working on complementary studies were organized in parallel to support the development of the scenarios. A GTZ tool called Think Tools was adopted to guide the participatory process. In the first workshop, it was agreed to develop the scenarios according to and by building on the Sustainable Development Strategy of Grand Sfax, which was elaborated in 2005 and refers to the rehabilitation and promotion of the south coast of Sfax. Two relevant scenarios have been selected. Both feature common goals: i) the creation of a specific authority, coupled with a strong system of exchange of information and coordination with relevant public and private stakeholders; ii) the promotion of sustainable tourism; iii) the development of public/private partnerships; iv) the creation of an observatory for sustainable development indicators; and v) the enhancement of a number of key economic and commercial activities. The two scenarios differ only in their approach to the problem of pollution: Scenario I focuses on minimizing the negative impacts of polluting activities on the environment and human health; Scenario II focuses on the delocalization of such activities. A qualitative brainstorming cost/benefit analysis was run in the last workshop to provide more insights into the two different scenarios. A more quantitative analysis will be undertaken during the last months of the project. The final conclusion of this long process is that Scenario I can be considered as the first step towards Scenario II.
27Schéma d’aménagement et de valorisation de la zone côtière sud du Grand Sfax
28Preliminary lessons learned Political will and supportLocal lobbying groups – interested partiesFull transparency of the planning processEnsure access to all partiesFull accountability of the institutions leading the planning processGood understanding of the ICZM processAccompanying measures (not only meetings and studies, but on-the-ground activities)ICZM takes time and needs patience
29SMAP III-Tunisia project Final conferenceSMAP III-Tunisia project26 June Tunis