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This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in.

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Présentation au sujet: "This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in."— Transcription de la présentation:


2 This stele, made from calcium stone was found in two fragments by E. Renan. It bears a person standing on a lion holding a weapon in his right hand, in his left hand a small lion cub suspended by its back legs. At the top of the stele two disks are shining – the sun and the moon. They contain the following three lines engraved in small letters: « This is the stele which PLS, son of Abdsis, dedicated to his master Chadrrapha, because he understood the voice of his words » "Ceci est la stèle qu'a dédiée PLS, fils de Abdsid à son seigneur Chadrapha, parce qu'il a entendu la voix de ses paroles." This is in the Louvre Museum


4 Found by Mr Dunand à Byblos, this inscription is engraved on the neck of a large pottery vase. It consists of three words "Abdo, son of Kalby, le potter" "Abdo, fils de Kalby, le potier" It is in the National Museum of Beirut


6 This funerary inscription is engraved on the side of a marble coffin found inside the Castle of the Crusades in Byblos. It dates from 350 BCE. It is in the National Museum of Beirut. « In this tomb, I Batnoam, mother of King Azbaal, King of Byblos, son of Pltbaal, preist of the « Lady », I rest clothed and wearing a crown, and a « tôle » laminated with gold on my mouth, just as the Queens before me did » "Dans ce sarcophage, moi Batnoam, mère du roi Azbaal roi de Byblos, fils de Pltbaal, prêtre de la "Dame", je repose dans un vêtement et une couronne sur moi, et une tôle laminée d'or sur ma bouche, comme pour les reines qui furent avant moi."


8 This inscription, engraved on limestone stone, engraved on a stele, was discovered in Byblos inside the sanctuary of the Lady of Byblos, who is presented on it wearing a hathoric crown. In front of her stands the King, wearing a Perisan costume and hen is in an aodring pose. This is in the Louvre I am Yehaumillk, king of Gbl, son of Yehar-Baal, grandson of Ormilk, king of Gbl, that the Lady of Gbl had made King on Gbl. And I invoked the name of my sovereign Lady of Gbl and she heard my voice. And for my soverieng Lady of Gbl I made this bronze altar which is found in this courtyard, as well as this door which is located in front of my own door and the winged disk of gold which is placed in the centre of the stone which is on this golden door, and this doorway and these columns, and the column decorations which are on them, and its roof. I made them. Yehaumilk, King of Gbl (all of it) for my dovereign Lady of Gbl, and she heard my voice and di me much good. May the Lady of Gbl bless Yehaumilk, King of Gbl, and make him live and prolong his days and his years on Gbl, because he is a just King, he is the well-being in the eyes of the Gods and in the eyes of the peopel of this earth and the well being of the people of this earth will appear before all the kings. And every man who will continue to accomplish his work on this altar or this door and on this doorway, my name Yehaumilk, King of Gbl, you will be able to put it beside yours on this work. And if you do not put my name with youers, or if you distance this work or move this courts and its foundations from this place, or open its lcosed lid, may the sovereign Lady of Gbl, destroy that man and his seed in front of the gods of Gbl. Je suis Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl, fils de Yehar-Baal, fils du fils (petit-fils) d'Ormilk, roi de Gbl, que la Dame de Gbl a fait roi sur Gbl. Et j'ai invoqué ma souveraine Dame de Gbl et elle a écouté ma voix. Et j'ai fait pour ma souveraine, Dame de Gbl, cet autel de bronze, qui se trouve dans cette cour, et cette porte d'or qui se trouve devant ma propre porte et le disque ailé, en or qui est placée au milieu de la pierre qui est sur cette porte d'or, et ce portique et ces colonnes, et les chapiteaux qui sont sur elles, et son toit. J'ai fait, Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl, (tout cela) pour ma souveraine Dame de Gbl, et elle a écouté ma voix et m'a fait du bien. Que la Dame de Gbl bénisse Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl et le fasse vivre et prolonge ses jours et ses années sur Gbl, parce qu'il est un roi juste, et le bien-être aux yeux des dieux et aux yeux du peuple de cette terre, et que le bien^-être du peuple de cette terre apparaisse devant tous les rois. Et tout homme qui continuera à accomplir des travaux sur cet autel ou sur cette porte d'or et sur ce portique, mon nom Yehaumilk, roi de Gbl, tu devras mettre avec le tien sur ces travaux. Et si tu ne mets pas le nom avec le tien, ou si tu éloignes cet ouvrage ou déplaces cette cour avec ses fondations de ce lieu, ou ouvres sa cachette, que la souveraine Dame de Gbl détruise cet homme et sa semence devant tous les dieux de Gbl".


10 Engraved on limestone and bearing traces of another hieroglyphic inscription from Byblos. It consists of seven lines with points of separation between the words: « The temple that was built by Yehimil, King of Gbl. It is he who resotred the ruins of these temples. May the Lord of the sky and the Lady of Gbl, with the assembly of the saints of Gbl prolong the days oof Yehemilk and his days on Gbl becuas ehe is a right and just King in the sacred eyes of Gbl. This stele is conserved in the National Museum of Beirut.


12 Found by M Dunand in 1964, this statuette of a child is engraved on its base with a poenicien inscription attesting the existence of another dynasty which should have succeed that of Eshmounazar, Tabnit, Eshmounazar II and Bad Astart. It rperesents the gradnson of the King Baana who had reigned c. 430 and was offered to the god Eshmoun because of his healing powers. It was found with other broken peices thrown in a water basin mraculously irrigated with water by the holy river source « Ydlal". Its base contains only one line: « This is the statuetee which was offered to Baalchillem, son of the King Baana, king of the Sidoniens, son of King Addamn, son of King Baalcillem, king of the Sidoniens, in the source of « Ydlal ». May he be blessed » "Celle-ci est la statuette qu'a offerte Baalchillem, fils du roi Baana, roi des Sidoniens, fils du roi Abdamn, roi des Sidoniens, fils du roi Baalchillem, roi des Sidoniens, à son dieu Eshmoun, en la source de "Ydlal. Qu'il benisse." It is conserved in the National Museum of Beirut.


14 No inscription

15 The sarcophagus of Ahexs. (XIII-XII) Exhumed in 1923 by P. Montet from the necropole of Byblos, this sarcohpagus presents a doule interest due to the ornations which decorate its sides as well as the pheonicien inscription it bears, part of which is engraved on a small side of the ‘cuve’ and the rest of it on the large side of the lid. This inscription, which for the first time ever used the 22 characters of the pheonician alphabet in their intial form, is the prototype of all the actual alphabets. Resting on 4 lions lying prostrate « en ronde bosse », this sarcophagus is decorated, in its upper part, with a girland of lotus with people carrying offeriengs. ON the large side, the King is sat on a throne flanked by winged sphinxes; in one hand he is hold a cup whilst a flower falls from the other; in front of him is a table maden with offerings and behind him one sees the advancement of a procession of people carrying offerings or lifting their arms in a sing of hommage. On the small sides, for mounrners are rpezresented in an attitude of distress, they have ripped the top of their gowns and are pulling their hair. The pheoncian text, which begins on the small right side of the cuve and continues on the lid, above the main scene, read from right to left, as follows: (on the cuve) « The sarcophagus made by Ithobaal, son of Ahiram, king of Gbl, for Ahiram, his father, as his home in eternity » Sarcophage qu'a fait Ithobaal, fils d'Ahiram, roi de Gbl, pour Ahiram, son père, comme sa demeure dans l'éternité". (on the lid) « And if a King amongst Kings, governors amongst governors, set up camp against Gbl and move this sarcophagus, the sceptre of his power will be broken, the throne of his royalty will be overturned and peace with reign on Gbl. With regard to him, his memory will be wiped out from the mouth of the almighty above and beyond. (sur le couvercle) "Et si un roi parmi les rois, gouverneurs parmi les gouverneurs, dresse le camp contre Gbl et déplace ce sarcophage, le sceptre de son pouvoir sera brisé, le trône de sa royauté se renversera et la paix régnera sur Gbl. Quant à lui, sa mémoire sera effacée de la bouche de l'Au-delà." This sarcophagus, of which the cultural significance passes all estimation, is conserved in the National Museum of Beirut.


17 Sarcophage d'Eshmounazar II This sarcophagus was found in 1855 in the same necropole in which his father Tibnit was discovered. The pheonician inscription, considered to be the longest funerary inscription, is engraved in 22 lines and beautiful letters, relating how the King, having governed under the regency of his mother, died in the 14th year of his reign, in other words at the beginning of the 5th century BCE.: In the month of Boul, in the 14the year of his reign, the King Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, son of King Tabnit, King of the Sidonians. Thus spoke the King Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, saying: I was ripped out, not in my time, son of a few orphaned days, son of a widow, and I rest in this ciffin in this tomb, in this place that I built. Whoever you are, every king and every man, it is forbiddne to open this place of rest, nothing must be searched for inside, becuase nothing has been placed inside; and you must not disover the coffin of my resting place adn you must not move me from this resting place to another resting place. Furthermore, if men advise you to do this you must listen to them, because every king and every man who discovers this place of rest, or who lift the sarcophagus of my place of rest, or who transport me from this place of rest, may the y neve rhave a resting place amonst the ‘manes’, and may they enever be interred in a tomb,, and may they never have a son and other descendnants to whom it can be done in their place, and they will deliver the two holy gods to a powerful king who will reign over them in such a way that he breaks them into pieces, king or man who opens this place of rest or who discovers this sarcophagus, and the progeny of such a king or such a man: they will never possess either a root towards the lower world nor a fruit of the higher world, neither na appearance amongst the living beings under the sun. Becuase I, dignified with pity, I have been ripped out, not in my time, son of very few days, orphan, son of a widow, that I am; Because I am Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, son of the King Tabnit, King of the Sidonians, gradson of the King Eshmounazar, king of the Sidonians, and my mother is EmAstart, priestess of Astart our patron, the queen daughter of King Eshmounazar, King of the Sidonians, we who have built the temple of the gods, the temple of Astart, in Sidon earth of the sea, and who made Astart live there, in glorifying him. And we are those who have built a temple at Eshmoum, holy prince, at the source of the sacred spring N-Ydll (Yidlal) ner the cistern on the mountain and we have made him live there in glorifying him. And we are those who have built the temples to the Sidonian Gods in Sidon land of the sea: a temple for Baal Sidon, and a temple for Astart Nom of Baal.And moreover, we have given, the King of Kings, Dor and Jaffa, the lands of superb wheat which are in the plains of Sharon, for the powerful actions I have done. And we have joined them to the frontiers of the land, so that they belong to the Sidonians forever. WHoever you are, every king every man, it is completely forbiddne to move me from this place, and you must not take the coffin of my place of rest, otherwise the holy gods will condemn and cut that king or that man from his progeny for ever.." This sarcophagus, which originally carried a hieroglyphic text was replaced at a later date by this pheonician inscription, was offered by the Ottoman sultan to the emperor Napoleon III and is presently conserved in the Museum of the Louvre.

18 At a site called "The Cavern of Apollo" southeast of the city, was discovered one of the royal necropolises of Achaemenid Persian Sidon, consisting of a number of subterranean funerary chambers cut into the rock and accessible through vertical shafts. They housed marble sarcophagi imported from Greece. Most of these are anthropoid (i.e. made in the shape of a mummy), following a model from pharaonic Egypt, but the face is treated in a Greek style. Sarcophagi of this type have been found in the necropolises of most Phoenician cities on the coast of Lebanon, on Cyprus, and in the Phoenician colonies of the Western Mediterranean. They are works of high quality produced for a social élite, probably by Greek artists. The sarcophagus of Eshmunazar and that of his father Tabnit (discovered at another necropolis) are, however, an exception, being recycled Egyptian work: the stone comes from Egypt and the style of both face and body is Egyptian. Only a long inscription in both cases allows them to be identified as belonging to a king of Sidon.

19 "Au mois de Boul, en l'année dix et quatre de son règne, le roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens, fils du roi Tabnit, roi des Sidoniens. A parlé le roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens (ainsi) disant: J'ai été arraché, pas en mon temps, fils de peu de jours orphelin, fils de veuve, et je repose dans ce cercueil et dans cette tombe, dans le lieu que j'ai bâti. Qui que tu sois, tout roi et tout homme, il ne doit pas ouvrir ce lieu de repos et il ne doit rien rechercher dedans, car on n'a rien mis dedans; et il ne doit pas découvrir le cercueil de mon lieu de repos, et il ne doit pas me transporter de ce lieu de repos à un autre lieu de repos. Aussi, si les hommes te conseillent, n'écoute pas leurs conseils, car tout roi et tout homme qui découvrent ce lieu de repos, ou qui soulèvent le sarcophage de mon lieu de repos, ou qui me transportent de ce lieu de repos, qu'ils n'aient pas de lieu de repos parmi les mânes et ils ne seront pas mis enterrés dans une tombe, et ils n'auront pas de fils et de progéniture à leur place, et les livreront les dieux saints à un roi puissant qui régnera sur eux de telle sorte qu'il les mette en pièces, roi ou homme qui ouvre ce lieu de repos ou qui découvre ce sarcophage, et la progéniture de ce roi ou de cet homme: ils ne posséderont ni une racine vers le bas, ni un fruit vers le haut, ni une apparence parmi les vivants sous le soleil. Car moi, digne de pitié, j'ai été arraché, pas en mon temps, fils de peu de jours, orphelin, fils de veuve je suis; car je suis Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens, fils du roi Tabnit, roi des Sidoniens, fils du fils (petit-fils) du roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens, et ma mère est EmAstart, prêtresse de Astart notre patronne, la reine fille du roi Eshmounazar, roi des Sidoniens, nous qui avons bâti le temple des dieux: le temple d'Astart, dans Sidon terre de la mer, et qui avons fait habiter Astart, là-bas, en la glorifiant. Et nous sommes ceux qui avons bâti un temple à Eshmoum, prince saint, à N-Ydll sur la montagne et nous l'avons fait habiter là en le glorifiant. Et nous sommes ceux qui avons bâti les temples aux dieux des Sidoniens dans Sidon terre de la mer: un temple pour Baal Sidon, et un temple pour Astart Nom de Baal. Et en outre, nous a donné, le roi des rois, Dor et Jaffa, les terres de blé superbe qui sont dans la plaine de Sharon, pour les puissantes actions que j'ai faites. Et nous les avons adjointes aux frontières de la terre, pour qu'elles appartiennent aux Sidoniens pour toujours. Qui que tu sois, tout roi et tout homme, il ne doit pas me transporter de ce lieu de repos, et il ne doit pas enlever le cercueil de mon lieu de repos, afin que ne le livrent les dieux saints et ne coupent ce roi ou cet homme et leur progéniture pour toujours."


21 Where was it found?

22 Biography Legend has it that Eshmoun was a young man of Beirut who loved to hunt. The goddess Astarte fell in love with him, but to escape her advances he mutilated himself and died. Not to be outdone, Astarte brought him back to life in the form of a god. It is also said that the village of the young god’s tomb. Known primarily as a god of healing, Eshmoun’s death and resurrection also gave him the role of a fertility god who dies and is reborn annually. As the god of healing, Eshmoun was identified with Asklepios, the Greek god of medical art.



25 Sarcophagus of Eshmunazar II, king of Sidon Achaemenid Persian period, first quarter of 5th century BC Necropolis of Magharat Abloun, Sidon, Lebanon Sculpture, amphibolite from Hammamat Valley, Egypt H m; W m Pérétié excavations, 1855; purchased by the Duc de Luynes and presented to the Louvre that same year


27 Sarcophage de Tabnit ( ) This anthropoid sarcophagus in balc stone, was discovered in Sadia in It contained an Egyptian inscription engraved on the front cover and the base proving that it must have been used at one time as the tomb of an Egyptian general, following which is engraved a pheonician name, that of Tabnit: « I, Tabnit, proest of Astart, King of the Sidonians, son of Eshmounazar, priest of Astart, King of the Sidonians, I rest in this sarcophagus, never open it, never, on me and never disturb me, becuase they have not have not left a pile of money next to me; they hav not collected lots of gold next to me, nor something….there is only me, only I who rests in this sarcophagus. Never open it, never on me and never disturb me becuase that act would be an act of abomination for Astart. But if truly you open it on me and truly you disturb me, there will be no suucessors from you amongst the living under the sun nor a place of rest amongst the souls of the dead. "Moi, Tabnit, prêtre de Astart, roi des Sidoniens, fils d'Eshmounazar, prêtre de Astart, roi des Sidoniens, je repose dans ce sarcophage, n'ouvre point, point, sur moi et ne me dérange point, car ils n'ont pas amassé près de moi de l'argent; ils n'ont pas amassé près de moi de l'or, ni quelque chose... seulement moi je repose dans ce sarcophage. N'ouvre point, point sur moi et ne me dérange point car cet acte est une abomination pour Astart. Mais si vraiment tu ouvres sur moi et vraiment tu me déranges, qu'il n'y ait point pour toi de progéniture parmi les vivants sous le soleil ni un lieu de repos parmi les âmes des morts." This sarcophagus is conserved in the Museumof Istanbul.


29 Trouvée dans l'aire du temple de Baalat- Gbl, "La Dame de Byblos", cette spatule comporte six lignes de phénicien qui sont difficiles à traduire. Albright y voyait un texte magique, d'autres spécialistes, en revanche, la prennent pour une lettre d'affaire ou un document juridique: [...] Y pour ZRBL, quatre-vingt-dix "SLM" comme paiement en argent que j'ai reçu. Si tu les prends réellement, c'est ton du et le mien". Cette spatule est conservée au Musée National de Beyrouth.


31 The stela of Nahr el-Kalb, the Lycus or Dog River, sum up the entire history of Lebanon, from High Antiquity to the present, evoking clearly the successive advances of the Pharaonic, Assyro- Babylonian, Greek, Roman, Arab, French and British armies which braved all the obstacles surrounding this difficult and very steep crossing point to carve commemorative stela on the rocks.


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