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The Image of Lapland in Early French Travel Descriptions and Their Modern Translations: A functional and discursive analysis Merja Torvinen University.

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Présentation au sujet: "The Image of Lapland in Early French Travel Descriptions and Their Modern Translations: A functional and discursive analysis Merja Torvinen University."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 The Image of Lapland in Early French Travel Descriptions and Their Modern Translations: A functional and discursive analysis Merja Torvinen University of Oulu

2 Contents Aims Theoretical framework Methods Essential concepts Research material The ideology of the Other in language: some examples and results from the study About the translations

3 Aims Ideology of the Other in and through language how is the Other construed in text? what is the role of the translator as a mediator of Otherness? a case study: the image of Lapland in French travel literature

4 Theoretical framework critical text linguistics systemic functional grammar discourse analysis translation studies cultural approach (Lawrence Venuti 1995) sociology of translation (or sociology of translators, Pym 2004)

5 Methods discourse analysis: themes and discourses functional analysis: roles and processes, modality translation studies: interview with the translator: identifying translation strategy contrastive analysis on functional and semantic level

6 Essential concepts Otherness and identity (f.ex. Hall 1997, Saïd 1980, Gnisci 1992) Ideology (f.ex. Heikkinen 1999) Discourse (f.ex. Fairclough 1989) Ideology of the Other naturalization of the distinction us/the others, of hierarchies related to power, authority, values.

7 On the ideological nature of translation… Ideology of faithful translation: translation as another original Revealing ideologies in translation? Translation strategies domesticating/foreignizing translation shifts Obligatory and optional Catford, Huhtala

8 Research material Jean-François Regnard: Voyage de Laponie (1731) Réginald Outhier: Journal dun voyage au Nord en 1736 & 1737 (1744) Xavier Marmier: Relation du voyage (1842) Translator: Marja Itkonen-Kaila Retki Lappiin (1982) Matka Pohjan perille 1736–1737 Pohjoinen maa luvun Lappia ja Suomea ranskalaisen silmin (1999)

9 The ideology of the Other (1) Discourses of Other; French exploration; discovering the unknown and exotic, the North Themes appearances, clothing accommodation, livelihoods and traditions Christianity, superstitions and witchcraft education and intellectual capacities personality and character alcohol -> Focus on the differences; creates a homogenous group of the Other

10 The ideology of the Other (2) Clause as representation: processes Material: around % Mental: % Relational: % Verbal: 5 - 8% Existential: 4 – 11 %

11 11 Example 1 Regnard Ils venoient troquer de poisson pour du tabac. (Material: Actor) Nous les considérâmes depuis la tête jusquaux pieds; (Mental: Observer) ces hommes sont faits tout autrement que les autres. (Material: Patient) La hauteur des plus grands nexcéde pas trois coudées; (Material: Patient) & je ne vois pas de figure plus propre à faire rire. (Mental: Knower) Ils ont la tête grosse, le visage large & plat, le nez écrasé, les yeux petits, la bouche large, une barbe épaisse (Relational: Possessor) qui leur pend sur lestomac. (Material: Location) He olivat tulleet vaihtamaan kalaa tupakkaan. (Material: Actor) Tarkastelimme heitä kiireestä kantapäähän (Mental: Observer/Sensed) ja totesimme, (Mental: Knower) että nämä ihmiset on tehty toisella lailla kuin muut. (Material: Patient) Kookkaimmatkaan heistä eivät ole kolmea kyynärää pitempiä, (Relational: Carrier/Attribute) enkä ole hullunkurisempia olentoja nähnyt. (Mental: Senser/Sensed) Heillä oli iso pää, leveät ja litteät kasvot, litistynyt nenä, pienet silmät, leveä suu ja vatsalle asti roikkuva tuuhea parta. (Relational: Possessor)

12 The ideology of the Other (3) Clause as representation: roles Actor (causer, patient, beneficiary, maleficiary) Senser (thinker, observer, knower, sensed) Carrier/Attribute; Identified/Identifier; Possessor/Possession; Circumstance Sayer (asker, commentator, teller) Existent

13 13 Example 2 Outhier Le Lundi matin, il sest trouvé dans la Cour de cette Maison, un Lappon & une Lappone: (Existential: Existent) cétoit deux personnes mal faites, presque toujours assis sur leurs talons, (Relational: Carrier/Attribute) qui mandioient; (Material: Actor) ils nauroient pas été extrémement petits (Relational: Carrier/Attribute; modal) sils se fussent tenus debout. (Material: Actor) Maanantaiaamuna talon pihalla oli lappalaispariskunta. (Existential: Existent) Molemmat olivat kitukasvuisia (Relational: Carrier/Attribute) ja istuivat melkein koko ajan kyykkysillään kerjäämässä; (Material: Actor) seisoallaan he eivät olisi näyttäneet niin surkean lyhyiltä. (Mental: Sensed; modal)

14 The ideology of the Other (4) Clause as exchange: modality Modality types: Probability Usuality Obligation Inclination Orientation: Subjective Objective Explicit Implicit

15 15 Example 3 Marmier Les Lapons qui conduisent leurs rennes à sept ou huit milles de distance (vingt et une ou vingt-quatre lieues) (Material) viennent une ou deux fois par mois à léglise. (Material) [---] Cest là (Relational) quils doivent se marier, baptiser leurs enfans, enterrer leurs morts. (Material: modal) Il y a aussi dans ce village une école (Existential) où les jeunes Lapons doivent venir prendre des leçons (Material: modal) jusquà ce quils soient confirmés. (Material: modal) Lappalaiset, jotka poroineen vaeltavat täältä seitsemän tai kahdeksan peninkulman päähän, (Material) käyvät kirkossa kerran pari kuussa. (Material) [---] Täällä heidän on mentävä naimisiin, kastettava lapsensa ja haudattava vainajansa. (Material: modal) Kylässä on myös koulu, (Existential) jota nuorten lappalaisten on käytävä siihen asti (Material: modal) kunnes pääsevät ripille. (Material)

16 About the translations Some results from the interview and textual analysis: social context, purpose, readers of the translations translation process and the translators role editor, researcher and expert paratext: introductions, comments, explanations translation strategy features: target-text oriented, reader friendly, minimal change dynamic translation: partial domestication (cf. Venuti 1995) semantic and functional changes

17 17 Obligatory and optional translation shifts: Some examples Obligatory Category and level shifts: dans la Cour de cette Maison: talon pihalla (structure shift) il sest trouvé: oli (omission, shift of tense) Optional assis sur leurs talons: kyykkysillään (shift of phrasing) mal faites: kitukasvuisia (shift of phrasing) qui mandioient: kerjäämässä (omission, shift of phrasing)

18 Thank you! Questions, comments,…?


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