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Des indices de la perception du temps à son implication dans le quotidien. L’évolution développementale de la perception de la durée. Jean-Marc Scholl.

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1 Des indices de la perception du temps à son implication dans le quotidien. L’évolution développementale de la perception de la durée. Jean-Marc Scholl 5, Paule Philippe 5, David Magis 3, Jacqueline Nadel 4, Marc Ansseau 2, Véronique Delvenne 1 1 Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry - HUDERF (ULB) 2 Laboratory of Clinical Psychiatry and Medical Psychology Research (ULg) 3 Department of Education (ULg) 4 Laboratory for Vulnerability, Adaptation, Psychopathology, Group Development and Psychopathology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Pierre & Marie Curie University, Paris (CNRS) 5 Autism Reference Center Liège, CHU (Ulg) Markers of perception of time in its implication in everyday life. The development of the perception of duration. Jean-Marc Scholl – ULg Véronique Delvenne – ULB AEPEA 7th European Congress Brussels, th may 2014

2 Perception of time in childhood  an impact in everyday life - the child: - feels a constant need to revisit the day’s schedule - - is confused if there is a change in the day’s organization - - asks repeatedly when a given activity will occur - - has difficulty identifying his or her temporal location within the day - - doesn’t estimate the time needed to perform a given activity - - … Jean-Marc Scholl

3 How a clinician could apprehend the perception of time of a child in everyday life?  Does the child apprehend one or different dimensions of the time?  How is the Developmental evolution of the child’s Capacity for time-perception?  Are there semiological markers to track the perception of time in everyday life? Jean-Marc Scholl

4 In everyday life  Does the child apprehend one or different dimensions of time?  Does the child apprehend one or different dimensions of time? the Sequential Time  tied with executive functions the Duration of Time NB Historically : controversy,  Jean Piaget ( ): required hypothetical-deductive reasoning  Paul Fraisse ( ): a direct intuition of duration

5 In everyday life  Developmental evolution  How is the Developmental evolution of the child’s Capacity for time-perception? the Sequential Time  acquisition at 3 – 5 years the Duration of Time  ???

6 How could a clinician apprehend the perception of time of a child in everyday surroundings? semiological markers to track  Are there semiological markers to track the perception of time in everyday life? the Sequential Time  subtests-batteries for children (KaTid, WISC, NEPSY…) but not in everyday life the Duration of Time  ??? Cl: No tools and no parental questionnaires

7 In the dark about  the Duration of Time  the Developmental evolution of the child’s Capacity  Semiological markers to track the perception of time in everyday life  No Tools and no parental questionnaire But a major impact for the child

8 The research Aim  a developmental and dimensional semiology of the perception of time Hypothesis  It is possible to track perception of duration using semiological markers in everyday life  Children with developmental disorders can be expected to develop difficulties in time perception Methodology A parental questionnaire  25 items, targeting at Duration and Sequential time  5-degree Likert scales Recruitment  a general population of 827 children from 2:6 to 13:0 years  297 in a mixed-psychopathological population

9 Statistical Method NB Usually: studies compare different sub-groups (Ex. 2:6-4:9 / 5:3-7:6 / 8:0-10:3 / 10:9-13:0 years) NB A developmental research:  the median  developmental trajectories as variable from child to child Here: The aim: to capture, for each marker, in each population, their developmental differences in expression from 2:6 to 13:0 years  a multinomial logistic regression (in the continuous of ages)  percentile curves: P5,P50,P95  A qualitative study with a quantitative method  A developmental and dimensional semiology

10 Q 20: Does your child “feel” how long a certain amount of time will last? For example, a period corresponding to 10 minutes, 1 hour, or 2 hours? Is this the case when, say, you tell him or her to wait for 10 minutes before leaving for the pool? never □ rarely □ sometimes □ often □ always Q 20: Votre enfant « sent-il » ce que durera un certain laps de temps, par exemple un temps correspondant à 10 minutes, 1 heure, 2 heures, quand vous lui dites par exemple d’attendre 10 minutes avant de partir à la piscine ? □ jamais □ rarement □ parfois □ souvent □ toujours Typical populationAtypical population

11 Q18: Does your child spontaneously and without needing to look at a watch “feel” that it will soon be time to stop an activity currently underway? (For example, does he or she spontaneously feel the approaching end of the swimming lesson? Does he or she interrupt a game in time to watch a favorite television program?) never □ rarely □ sometimes □ often □ always Q18: Spontanément, sans avoir besoin de regarder l’heure, votre enfant « sent-il » qu’une activité en cours approche de l’heure où on va devoir l’arrêter ? (par exemple, spontanément il ressent l’approche de la fin de l’heure de piscine ; il interrompt à temps son jeu pour aller regarder son émission favorite à la TV) □ jamais □ rarement □ parfois □ souvent □ toujours

12 Q22: In performing activities that involve a series of precisely ordered steps, does your child tend to forget or mix up the steps? For example, when getting dressed, or bathing a doll (which he or she may have forgotten to undress first), or assembling a model? □ never (he or she always does all the steps in the right order without forgetting any) □ rarely □ sometimes □ often □ always (he or she does them in a disordered fashion and forgets some) Q22: Dans des activités qui nécessitent des étapes dans un ordre précis, a-t-il tendance à oublier ou à inverser des étapes ? Par exemple, lorsqu’il s’habille, en donnant un bain à sa poupée encore habillée, lors du montage d’une maquette,… ? □ jamais (il les fait toujours dans l'ordre, sans oubli) □ rarement □ parfois □ souvent □ toujours (il les fait dans le désordre avec des oublis)

13 Q4: Is your child lost when the program for his or her day is changed? □ never □ rarely □ sometimes □ often □ always Q4: Est-il perdu quand on change le programme de sa journée ? □ jamais □ rarement □ parfois □ souvent □ toujours

14 Results in the general population Duration’s perception and sequential time’s perception have two different Developmental evolutions 1)the duration’s perception is gradually acquired in a continuous between 2:6-12:0 years; 2)by 9:0 years, the majority of children have full mastery of this capacity, 3)and from 13:0 years on, all children have acquired it. 1) the sequential time’s perception begins at an early age 2) and reaches a near maximum at 4:0 years.

15 Results In the psychopathological sample  mean duration’s perception is delayed by 18 months and significant difficulties remain even at 13 years  sequential time is also delayed: even at 13 years it remains low (at percentile 95) Confirm a significant retardation in the development of the perception of time in a mixed psychopathological population.

16 In the dark, to a new light  the Duration of Time  the Developmental evolution of the child’s Capacity  Semiological markers to track the perception of time in everyday life  a parental questionnaire Jean-Marc Scholl

17 Des indices de la perception du temps à son implication dans le quotidien. L’évolution développementale de la perception de la durée. Markers of perception of time in its implication in everyday life. The development of the perception of duration. Jean-Marc Scholl – ULg Véronique Delvenne – ULB AEPEA 7th European Congress Brussels, th may 2014


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