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Music part II. a) Sonata form in the 1770s–80s (the Viennese Classical era) Outline of sonata form Introduction Exposition Development Recapitulation.

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Présentation au sujet: "Music part II. a) Sonata form in the 1770s–80s (the Viennese Classical era) Outline of sonata form Introduction Exposition Development Recapitulation."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Music part II

2 a) Sonata form in the 1770s–80s (the Viennese Classical era) Outline of sonata form Introduction Exposition Development Recapitulation Coda

3 b) Composers in Vienna and Paris and the concept of a common language 9. LISTENING SELECTION: JOSEPH HAYDN, SYMPHONY NO. 85, LA REINE DE FRANCE, FIRST MOVEMENT9. LISTENING SELECTION: JOSEPH HAYDN, SYMPHONY NO. 85, LA REINE DE FRANCE, FIRST MOVEMENT

4 Haydns Paris symphonies a) Dynamic interplay of personalities,

5 Sturm und Drang the conventional translation is "Storm and Stress" individual subjectivity and, in particular, extremes of emotion were given free expression in reaction to the perceived constraints of rationalism imposed by the Enlightenment and associated esthetic movements.subjectivity Enlightenmentesthetic

6 the galant In music, Galant was a term referring to a style, principally occurring in the third quarter of the 18th century, which featured a return to classical simplicity after the complexity of the late Baroque era. This meant (in some implementations) simpler music, with less ornamentation, decreased use of polyphony (with increased importance on the melody), musical phrases of regular length, a reduced harmonic vocabulary (principally emphasizing tonic and dominant), and a less important bass line. It was, in many ways, a reaction against the showy Baroque styleclassicalBaroquepolyphonymelodyBaroque

7 "It is indicative that Haydn, even in his old age, is reported to have said, 'If you want to know whether a melody is really beautiful, sing it without accompaniment.'" (Blume 1970 p. 19) Haydn

8 After the Bastille 1. LISTENING SELECTION: ROUGET DE LISLE, LA MARSEILLAISE (ARR. BERLIOZ), VERSES 1–2 LISTENING SELECTION: ROUGET DE LISLE, LA MARSEILLAISE (ARR. BERLIOZ), VERSES 1–2

9 The Reign of Terror The trial and execution of the king 3. LISTENING SELECTION: ROUGET DE LISLE,CHANT DU NEUF THERMIDOR (ARR. BERLIOZ) LISTENING SELECTION: ROUGET DE LISLE, CHANT DU NEUF THERMIDOR (ARR. BERLIOZ)

10 Counter-Reaction and War with Other European Powers ÉTIENNE MÉHUL,LE CHANT DU DÉPART ?v=uahH3DAxTpE ÉTIENNE MÉHUL, LE CHANT DU DÉPART ?v=uahH3DAxTpE

11 The Chant du Départ (French for "Song of the Departure")French is a revolutionary and war song written by Étienne Nicolas Méhul (music) and Marie- Joseph Chénier (words) in It was the official anthem of the First Empire.[1] Étienne Nicolas MéhulMarie- Joseph ChénierFirst Empire[1] The song was nicknamed "the brother of the Marseillaise" by Republican soldiers. Marseillaise It was presented to Maximilien Robespierre, who called it "magnificent and republican poetry way beyond anything ever made by the Girondin Chénier Its original title was Anthem to Liberty; it was changed to its present title by Robespierre.Maximilien RobespierreGirondin

12 The song is a musical tableau Each of the seven stanzas is sung by a different character or group of characters:

13 The first stanza is the discourse of a deputy cheering his soldiers and encouraging them for the fight for the Republic Un député du Peuple A deputy of the People La victoire en chantant Nous ouvre la barrière. La Liberté guide nos pas. Et du Nord au Midi La trompette guerrière A sonné l'heure des combats. Tremblez ennemis de la France Rois ivres de sang et d'orgueil. Le Peuple souverain s'avance, Tyrans descendez au cercueil. La République nous appelle Sachons vaincre ou sachons périr Un Français doit vivre pour elle Pour elle un Français doit mourir. Victory singing Opens for us the gates Liberty guides our steps And from the North to the South The war trumpet Signals the hour of the fight Tremble, enemies of France Kings drunk on blood and pride The sovereign People comes forth Tyrants go down to your graves The Republic is calling us Let us prevail or let us perish A Frenchman must live for her For her a Frenchman must die

14 Chorus Chant des guerriers (Refrain)Song of the Warriors (Chorus) La République nous appelle Sachons vaincre ou sachons périr Un Français doit vivre pour elle Pour elle un Français doit mourir. The Republic is calling us Let us prevail or let us perish A Frenchman must live for her For her a Frenchman must die

15 The second stanza is the song of a mother offering the life of her son to the fatherland. Une mère de familleA mother of a familyDe nos yeux maternels ne craignez pas les larmes : Loin de nous de lâches douleurs ! Nous devons triompher quand vous prenez les armes : C'est aux rois à verser des pleurs. Nous vous avons donné la vie, Guerriers, elle n'est plus à vous ; Tous vos jours sont à la patrie : Elle est votre mère avant nous. (Refrain) Do not fear that our motherly eyes should weep From us begone, cowardly grief! We must triumph when you bear arms It is kings who have to weep We gave you life Warriors, it is no longer yours All your days belong to the Motherland It is your mother above all (Chorus)

16 Two old men Deux vieillardsTwo old menQue le fer paternel arme la main des braves ; Songez à nous au champ de Mars ; Consacrez dans le sang des rois et des esclaves Le fer béni par vos vieillards ; Et, rapportant sous la chaumière Des blessures et des vertus, Venez fermer notre paupière Quand les tyrans ne seront plus. (Refrain) May the fatherly iron arm, the hand of the braves Think of us on the Field of Mars (battlefield) Bless with the blood of the kings and of the slaves the arms blessed by your elder And bringing back home wounds and virtues come and close our lids when tyrants are no more (Chorus)

17 The fourth stanza is sung by children exalting Joseph Bara and, children aged 12 and 13, respectively, who had died for France: Joseph Bara Un enfantA childDe Barra, de Viala le sort nous fait envie ; Ils sont morts, mais ils ont vaincu. Le lâche accablé d'ans n'a point connu la vie : Qui meurt pour le peuple a vécu. Vous êtes vaillants, nous le sommes : Guidez-nous contre les tyrans ; Les républicains sont des hommes, Les esclaves sont des enfants. (Refrain) The fates of Barra and Viala fill us with envy They died, but they prevailed The coward plagued with years never experienced life He who dies for the People has lived You are brave, we are too Guide us against Tyrants Republicans are men slaves are children (Chorus)

18 –Surrounded by Vendeans, Bara was ordered to shout "Long live Louis XVII"; he shouted "Long live the Republic" instead and was executed on the spot.VendeansLouis XVII –Viala was killed by a bullet as he was trying to sabotage an enemy bridge. His last words were "I die, but I die for the Republic." The boy's death was seized as a propaganda opportunity by Robespierre, who praised him at the Convention's tribune saying that "only the French have thirteen-year-old heroes" and had his remains transferred to the Panthéon. propaganda RobespierreConvention Panthéon This version of the history of Joseph Bara is disputed and considered as a "republican myth" by some/many historians.

19 A Wife Une épouse A wife Partez, vaillants époux ; les combats sont vos fêtes ; Partez, modèles des guerriers ; Nous cueillerons des fleurs pour en ceindre vos têtes : Nos mains tresserons vos lauriers. Et, si le temple de mémoire S'ouvrait à vos mânes vainqueurs, Nos voix chanterons votre gloire, Nos flancs porteront vos vengeurs. (Refrain) Leave, valiant husbands! Battles are your feasts Leave, models for warriors We shall pick flowers to crown your heads Our hands shall braid laurels And if the temple of memory (death) Should open for your victorious manes Our voices shall sing your glory Our wombs shall bear your avengers (Chorus)manes

20 A Young Girl Une jeune filleA young girlEt nous, sœurs des héros, nous qui de l'hyménée Ignorons les aimables nœuds ; Si, pour s'unir un jour à notre destinée, Les citoyens forment des vœux, Qu'ils reviennent dans nos murailles Beaux de gloire et de liberté, Et que leur sang, dans les batailles, Ait coulé pour l'égalité. (Refrain) And we, sister of the heroes, we who of Hymenaios ignore the loveable knots if, for uniting themselves some day with our destiny a citizen would express the wish let them come back in our walls embellished with glory and liberty and that their blood, in battles would have been spilled for equality (Chorus)Hymenaios

21 Three warriors Trois guerriers Three warriors Sur le fer devant Dieu, nous jurons à nos pères, À nos épouses, à nos sœurs, À nos représentants, à nos fils, à nos mères, D'anéantir les oppresseurs : En tous lieux, dans la nuit profonde, Plongeant l'infâme royauté, Les Français donneront au monde Et la paix et la liberté. (Refrain) On the iron, before God, we swear to our fathers to our wives, to our sisters to our representatives, to our sons, to our mothers that we shall annihilate oppressors Everywhere, into the deep night by sinking the infamous royalty the French shall give to the world peace and liberty (Chorus)

22 Luigi Cherubini: Lodoïska; political prisoners, and the rescue opera 2. LISTENING SELECTION: FRANÇOIS JOSEPH GOSSEC,HYMNE A LA STATUE DE LA LIBERTÉLISTENING SELECTION: FRANÇOIS JOSEPH GOSSEC, HYMNE A LA STATUE DE LA LIBERTÉ

23 From Enlightenment to Romanticism –1. Philosophical differences a) The Romantic (anti-)hero: Goethe's Faust, Shelley's Frankenstein b) E. T. A. Hoffmann: the power of psychosis and the importance of Beethoven –2. Napoleon and the power of culture

24 –3. LISTENING SELECTION: GASPARE SPONTINI: LA VESTALE, MARCH OF THE PRIESTS ANDTHUNDERST ORM/p>LISTENING SELECTION: GASPARE SPONTINI: LA VESTALE, MARCH OF THE PRIESTS ANDTHUNDERST ORM/p>

25 Gaspare Spontini - Born in Maiolati, spent most of his career in Paris and Berlin,Gaspare SpontiniParisBerlin During the first two decades of the 19th century, Spontini was an important figure in French opera.Frenchopera In his more than twenty operas, Spontini strove to adapt Gluck's classical tragédie lyrique to the contemporary taste for melodrama, for grander spectacle (in Fernand Cortez for example), for enriched orchestral timbre, and for melodic invention allied to idiomatic expressiveness of words.Glucktragédie lyriqueFernand Cortez His single great masterpiece and success was La Vestale.[1]La Vestale[1] La vestale takes place in Rome about 269 BC.La vestale

26 –Beethoven and Napoleon: the Third Symphony, From Napoleon to Eroica –2. LISTENING SELECTION: BEETHOVEN, THIRD SYMPHONY (EROICA), SECOND MOVEMENT (OPENING)LISTENING SELECTION: BEETHOVEN, THIRD SYMPHONY (EROICA), SECOND MOVEMENT (OPENING) –There are a lot of syncopations (stresses at unexpected times) and dissonances (unstable tone combinations), and wider pitch (highness or lowness of sounds) ranges and dynamics (loudness or softness in sounds) and heavier uses of accents (emphases on notes), to name a few deviations from the Classical era's typical way of writing a symphony.

27 Napoleon and Beethoven Originally the work was to be titled the Bonaparte Symphony (New Groves), as a tribute to Napoleon Bonaparte, the French Consul who had begun to radically reform Europe after conducting sweeping military campaigns across the continent. In 1804, Napoleon crowned himself emperor, a move which angered Beethoven. As legend has it, the composer ripped through the title page and later renamed the symphony the Eroica because he refused to dedicate one of his pieces to the man he now considered a tyrant. Nevertheless, he still allowed the published manuscript to carry the inscription, composed to celebrate the memory of a great man, despite dedicating the work to Lobkowitz. This has led historians and biographers to speculate on Beethovens feelings towards Napoleon ever since.Beethovens

28 –3. Beethoven and the French Revolution: Fidelio: the rescue opera updated –4. LISTENING SELECTION: BEETHOVEN, FIDELIO, ACT II, GOTT! WELCH DUNKEL HIER! LISTENING SELECTION: BEETHOVEN, FIDELIO, ACT II, GOTT! WELCH DUNKEL HIER! –http://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=9wim0 Fx0J4Uhttp://www.youtube.c om/watch?v=9wim0 Fx0J4U

29 Fidelio (Op. 72) is a German opera in two acts by Ludwig van Beethoven. It is Beethoven's only opera. The German libretto is by from the French of Jean-Nicolas Bouilly which had been used for the 1798 opera Léonore, ou Lamour conjugal by Pierre Gaveaux.GermanoperaLudwig van BeethovenlibrettoJean-Nicolas BouillyPierre Gaveaux The opera tells how Leonore, disguised as a prison guard named "Fidelio", rescues her husband Florestan from death in a political prison

30 LISTENING SELECTION: BERLIOZ, SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE, 4TH MOVEMENT (MARCH TO THE SCAFFOLD)LISTENING SELECTION: BERLIOZ, SYMPHONIE FANTASTIQUE, 4TH MOVEMENT (MARCH TO THE SCAFFOLD)

31 based on a novella Die Letzte am Schafott (The Last on the Scaffold), by Gertrud von Le Fort. Von Le Fort's story was based in turn on historical events which took place at a Carmelite monastery in Compiègne during the French Revolution On 17 July, 1794, in the closing days of the Reign of Terror led by Robespierre, sixteen Carmelite nuns of the Catholic Church were guillotined at the Barrière de Vincennes (nowadays Place de la Nation) in ParisGertrud von Le FortCarmeliteCompiègneFrench RevolutionReign of TerrorRobespierreCatholic ChurchParis 3. LISTENING SELECTION: POULENC, DIALOGUES OF THE CARMELITES, FINAL SCENE (SALVE REGINA)LISTENING SELECTION: POULENC, DIALOGUES OF THE CARMELITES, FINAL SCENE (SALVE REGINA)

32 Bibliography Mostly from Wikipedia


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