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The European Common Fisheries Policy regarding distant water fishing during the past 20 years: evolution of the fleets and their impact on small-scale.

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1 The European Common Fisheries Policy regarding distant water fishing during the past 20 years: evolution of the fleets and their impact on small-scale West African fisheries Michael Earle (Green Group in the European Parliament, Brussels) Brian O'Riordan (International Collective in Support of Fish Workers, Brussels) Beatrice Gorez (Coalition for Fair Fisheries Agreements, Brussels) Presented at the International Symposium on Marine fisheries, ecosystems and societies: half a century of change Dakar, Senegal, June 2002

2 Importance of West African fish to the EU 44% of the total supply of all fish to the EU market now comes from catches by EU- flagged vessels; Almost half of that 44% comes from catches in non-EU waters; The EU is able to get about one quarter of the fish it consumes in its own waters; Imports account for 54% of consumption.

3 The EU pursues an aggressive policy to secure access to supplies of fish fishing on the high seas under EU flags; fishing in third countries' waters under agreements (EU or private); joint ventures in third countries; purchases of fish on the world market; fishing under flags of convenience.

4 Fisheries Agreements Almost 200 million Euros in 2001 (including those in the Indian Ocean)

5 Different types of agreements First Generation - Pay, Fish and Go; Second Generation - Joint Ventures; Third Generation - ???; Fourth Generation - Cooperation Agreement.

6 Structural Funds Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance - affectionately known as FIFG; En français, c'est l'Instrument Financier pour l'Orientation de la Pêche, ou IFOP; , almost 2.7 billion Euros.

7 Uses of subsidies scrapping of vessels, permanent transfer to a third country; joint enterprises or temporary joint ventures; fleet renewal and modernization including the construction of new vessels; improvement of port facilities; processing and marketing of fishery and aquaculture products; support for temporary cessation of fishing activities; measures of a socio ‑ economic nature such as early retirement schemes or compensation for fishermen.

8 FIFG Expenditures

9 Spain and France

10 Period 1989 to 2001

11 FIFG Programming on allocation among countries

12 FIFG Programming on allocation among types of projects

13 Flags of Convenience Lloyd's database (vessels over 100 tonnes): –over 10% of the vessels which are listed as being owned by EU companies are flagged outside the Community –392 out of 3,721 vessels –almost 1/3 of the Greek fleet is flagged out, much in Cyprus and Panama –Spain - 19% –France and Portugal - about 10%

14 ICCAT definition of Flag of Convenience (with EU-owned vessels) Panama Belize Honduras St. Vincent & the Grenadines Barbados Liberia Mozambique Netherlands Antilles Sierra Leone Vanuatu 180 EU-owned almost 4% of the EU-owned fleet Spain, Greece, Portugal and France are particularly prominent on the list.

15 Two vessels with a past … Atlantic Dawn –from merchant vessel to fishing vessel Veronica –from Irish vessel to Panamanian vessel

16 Renewal of the Common Fisheries Policy Les Amis de la Pêche: Spain France Portugal Italy Greece Ireland

17 International cooperation … "The Community's actions in this field shall aim to promote and strengthen international co-operation and ensure sustainable and responsible fisheries outside Community waters with the same commitment as in its own waters. The Community shall aim to ensure sustainable exploitation of fisheries resources both in its own external fisheries activities and in international trade in fisheries products.“ ou en français "Les actions de la Communauté dans ce domaine auront pour objet d'encourager et renforcer la coopération internationale ainsi que d'assurer une pêche responsable et durable en dehors des eaux communautaires au même titre que dans ses propres eaux. La Communauté s’efforcera d’assurer une exploitation durable des ressources de pêche aussi bien dans le cadre de ses propres activités de pêche extérieures que dans les échanges internationaux de produits de la pêche."

18 International cooperation … "In this context, access to the waters of third countries will be limited to surplus stocks as defined by UNCLOS (Article 62).“ "À cet égard, l’accès aux eaux des pays tiers sera limité aux stocks excédentaires tels que définis dans la Convention des Nations unies sur le droit de la mer (article 62)."

19 International cooperation … "The Community will take initiatives through the relevant regional fisheries organisations and through the FAO. The first such initiative will be undertaken in West African waters. In this way, the Community will aim to obtain better scientific advice on the state of the stocks before concluding new partnership agreements with the third countries concerned.“ "La Communauté lancera des initiatives par l'intermédiaire des organisations régionales de pêche et de la FAO. La première de ces initiatives concernera les eaux de l'Afrique occidentale. La Communauté entend de cette manière obtenir un meilleur avis scientifique sur l’état des stocks avant de conclure de nouveaux accords de partenariats avec les pays tiers concernés.

20 International cooperation … "Within this framework, Community public aid under fisheries Agreements should be increasingly focussed on helping partner countries to implement sustainable fisheries management and to develop their own fisheries sector, while the owners of the Community vessels benefiting from such Agreements should progressively assume greater responsibility for the financial compensation paid to partner countries in exchange for fishing rights.“ "Dans ce cadre, l’aide publique communautaire aux accords de pêche devrait être consacrée de plus en plus à aider les pays partenaires à la mise en œuvre de régimes de gestion durable de leurs pêcheries ainsi qu’au développement de leur secteur des pêches, tandis que les armateurs des navires communautaires bénéficiant de ces accords devraient progressivement assumer une plus grande part du coût des compensations financières payées aux pays partenaires en échange des droits de pêche.

21 International cooperation … "In addition, in relation to co-operation at the national and/or regional levels, the Community will endeavour to convince its Partners to implement sustainable exploitation of resources based on sound scientific advice, measures to manage fishing mortality, such as TACs and/or fishing effort limits and better control and enforcement systems, which are prerequisites for an economically viable and competitive fishing industry.“ "Par ailleurs, en matière de coopération aux niveaux national et/ou régional, la Communauté s'emploiera à convaincre ses partenaires de pratiquer l'exploitation durable des ressources sur la base d'avis scientifiques sérieux, de mesures de gestion de la mortalité par pêche telles que les TAC et/ou la limitation de l'effort de pêche et de systèmes de contrôle et d'exécution améliorés, conditions nécessaires d'un secteur de la pêche viable économiquement et compétitif."

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