Présentation au sujet: "Discussion, Youth Engagement, and Appreciation of Diversity Kelly Campbell 1, Linda Rose-Krasnor 1, Michael Busseri 1, Mark Pancer 2 and the Centre of."— Transcription de la présentation:
Discussion, Youth Engagement, and Appreciation of Diversity Kelly Campbell 1, Linda Rose-Krasnor 1, Michael Busseri 1, Mark Pancer 2 and the Centre of Excellence for Youth Engagement 1 Brock University, 2 Wilfrid Laurier University Abstract Discussing social issues with parents and friends may influence youths attitudes and behaviour. We examined relationships between youths frequency of discussion of social issues with parents and friends, the youths appreciation for diversity (A.D.) and community/political engagement. 100 youth (78% female) participated, aged 14-19 (M=16.75). Participants completed a telephone interview. A.D. was significantly and positively correlated with discussion frequency with both parents and friends. We then tested for gender differences in these relationships. The correlation between discussion with friends and A.D. was significant only for girls. The correlation between discussion with parents and A.D. was not significant for either gender, but appeared larger for boys. Results involving gender should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of boys. We also found that engagement was significantly and positively correlated with frequency of discussion with parents (but not with friends) for girls only. We were also interested in whether youth who frequently discussed social issues with their parents also discussed social issues frequently with their friends. Discussion with parents and friends were significantly and positively correlated for girls, but not for boys. Implications for promoting engagement and positive social attitudes among youth are discussed. Discuter de questions sociales avec des parents et des amis risque davoir des incidences sur les attitudes et les comportements des jeunes. Nous avons examiné les rapports entre la fréquence à laquelle les jeunes discutent de questions sociales avec des parents et des amis, lappréciation quont les jeunes de la diversité (c.d.), ainsi que de lengagement politique/communautaire. Cent jeunes âgés de 14 à 19 ans (âge moyen : 16,75) ont participé (78 % de femmes) à un sondage téléphonique. Un rapport positif et significatif a été établi entre lappréciation de la diversité et la fréquence des discussions avec les parents et les amis. Dans le contexte de ces rapports, nous nous sommes donc penchés sur la différence entre les sexes. La corrélation entre les discussions avec des amis et lappréciation de la diversité fut significative chez les filles. La corrélation entre les discussions avec des parents et lappréciation de la diversité na pas été significative quant aux deux sexes mais nous a paru davantage significative chez les garçons. Les résultats par rapport aux sexes doivent être interprétés avec prudence en raison du faible pourcentage de garçons. Nous avons également découvert un rapport positif et significatif entre lengagement et la fréquence des discussions avec des parents (et non pas avec des amis) chez les filles. Nous nous sommes également demandés si les jeunes qui discutent souvent de questions sociales avec leurs parents, en discutent également avec leurs amis. Un rapport positif et significatif a été établi entre des discussions avec les parents et les amis chez les filles mais non chez les garçons. Nous examinons également la portée de la promotion de lengagement et dattitudes sociales positives chez les jeunes. Introduction Discussions with parents and friends about social issues may lead to reflection and consideration of new values and principles (e.g., Friedman, 1989), which may lead to an appreciation of diversity. Discussions about social issues also may lead youth to consider various courses of action, which may lead to community engagement. Gender differences also may exist in these relationships. For example, Kochanska (2002) suggested that, for girls, prosocial conduct may be mediated by relationship-based factors such as a feeling of connectedness. Thus, discussions with parents and friends may be more strongly related to prosocial conduct like community engagement for girls than for boys. In addition, we were interested in whether youth who frequently discussed social issues with their parents also discussed social issues frequently with their friends Table 1. Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), and Correlations M(SD)1 2 3 4 1.Discussion Parents3.1(1.3)---.246*.418**.198* 2.Discussion Friends3.3(1.2) ---.115.240* 3.Engagement2.5(0.8) ---.199* 4.Appreciation Diversity4.2(0.4) --- *p<.05; **p<.01 Table 2. Correlations by Gender 1 2 3 4 1.Discussion Parents.302**.441**.171 2.Discussion Friends.086.159.229** 3.Engagement.336 -.098.180 4.Appreciation Diversity.290.342.302 *p<.05; **p<.01 BOYSBOYS GIRLSGIRLS Results and Discussion Discussion and Appreciation for Diversity Discussion with friends was positively and significantly correlated with appreciation for diversity for girls only. There may be something about the way girls interact with friends that leads to appreciation for diversity. Researchers should attempt to determine what discussion characteristics are conducive to developing appreciation for diversity. Discussion with parents was positively and significantly correlated with appreciation for diversity. However, this correlation was not significant for either gender individually (perhaps due to lack of power), but appeared larger for boys. Perhaps boys discussions with their parents are of a different quality than those with their friends, and thus are more likely to create an appreciation for diversity. Boys may be less likely to express and reflect upon different viewpoints with friends than with parents. Discussion and Community/Political Engagement Discussion with friends was not significantly correlated with engagement for either gender. Discussion with parents was positively and significantly correlated with engagement for girls only. Frequency of discussion with parents may reflect something about the quality of the parent-child relationship, and it is the quality of the relationship that leads to moral behaviour. For example, Keller and Edelstein (1993) suggested that the experience of an affective bond could be a motivation for the development of moral responsibility. Discussion with Parents vs. Friends Mean ratings of frequency of discussion parents did not differ from frequency of discussion with friends (for either gender or the sample as a whole). However, the correlation between frequency of discussion with parents and friends was significant only for girls, and this correlation was only moderate (approximately 9% shared variance). This suggests that youth may differ in the relative frequency of their discussion with parents and friends. Limitations Data are cross-sectional, and relationships between discussion, engagement, and appreciation for diversity are likely to be bi-directional. Longitudinal and experimental research is needed. Results regarding gender differences should be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of boys. Both power and selection bias are concerns. Implications Both discussions with parents and friends may lead to positive outcomes. More detailed research taking into account discussion characteristics and relationship quality is needed. Although developmental theory tends to focus more on the influence of peers during adolescence, especially with respect to moral development (Walker & Taylor, 1991), parents may remain an important influence on their childrens moral development. Researchers should not overlook this potential influence. The Centres of Excellence are a Health Canada-funded program. The opinions expressed in this document do not necessarily reflect those of Health Canada. Participants and Procedures Participants were 100 youth (78% female), aged 14-19 (M=16.8, SD=1.31). Participants included both applicants to national youth conferences and youth recruited by various youth-serving organizations. Participants voluntarily participated in telephone interviews, approximately 30-45 minutes in length. Measures (all 5-point scale ratings): Frequency of Discussion with parents and friends (adapted from Pancer, Pratt, & Hunsberger, 2000): indicated frequency of discussion about social issues Frequency of Community/Political Engagement (adapted from Pancer et al., 2002): indicated frequency of participation in 8 activities (e.g., help raise money for something, get involved in a club, team, organization, or religious group) Appreciation for Diversity: indicated agreement with 6 statements (e.g., Youth benefit a lot by growing up with people of different cultures.