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Shakespeare : La tragédie du Roi Lear
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1Shakespeare : La tragédie du Roi Lear Les aventures du texte et de la scèneLes aventures du texte : Quartos, Folio et la version Nahum TateShakespeare et la roue de la Fortune…Exercices d’observation à partir des croquis de Ford Madox BrownDe Garrick à Irving : les aventures du jeu shakespearienLa mise en scène des peintres ou les peintures de la mise en scène …Et les peintures de la mise en scène …Shakespeare : la construction du culte d’un géniePWT - Shakespeare : un résumé de la tragédie du Roi LearEn passant par le module Recherche du siteVous trouverez d’autres documents
2Le texte moderne établi selon trois sources : La première édition du texte date de 1608, (les annotations manuscrites sont les signatures des divers acheteurs)Composition : entre 1603 et 1606Première représentation sûre : 26 déc devant le roi Jacques Ier à Whitehall.Le texte moderne établi selon trois sources :Le premier quarto : 1608 (Q1)Le second quarto : 1619 (Q2)Le premier folio : 1623 (F1)Les écarts peuvent aller jusqu’à 285 lignes, et environ un millier de mots différents. La première édition : s’agit-il d’une édition « piratée » à partir du texte donné aux acteurs ? Détenu par le souffleur ? Composé à partir de brouillons de Shakespeare ? Pas d’actes : une succession de scènes.Shakespeare meurt en 1616 : il ne peut avoir révisé le second quarto.Le texte « cumulatif » repose donc sur des hypothèses.SourcesCordelia's Portion by Ford Madox BrownShakespeare's play is based on various accounts of the semi-legendary Leir. Shakespeare's most important source is thought to be the second edition of The Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande by Raphael Holinshed, published in Holinshed himself found the story in the earlier Historia Regum Britanniae by Geoffrey of Monmouth, which was written in the 12th century. The name of Cordelia was probably taken from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene, published in Spenser's Cordelia also dies from hanging, as in King Lear.Other possible sources are A Mirror for Magistrates (1574), by John Higgins; The Malcontent (1604), by John Marston; The London Prodigal (1605); Arcadia ( ), by Sir Philip Sidney, from which Shakespeare took the main outline of the Gloucester subplot; Montaigne's Essays, which were translated into English by John Florio in 1603; An Historical Description of Iland of Britaine, by William Harrison; Remaines Concerning Britaine, by William Camden (1606); Albion's England, by William Warner, (1589); and A Declaration of egregious Popish Impostures, by Samuel Harsnett (1603), which provided some of the language used by Edgar while he feigns madness. King Lear is also a literary variant of a common fairy tale, where a father rejects his youngest daughter on the basis of a statement of her love that does not please him.Date and textTitle page of the first quarto edition, published in 1608Although a precise date of composition cannot be given, many editors of the play date King Lear between 1603 and The latest it could have been written is 1606, because the Stationers' Register notes a performance on December 26, The 1603 date originates from words in Edgar's speeches which may derive from Samuel Harsnett's Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures (1603). In his Arden edition, R.A. Foakes argues for a date of , because one of Shakespeare's sources, The True Chronicle History of King Leir, was not published until 1605; close correspondences between that play and Shakespeare's suggest that he may have been working from a text (rather than from recollections of a performance). On the contrary, Frank Kermode, in the Riverside Shakespeare, considers the publication of Leir to have been a response to performances of Shakespeare's already-written play; noting a sonnet by William Strachey that may have verbal resemblances with Lear, Kermode concludes that " seems the best compromise".However, before Kenneth Muir set out the case for the play's indebtedness to Harsnett's 1603 text, a minority of scholars believed the play to be much older. In 1936, A.S. Cairncross argued that "the relationship of the two plays [Leir and Lear] has been inverted": Shakespeare's Lear came first and that the anonymous Leir is an imitation of it. One piece of evidence for this view is that in 1594, King Leir was entered into the Stationers' Register (but never published), while in the same year a play called King Leare was recorded by Philip Henslowe as being performed at the Rose theatre. However, the majority view is that these two references are simply variant spellings of the same play, King Leir.In addition, Eva Turner Clark, an Oxfordian denier of Shakespeare's authorship, saw numerous parallels between the play and the events of , including the Kent banishment subplot, which she believed to parallel the 1589 banishment of Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth.The question of dating is further complicated by the question of revision (see below).The modern text of King Lear derives from three sources: two quartos, published in 1608 (Q1) and 1619 (Q2)  respectively, and the version in the First Folio of 1623 (F1). The differences between these versions are significant. Q1 contains 285 lines not in F1; F1 contains around 100 lines not in Q1. Also, at least a thousand individual words are changed between the two texts, each text has a completely different style of punctuation, and about half the verse lines in the F1 are either printed as prose or differently divided in the Q1. The early editors, beginning with Alexander Pope, simply conflated the two texts, creating the modern version that has remained nearly universal for centuries. The conflated version is born from the presumption that Shakespeare wrote only one original manuscript, now unfortunately lost, and that the Quarto and Folio versions are distortions of that original.As early as 1931, Madeleine Doran suggested that the two texts had basically different provenances, and that these differences between them were critically interesting. This argument, however, was not widely discussed until the late 1970s, when it was revived, principally by Michael Warren and Gary Taylor. Their thesis, while controversial, has gained significant acceptance. It posits, essentially, that the Quarto derives from something close to Shakespeare's foul papers, and the Folio is drawn in some way from a promptbook, prepared for production by Shakespeare's company or someone else. In short, Q1 is "authorial"; F1 is "theatrical." In criticism, the rise of "revision criticism" has been part of the pronounced trend away from mid-century formalism. The New Cambridge Shakespeare has published separate editions of Q and F; the most recent Pelican Shakespeare edition contains both the 1608 Quarto and the 1623 Folio text as well as a conflated version; the New Arden edition edited by R.A. Foakes is not the only recent edition to offer the traditional conflated text.
3(l’ in-folio est de double de la taille de l’in-quarto) Frontispice du premier folio de 1623, sept ans après la mort de Shakespeare.(l’ in-folio est de double de la taille de l’in-quarto)Au début du 17ème le texte de théâtre n’étant pas considéré comme de la haute littérature, paraissaient parfois sans nom d’auteur. Les compagnies n’avaient aucun intérêt à publier les pièces : l Les concurrents auraient pu s’en emparer pour les monter !Cesont deux compagnons de Shakespeare du King’s Men theater (John Heminges et Henry Condell) qui décidèrent de réunir et d’imprimer ses pièces et de les publier. Le succès était tel que la concurrence n’était plus à craindre…This is the frontispiece to the first complete edition of Shakespeare’s plays published in 1623, seven years after his death. It is known as the First Folio (‘folio’ indicates the large paper size used).In the early 17th century, plays were not considered important literature. Individual plays were published cheaply in small ‘quarto’ editions (a quarto was half the size of a folio) and often the playwright’s name did not appear on the cover. There were no copyright laws, so it was not in a company’s interests to publish its popular works so that rivals could then stage them. Successful plays often appeared in pirated versions.Shakespeare’s plays became so popular that after his death, two of his colleagues in the King’s Men theatre company, John Heminges and Henry Condell decided to collect them all into one folio volume.Created: 1623This object features in the Drama Guided Tour Object Type:Other: Book or BookletDescription:Printed folioDate Created:1623Creator:Issac Jaggard (Printer) Edward Blount (Printer)Associated People:William Shakespeare (Depicted)Associated Companies:King's Men, The (Associated)PPUK Number:286
5Nahum Tate (1652 – 1715) protestant et Irlandais Il aura le curieux destin d’atteindre une reconnaissance en se faisant une spécialité de mutiler l’œuvre des autres pour les adapter au goût et aux convenances de son temps.Shakespeare en particulier lui doit d’être joué dans des réécritures dont il change les texte, la fable et l’esprit. Il avoue lui-même en modifiant Richard II que le texte sera « plein de respect de la Majesté et de la dignité des cours » !S’attaquant à Lear (1687) il fait passer le Fou à la trappe, - trop familier avec les grands et le pouvoir -, et invente une fin heureuse où Cordélia épouse Edgar. Cette version sévira sur scène jusqu’en 1823 date à laquelle Edmund Kean réintroduit le dénouement tragique.
6Friedrich Pecht in Shakespeare-Galerie, 1876 Shakespeare shocks his audience by bringing the worn and haggard Lear onto the stage, carrying his dead youngest daughter. He taunts them with the possibility that she may live yet with Lear saying, “This feather stirs; she lives !” But Cordelia's death is soon confirmed.This was indeed too bleak for some to take, even many years later. King Lear was at first unsuccessful on the Restoration stage, and it was only with Nahum Tate's happy-ending version of 1681 that it became part of the repertory. Tate's Lear, where Lear survives and triumphs, and Edgar and Cordelia get married, held the stage until Samuel Johnson endorsed the use of Tate's version in his edition of Shakespeare's plays (1765): “Cordelia, from the time of Tate, has always retired with victory and felicity. And, if my sensations could add anything to the general suffrage, I might relate that I was many years ago so shocked by Cordelia's death, that I know not whether I ever endured to read again the last scenes of the play till I undertook to revise them as an editor”.faculty.harker.org/march/Shakespeare/lear.htm.Friedrich Pecht in Shakespeare-Galerie, 1876
7Le règne de la FortuneLa roue de la Fortune est un thème récurrent des Carmina Burana, un recueil d’une centaine de poèmes et chants, souvent profanes, du début du 13ème s.Fortuna Imperatrix MundiSors immaniset inanis,rota tu volubilis,status malus,vana salussemper dissolubilis,obumbrataet velatamichi quoque niteris;nunc per ludumdorsum nudumfero tui sceleris.Fate - monstrousand empty,you whirling wheel,you are malevolent,well-being is vainand always fades to nothing,shadowedand veiledyou plague me too;now through the gameI bring my bare backto your villainy.The Wheel of Fortune motif appears significantly in the Carmina Burana (or Burana Codex), over one thousand poems and songs — often profane in content — written by students and clergy in the early 13th century. Excerpts from two of the collection's better known poems, "Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi (Fortune, Empress of the World)" and "Fortune Plango Vulnera (I Bemoan the Wounds of Fortune)," read:Sors immaniset inanis,rota tu volubilis,status malus,vana salussemper dissolubilis,obumbrataet velatamichi quoque niteris;nunc per ludumdorsum nudumfero tui sceleris.Fortune rota volvitur;descendo minoratus;alter in altum tollitur;nimis exaltatusrex sedet in verticecaveat ruinam!nam sub axe legimusHecubam reginam.Fate - monstrousand empty,you whirling wheel,you are malevolent,well-being is vainand always fades to nothing,shadowedand veiledyou plague me too;now through the gameI bring my bare backto your villainy.The wheel of Fortune turns;I go down, demeaned;another is raised up;far too high upsits the king at the summit -let him fear ruin!for under the axis is writtenQueen Hecuba.
8Ici un manuscrit De Sebastian Brant, La Nef des Fous, Bâle, 1494, La Roue de la Fortune se trouve ici associée avec les Fous et le bestiaire de la folie.Le thème de la nef des fous est un des lieux commun de la fin du moyen age et du début de la renaissance.Ici un manuscrit De Sebastian Brant, La Nef des Fous, Bâle, 1494,(Bois, chap. 37 et 56)Mezger (Werner), Narrenidee und Fastnachtsbrauch, Universitätsverlag Konstanz, 1991, p.64.
9PISTOL Bardolph, a soldier, firm and sound of heart, And of buxom valour, hath, by cruel fate, And giddy Fortune's furious fickle wheel, That goddess blind, That stands upon the rolling restless stone-- FLUELLEN By your patience, Aunchient Pistol. Fortune is painted blind, with a muffler afore her eyes, to signify to you that Fortune is blind; and she is painted also with a wheel, to signify to you, which is the moral of it, that she is turning, and inconstant, and mutability, and variation: and her foot, look you, is fixed upon a spherical stone, which rolls, and rolls, and rolls: in good truth, the poet makes a most excellent description of it : Fortune is an excellent moral.King Henry V » Act 3. Scene VIAct 3. Scene VI
10Paris: Bibliothèque Nationale de France (Dept. Estampes Ad 144 a) La Roue de la Fortune. Calque de Miniatures de l’Hortus Deliciarum de Herrade de Landsberg.
11Madame Fortune tournant sa roue Dans cette édition duDe Casibus Virorum IllustriumDe Boccace
12Nature déchaînée et Tempête intérieure Blow, winds, and crack your cheeks! rage! blow! You cataracts and hurricanoes, spout Till you have drenched our steeples, drowned the cocks! You sulph’rous and thought-executing fires, Vaunt-couriers of oak-cleaving thunderbolts, Singe my white head! And thou, all-shaking thunder, Strike flat the thick rotundity o’th’world, Crack Nature’s moulds, all germens spill at once That make ingrateful man!Soufflez, vents, et crevez vos joues ! faites rage ! soufflez ! Vous, cataractes et cyclones, jaillissez Jusqu’à tremper nos clochers, y noyer les coqs ! Vous, feux sulfureux, aux traits vifs comme la pensée, Avant-courriers des foudres fendeuses de chênes, Venez roussir ma blanche tête ! Et toi, tonnerre omni-secoueur, Frappe et rends plate l’épaisse rotondité de l’univers ! Craque les moules de la nature, détruis d’un coup tous les germes Qui produisent l’homme ingrat.Le Roi Lear : acte III, scène 2
13Pour comprendre le supplice et l’affront infligé à Kent Cornouailles : Allez chercher les ceps !Vieille crapule bourrue, vénérable bravache,Nous t’apprendrons !Kent – Monsieur je suis trop vieux pour apprendre.Ne me mettez pas dans les ceps : je sers le roi,C’est à ce titre qu’on m’envoie vous trouver ;Vous allez montrer piètre respect, manifester une malveillance trop hardieEnvers la majesté et la personne de mon maîtreSi vous mettez aux ceps son messages.Corn. - Fetch forth the stocks !You stubborn ancient knave, you reverent braggart,We'll teach you-Kent - Sir, I am too old to learn. Call not your stocks for me. I serve the King; On whose employment I was sent to you. You shall do small respect, show too bold malice Against the grace and person of my master,Spes ou "Hope“ Sebald Beham, c Les ceps sont des entraves de bois qui comme le pilori immobilisent un prisonnier livré aux injures ou à la risée du public.
14Cordelia - And so I am! I am! A la fin du19ème triomphe la mode des « scrapbooks » Les planches illustrées des grands rôles de Shakespeare remportent un grand succès. On remarque que le nom des interprètes de l’époque apparaît entre parenthèse.Lear - Do not laugh at me; For (as I am a man) I think this lady To be my child Cordelia.Cordelia - And so I am! I am!Lear - Be your tears wet? Yes, faith. I pray weep not.popular 19th century pastime, for children and adults, was the making of scrapbooks. Pictures could be cut from illustrated papers, but it was possible to buy packets of specially printed coloured pictures, called scraps, to decorate books or to use as a way of brightening up household objects like trinket boxes, trays and fire screens. The pictures could be educational as well as decorative. These scraps are part of a set showing characters from Shakespeare's plays. By the late 19th century most middle class households would know the works of Shakespeare.The scraps here are based on pictures of famous actors, well known for their performances in the roles shown. The actors' names are given in brackets beneath the names of their characters. The scraps give a good impression of the style of costume worn for Shakespeare's plays in the 19th century.Created: Late 19th centuryThis object features in the Drama Guided Tourescription:Mass-produced colour photolithography on paperDate Created:Late 19th centuryDimensions:15 cm x 13 cm (each)Associated People:William Charles Macready (Depicted) Henry Irving (Depicted) Ellen Terry (Depicted) William Hunter Kendal (Depicted) Madge Kendal (Depicted) Younge (Depicted) Macbeth (Character depicted) Gruoch (Character depicted) Benedick (Character depicted) Beatrice (Character depicted) Rosalind (Character depicted) Orlando (Character depicted) Lear (Character depicted) Cordelia (Character depicted) David Garrick (Depicted) Sarah Siddons (Depicted)PPUK Number:543Collection:BTMA
15LEAR. – Je t'en prie, ma fille, ne me rends pas fou. Je ne t'importunerai plus, mon enfant ; adieu.Nous ne nous rencontrerons plus, nous ne nous verrons plus ;Mais pourtant tu es ma chair, mon sang, ma fille ;Ou plutôt une maladie qui est dans ma chair,Et que je suis contraint d'appeler mienne : tu es un chancre,Un bubon pesteux, un furoncle gonflé de pusDans mon sang qu'il corrompt. Mais je ne te gronderai pas ;Que la honte vienne quand elle voudra, je ne l'appelle pas ;Je n'invoque pas sur toi les traits du porte-foudre,Je ne te dénonce pas au juge suprême Jupiter.Amende-toi quand tu pourras ; deviens meilleure à ta guise ;Je peux être patient ; je peux rester avec Régane,Moi et mes cent chevaliers.RÉGANE. – Pas tout à fait...Le Roi Lear, acte II, sc. iv (tr. Jean-Michel Déprats)
16David Garrick ( ) comédien, auteur, directeur de troupe et de théâtre, réformateur de la scène est le grand acteur Shakespearien du 18ème. Il rompt avec le jeu mélodramatique et l’enflure héroïque introduisant un jeu plus sensible et réaliste. Diderot dans son Paradoxe sur le comédien en fait un de ses modèles. Il fera de Drury Lane une des scènes les plus influentes d’Europe et insigne honneur, on l’enterre lors de funérailles grandioses à l’abbaye de Westminster dans le “Poet’s Corner”, bien que ses pièces ne marquèrent pas la postérité….Samuel Johnson son ami eut ce joli mot : « his profession made him rich and he made his profession respectable ».The actor David Garrick was an excellent comedian, and Benedick in Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing was one of his most popular roles. Garrick worshipped Shakespeare. He built a temple to him on his estate at Hampton beside the Thames.Garrick’s first major performance in London as Richard III in 1741 had been a runaway success, and by 1770, the date of this picture, he was the manager of Drury Lane. Garrick revolutionised Shakespeare on the 18th century stage by rejecting the formal declamatory delivery of the time, and performing in a much more naturalistic style. He produced 24 of his plays, and restored much of the text cut or changed by the previous generation of producers, although there was still much that we would not recognise today.Created: 1770This object features in the Drama Guided Tour Object Type:Art works: PaintingDescription:Watercolour on paperDate Created:1770Creator:Jean Louis Fesch (Artist)Associated People:David Garrick (Depicted) Benedick (Character depicted) William Shakespeare (Associated)PPUK Number:951David Garrick born (19 February 1717 in Hereford – 20 January 1779) was an English actor, playwright, theatre manager and producer who influenced nearly all aspects of theatrical practice throughout the 18th century and was a pupil and friend of Dr Samuel Johnson. Amateur theatricals comprised his first work on the stage, however, it was not until his appearance in the title role of Shakespeare's Richard III that audiences and managers began to take notice. With the success of Richard III and a number of other roles, Charles Fleetwood engaged Garrick for a season at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. He remained with the Drury Lane company for the next five years and purchased a share of the theatre with James Lacy. This purchase inaugurated twenty-nine years of Garrick's management of the Drury Lane, during which time, it rose to prominence as one of the leading theatres in Europe. At his death, three years after his retirement from Drury Lane and the stage, he was given a lavish public funeral at Westminster Abbey where he was laid in Poet's Corner.As an actor, Garrick promoted realistic acting that departed from the bombastic style that was entrenched when Garrick first came to prominence. His acting delighted many audiences and his direction of many of the top actors of the English stage influenced their styles as well. Furthermore, during his tenure as manager of Drury Lane, Garrick sought to reform audience behaviour. While this led to some discontent among the theatre-going public, many of his reforms eventually did take hold. In addition to audiences, Garrick sought reform in production matters, bringing an over-arching consistency to productions that included scenery, costumes and even special effects.Garrick's influence extended into the literary side of theatre as well. Critics are almost unanimous in saying he was not a good playwright, but his work in bringing Shakespeare to contemporary audiences is notable. In addition, he adapted many older plays in the repertoire that might have been forgotten. These included many plays of the Restoration era. Indeed, while influencing the theatre towards a better standard he also gained a better reputation for theatre folk. This accomplishment led Samuel Johnson to remark that "his profession made him rich and he made his profession respectable."
17C’est en 1742 que Garrick crée le rôle de Lear au Théâtre Royal à Drury Lane
18Edmund Kean 1787-1833 est un des rares acteurs a avoir rempli les 3000 places du théâtre Drury Lane. Acteur shakespearien devenu de son vivant une légende, il excellait dans les scènes de mort, le mélodrame, et les sautes d’humeur.Alexandre Dumas écrit une pièce sur lui (Kean, 1836) dont s’inspire Jean-Paul Sartre (Kean 1953).Kean was one of the few actors who could fill the vast Drury Lane theatre to its capacity of 3,000. His natural passion and fiery spirit suited a melodramatic style of acting but he made his name playing in Shakespeare, particularly as Macbeth, Iago and Richard III. He was said to be at his best in death scenes and scenes that required intensity of feeling or violent transitions from one mood to another. Another famed role was as Sir Giles Overreach in A New Way to Pay Old Debts.Kean’s private life was full of scandal and heavy drinking. He was the father of actor-manager Charles Kean and died shortly after they had appeared together on stage as Othello (Edmund) and Iago (Charles) in 1833.Edmund Kean, né le 17 mars 1787 et mort le 15 mai 1833, est un acteur britannique, considéré en son temps comme le plus grand acteur au monde.L'auteur dramatique français du XIXe siècle Alexandre Dumas lui a consacré une pièce de théâtre fameuse qui a participé à l'élaboration de sa légende. (pièce dont s'est inspiré Jean-Paul Sartre pour sa pièce du même nom : Kean). Sa vie a été portée plusieurs fois au cinéma, dans un film allemand de Rudolf Biebrach (Kean, 1921), un film français d'Alexandre Volkoff (Kean, 1923) et deux italiens, l'un de Guido Brignone (Kean, 1940) l'autre de Vittorio Gassman et Francesco Rosi (Kean, 1956).
19The poet This is a ‘tinsel print’ of Edmund Kean in 1821 The poet This is a ‘tinsel print’ of Edmund Kean in Tinsel prints were engravings of performers designed to be decorated with scraps of material at home. They were popular during the first half of the 19th century and were considered an adult past-time, rather than a child’s . It was even possible to buy the tinsel, leather and feather ornaments to go with the engraving and create an accurate copy of the actors’ costumes.Created: 1821This object features in the Drama Guided TourSamuel Taylor Coleridge disait que voir Edmund Kean jouer c’était lire Shakespeare à la « lumière des éclairs ! » (to read Shakespeare by flashes of lightning) Son jeu était paroxystique et frénétique, mais très “irrégulier”… Il défrayait la chronique par une vie privée plus qu’agitée et il lui arrivait d’entrer ivre en scène… Ce « scrap » de 1821 est un document intéressant sur les costumes utilisés en scène à l’époque. C’est en 1823 le premier à réintroduire la fin tragique de la tragédie au Théâtre de Drury Lane.
20William Charles Macready joue pour la première fois la version complète du texte de Shakespeare reconstituée à Drury Lane. C’est la première fois également que le rôle du fou est confié à une comédienne : Pricilla Hortonage www1.rhbnc.ac.uk/drama/learsummary.htm.
211892 – Sir Henry Irving dirige et joue Lear dans une production du Lyceum Theatre de Londres Il est influencé par la vision de du peintre Ford Madox Brown. Il a acheté 50 ans auparavant les 16 esquisses du peintre. Il demande au peintre de créer les costumes et les décors de son Lear.On peut comparer de J.B. Partridge représentant Irving en scène au tableau de Ford Madox Brown.Commenting on the striking similarities between the two illustrations, Martin Meisel notes that Irvingsits on his throne in the posture of Brown's Lear (reversed), glaring out under his eyebrows. His farther arm tensely grasps the map of his divided kingdom (rather than the arm of his chair, as in Brown, where the map, with "Cordelia's Portion" torn through, lies in the foreground. His nearer, bent arm loosely grasps his sceptre, angled upwards since it no longer need direct us to the map. The small Roman table and its furnishings, the carved eagle arm-post of the throne, the tree-emblem on its backcloth, the mistletoe over the King's head, all belong to the painting that perhaps chiefly furnished Irving with the idea of an interpretation. (428)
2212palace, the open atrium and the Roman temple with its cupola--may strike us as an odd choice for the scenery, but Irving says that his was how Brown conceived the era in which King Lear is set, "a time shortly after the departure of the Romans, when the Britons would naturally inhabit the houses left vacant." Martin Meisel calls the choice of an historical period "unorthodox," but Brown had considered the matter carefully while he pondered the composition of his earlier painting from the play, Lear and Cordelia, where Cordelia stands at the foot of the pallet where her father lies. Brown explains his reasoning for the details of the painting in the exhibition catalogue for his Picadilly exhibition in 1865:Having its origin in the old ballads, Shakespeare's King Lear is Roman-pagan-British nominally; medieval by external customs and habits, and again, in a marked degree, savage and remote by the moral side. With a fair excuse it might be treated in Roman-British costume, but then clashing with the medieval institutions and habits introduced: or as purely medieval. But I have rather chosen to be in harmony with the mental characteristics of Shakespeare's work, and have therefore adopted the costume prevalent in Europe about the sixth century, when paganism was still rife, and deeds were at their darkest. The piece of Bayeux tapestry introduced behind Lear is strictly an anachronism, but the costume applies in this instance, and the young men gaily riding with hawk and hound, contrast pathetically with the stricken old man. The poor fool who got hanged for too well loving his master, looks on with watery eyes. The Duke of Kent, who, though banished, disguised himself in order to remain with the king, is seen next the fool, having a wig on to alter his appearance. The physician, with his conjuring book, was magician also in those days. (12)***Lear's palace, Act I, scene i. In a letter to Irving (June 24, 1892), Brown says, "The large sketch of Lear's Castle is finished, if you would like your scene modeler to come & see it. The other designs of Albany and Cornwall's halls are not yet ready to show, but they will not take me long." The original source for this drawing and the next two is the souvenir program from the opening performance of the play at the Lyceum on November 10, A drawing from London Illustrated News accompanying the review by Henry Norman (November 19, 1892, pp ) shows what the scene looked like when Brown's design was transferred to the stage.Albany's castle, Act I, scene iii. The scene is set in an atrium open to the sky.Courtyard of Gloucester's castle, Act II, scene iv. This design clearly shows Brown's concept of a "Roman, pagan, British" setting for the play. In the background is a temple with a dome, a reminder of the recent Roman past. As in the first scene, we have an artist's sketch of what the scene looked like when it was viewed on the stage. In Act II, scene iv, Lear curses his daughters Regan and Goneril before leaving for the heath.Le goût est à l’antique… et le palais de Lear est romain (1) tout comme le château d’ Albany (2) ou la cour du château de Gloucester (3). Qu’importe l’orthodoxie historique, le décorateur en suivant son inspiration dira que les Romains étant partis, leurs palais avaient été habités par les héros anglais les avaient occupé !3
232 - Réponse…. Exercice d’observation De quel événement s’agit-il ? Lors de son séjour à Paris en , Ford Madox Brown assiste à une représentation de Lear et fait 18 esquisses à la plume et au crayon. Deux donneront naissance à des tableaux, achevés, (Lear and Cordelia ( ) et Cordelia's Portion (1866)De quel événement s’agit-il ?She answers, « Nothing, my Lord ». Lear says, « Nothing ! speak again, for out of nothing nothing comes, » I,1.1 - Aide ? la réplique en anglais !Le Roi Lear demande à Cordelia quelle est la mesure de son amour.2 - Réponse….
242 - Réponse…. De quel événement s’agit-il ? 1 - Aide ? Observez les vêtements des personnages…2 - Réponse….Visiblement un fort vent : les étoffes volent et même la barbe de Lear. Or les personnages ne sont pas habillés pour affronter un tempête. On peut en déduire que la sortie (? ) le voyage (? ) n’a pas été préparé.Il s’agit de la fin de la scène IV de l’acte II. Lear, furieux contre ses filles Goneril et Régane, sort dans la nuit et la tempête.Gloucester- le Roi est au comble de la fureur. […]Goneril – Mon seigneur ne le priez en aucune façon de rester.Gloucester – Hélas ! La nuit vient et les vents déchaînés / Font rage furieusement ; à des lieux à la ronde il y a à peine un buisson.Régane – Oh ! Monsieur, aux entêtés,/ Les malheurs qu’ils s’attirent eux même / Doivent servir de leçon. Fermez vos portes…[p 123 éd. Venet Folio Théâtre]Ford Madox Brown's Drawings for King LearWhile in Paris in , Ford Madox Brown sketched a set of eighteen pen-and-ink studies for King Lear. Two designs he later developed as finished paintings--Lear and Cordelia ( ) and Cordelia's Portion (1866)--and a third he turned into an oil-sketch, Cordelia Parting from Her Sisters (1854). Sixteen of the drawings were shown in 1865 at his Picadilly Exhibition, and Brown wrote the captions that appear below the drawings for the exhibition catalog. The sixteen sketches with captions are owned by the Whitworth Gallery in Manchester, and the two without captions are in the City Museum and Art Gallery of Birmingham. The drawings are done in pen and sepia ink over pencil on paper; they are approximately 11 x 14 inches in size.The idea of a series such as this was not original with Brown; the German artist Moritz Retzsch had completed his series of outlines of Shakespeare's plays ( ), which included a series on King Lear, and Eugène Delacroix had published his series of thirteen lithographs for Hamlet in 1843, a year before Brown executed his drawings. Critics think Brown knew the work of both artists and was influenced by them.Brown regarded these sketches as no more than "outlines," writing in the catalogue that accompanied his 1865 retrospective exhibition that they "were never intended but as rude first ideas for future more finished designs" (19). Despite their unfinished quality, they powerfully evoke what Lucy Rabin describes as a "vaguely remote historical period" (52), a time represented by Shakespeare as post-Roman but still pre-Christian. Ford Madox Hueffer, the painter's grandson, suggests that the crudity of the sketches was, in fact, deliberate--Brown's attempt to portray in bold, almost flat designs the barbarity of Lear and the era in which he lived (53).Brown reveals in these simple depictions an understanding of King Lear that far surpasses anything the critics had to say about a play that was not at all popular in the nineteenth century. Charles Lamb observed early in the century that "Lear is essentially impossible to be represented on a stage," and at the end of the century--as in, for example, a review of Sir Henry Irving's King Lear at the Lyceum Theatre--the critics were still quoting Lamb and asserting that King Lear "would not be tolerated for an hour if produced without the name of Shakspere" (Illustrated London News 101:637). Small wonder that Sir Henry Irving was reportedly nervous and anxious when he produced this unpopular play at the Lyceum in 1892.With just a few bold lines Brown captures the psychology of the characters, as well as Lear's physical decay and gradual descent into madness; the artist was by now "fully in command of the means to represent individual facial expression and he used his knowledge lavishly to depict transient emotional interaction between the figures," Lucy Rabin says. "The calculated ugliness," she continues, "gives the series an intensely human quality which possesses a moral force of its own. And the crude forms give the whole work a stunning directness unknown to European historical painting of the time. The personalities in Brown's representation of Lear are an exuberantly alive as today's news photography, though we know for other reasons that they are figures from the distant past" (53-4).In the first picture Lear leans forward on his throne and menacingly glares at Cordelia as he awaits her answer; she can only stand silently with her palms out as if pleading with the belligerent old man. In the second picture Lear slumps back in his seat, glowering with anger, disappointment--perhaps even disbelief--as Cordelia buries her face in her hand and leans on France for support. And so it goes until the last sketches when Lear dances crazily with his fool and then finally lies stricken on his pallet while Cordelia reaches out to him in tenderness. The paintings based on the second and last of the drawings reveal how deeply Brown was affected by Lear's history of mistrust, misunderstanding, and violent betrayal. Lucy Rabin notes how these eighteen drawings constitute an almost cinematographic scenario (51); the series does indeed look much like what a director would call the "story-board" for a film script.Brown's drawings for King Lear are thoroughly discussed by Helen O. Borowitz ("'King Lear' in the Art of Ford Madox Brown"), Lucy Rabin (Ford Madox Brown and the Pre-Raphaelite History-Picture, 51-60), and Martin Meisel (Realizations ). The reproductions below are from Meisel, pp , and Rabin, illustrations
252 - Réponse…. De quel événement s’agit-il ? 1 - Aide ? Observez le personnage de gauche.2 - Réponse….L’homme vers lequel se penche Lear a les jambes prises dans deux pièces de bois. On dit des « ceps » (être mis aux ceps). Il s’agit d’entraves qui immobilisent un prisonnier et le livrent comme le pilori aux insultes et à la risée.Lear accompagné de son Fou et d’un gentilhomme vient de découvrir Kent son messager ainsi entravé. Il ne veut pas croire Kent qui lui dit que c’est Régane et Cornouailles qui l’ont mis dans cette état. Sa colère va éclater : « Ils n’ont pas osé faire cela,Ils n’ont pas pu, ils n’ont pas voulu ; c’est pire qu’un meurtre,De faire au respect un si violent outrage. » C’est le moment où il réalise que sa fille et son mari sont devenus ses ennemis. [II, 4]
262 - Réponse…. De quel événement s’agit-il ? 1 - Aide ? Observez : qui fait quoi ?2 - Réponse….Un homme allongé et une femme agenouillée auprès de lui qui lui tend la main d’un geste paisible. Un homme au second plan semble vouloir éloigner des curieux. Un musicien joue de la cithare.Lear est affaibli et mourant. Kent déguisé, un gentilhomme et Cordélia qui vient de débarquer à Douvres sont à son chevet. Lear qui a dormi longtemps s’éveille et ne reconnaît pas sa fille ;elle tente de le convaincre qu’il s’agit bien d’elle.« Cordélia - Sire, me reconnaissez-vous ?Lear – Vous êtes un esprit, je le sais ; quand êtes-vous morte ?C. – toujours, toujours égaré…
272 - Réponse…. De quel événement s’agit-il ? Deux personnages, un vent fort, le personnage de gauche a une collerette caractéristiqueSoufflez, vents, à crever vos joues ! faites rage ! Soufflez !Vous trombe d’eau et déluges, jaillissezJusqu’à inonder nos clochers et nouyer leurs girouettes !Vous sulfureux éclairs, prompts comme la pensée,Avant courrier de la foudre qui fend le chêne,Brûlez ma tête blanche ! Et toi tonnerre qui tout ébranleAplatis l’épaisse rotondité du monde !Fracasse les moules de la nature, disperse d’un seul coup tous les germesQui font l’homme ingrat.(Acte III scène 2, Lear et le Fou dans la tempêteDe quel événement s’agit-il ?1 - Aide ? Observez : qui fait quoi ?III,2 et IV, 72 - Réponse….
28La mise en scène des peintres Et les peintures de la mise en scène …
29Une vision Néoclassique 1874 Copperplate engraving, engraved by W. Ridgway, size unknown,Marcus Stone, « Lear and Cordelia » (1874)Gravure Art Journal(1874).
30Edgar déguisé en Tom Bedlam Une visionNéoclassique 1775Edgar déguisé en Tom BedlamWhiles I may scape, I will preserve myself; and am bethought To take the basest and most poorest shape That ever penury, in contempt of man, Brought near to beast. My face I'll grime with filth, Blanket my loins, elf all my hair in knots, And with presented nakedness outface The winds and persecutions of the sky. The country gives me proof and precedent Of Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices, Strike in their numb'd and mortified bare arms Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary; And with this horrible object, from low farms, Poor pelting villages, sheepcotes, and mills, Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayers, Enforce their charity. 'Poor Turlygod! poor Tom!' That's something yet! Edgar I nothing am.(Lear Acte II, sc. 3)Pen and ink, size approximately 9 x 11 inches, source unknown.Edgar will disguise himself as Tom of Bedlam; this is his description in Act II, Scene iii, of the character he will play:Whiles I may scape, I will preserve myself; and am bethought To take the basest and most poorest shape That ever penury, in contempt of man, Brought near to beast. My face I'll grime with filth, Blanket my loins, elf all my hair in knots, And with presented nakedness outface The winds and persecutions of the sky. The country gives me proof and precedent Of Bedlam beggars, who, with roaring voices, Strike in their numb'd and mortified bare arms Pins, wooden pricks, nails, sprigs of rosemary; And with this horrible object, from low farms, Poor pelting villages, sheepcotes, and mills, Sometime with lunatic bans, sometime with prayers, Enforce their charity. 'Poor Turlygod! poor Tom!' That's something yet! Edgar I nothing am.John Hamilton Mortimer , Edgar ( )
31William Blake 1757-1827 : Lear et Cordelia en Prison (circa 1779) Vision1779Pen and ink and watercolour on paper support: 123 x 175 mm on paper, unique Bequeathed by Miss Alice G.E. Carthew N05189 Blake became a student in the Royal Academy Schools in October There he seems to have met the Academy’s President, Sir Joshua Reynolds. One of Blake’s friends later said that when the young Blake showed Reynolds his designs, Reynolds recommended that Blake work with ‘less extravagance and more simplicity, and to correct his drawing.’This watercolour, showing a scene from Shakespeare’s play King Lear, hints at what Reynolds meant. But the drawing of Niobe, hung above, shows Blake could draw carefully. He was always equally careful in his experiments with different paint mediums. (From the display caption September 2004)William Blake Lear and Cordelia in Prison circa 1779 Pen and ink and watercolour on paper, 123 x 175 mm Bequeathed by Miss Alice G.E. Carthew 1940The ageing British king Lear lies sleeping on his daughter Cordelia’s lap while in prison. Lear’s wilfulness has split the kingdom, and Cordelia laments the fate of her father and of the nation. This is one of a group of drawings by Blake dealing with British history made around His source for this scene though was Nahum Tate’s reworking of Shakespeare’s King Lear (1681).The taste for Gothic tales and poems, focussing on themes of magic, terror and romance, was the great popular cultural phenomenon of the late eighteenth century. The images in this room suggest some of the parallels and exchanges between the literary Gothic and the visual arts. A range of artists is displayed here, including: Joseph Wright of Derby ( ), Catherine Blake ( ) and Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg ( )William Blake : Lear et Cordelia en Prison (circa 1779)
32Une visionFin 18ème s.1792"King Lear, Act I. Scene I" from Shakespeare. Painted by Henry Enseli and engraved by Richard Earlom. Published August 1, 1792, by J & J. Boydell, at the Shakspeare Gallery, Pall Mall, & No. 90, Cheapside, London. Plate size apprx 19" x 24", paper size apprx 20" x 26". "Much Ado About Nothing, Act IV. Scene I" from Shakespeare. Painted by William Hamilton and engraved by Peter Simon. Published Sept. 1799, by J & J. Boydell, at the Shakspeare Gallery, Pall Mall, & No. 90, Cheapside, London. Plate size apprx 19" x 24", paper size apprx 20" x 26". Foxing and browning at margins, many small closed tears at edges.Lea, acte I, peint par Henry Enseli et gravé par Richard Earlom (1792)
34Thomas Stothard 1755-1834 “Shakespearean Characters exhibited” 1813 Throughout the late eighteenth century, subjects from Shakespeare provided an increasingly popular source for illustration, culminating in the Shakespeare Gallery of Boydell, which opened in Stothard, who contributed two subjects to the Boydell venture, also produced this Shakespearian assemblage which was exhibited in The choice of characters for inclusion here is a fair indication of the plays most popular in the first decade of the nineteenth century: from the left can be seen Malvolio, Falstaff and Prince Hal, Lear and Cordelia, Macbeth and the witches. (From the display caption May 1991) Thomas Stothard “Shakespearean Characters exhibited” 1813
35William Hilton (1786-1839), Le Roi Lear et ses trois filles, 1814 . Huile sur toile (H. 1,55 m.; L. [...]775x Ko - jpgWilliam Hilton ( ), Le Roi Lear et ses trois filles, 1814
36Gravure d’une édition Romantique anglaise La version de Nahum Tate est abandonnée : Cordélia est bien morte aux pieds de Lear.Noter les éléments qui soulignent le goût de la couleur locale,du monumental et de l’histoire
37Vision romantique1858Pen and ink and watercolour on paper support: 123 x 175 mm on paper, unique Bequeathed by Miss Alice G.E. Carthew N05189 Blake became a student in the Royal Academy Schools in October There he seems to have met the Academy’s President, Sir Joshua Reynolds. One of Blake’s friends later said that when the young Blake showed Reynolds his designs, Reynolds recommended that Blake work with ‘less extravagance and more simplicity, and to correct his drawing.’This watercolour, showing a scene from Shakespeare’s play King Lear, hints at what Reynolds meant. But the drawing of Niobe, hung above, shows Blake could draw carefully. He was always equally careful in his experiments with different paint mediums. (From the display caption September 2004)William Blake Lear and Cordelia in Prison circa 1779 Pen and ink and watercolour on paper, 123 x 175 mm Bequeathed by Miss Alice G.E. Carthew 1940The ageing British king Lear lies sleeping on his daughter Cordelia’s lap while in prison. Lear’s wilfulness has split the kingdom, and Cordelia laments the fate of her father and of the nation. This is one of a group of drawings by Blake dealing with British history made around His source for this scene though was Nahum Tate’s reworking of Shakespeare’s King Lear (1681).The taste for Gothic tales and poems, focussing on themes of magic, terror and romance, was the great popular cultural phenomenon of the late eighteenth century. The images in this room suggest some of the parallels and exchanges between the literary Gothic and the visual arts. A range of artists is displayed here, including: Joseph Wright of Derby ( ), Catherine Blake ( ) and Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg ( )Paul Falconer Poole ( ) étude “La mort de Cordélia” circa 1858
38Une visionRomantique« Le Roi Lear et son Fou pris dans la Tempête », Works locationDeutsch: Edinburgh, London, RomAtelier National de reproduction des thèsesWilliam Dyce, « Le Roi Lear et son Fou pris dans la Tempête », Le peintre écossais fait en 1823 le voyage à Rome où il étudie le Titien et Poussin. D’abord portraitiste, il se tourne vers les sujets religieux, et peindra les fresques du Palais de Westminster. acte III, scène II : face à la destruction du sens et des valeurs, symbolisée par l'orage, répond le délire des deux personnages, (re)créateur de vérité.
39Une lecture Néoclassique 1786 Barry was a passionate champion of neo-classical history painting on a vast scale. After initial success he became a martyr to its cause, dying neglected and convinced of the hostility of the art establishment. This is one of Barry's most ambitious paintings, made for Alderman Boydell's 'Shakespeare Gallery', a collection of engraved scenes from Shakespeare by celebrated artists of the day. Boydell held an exhibition of the original pictures in Here, a heartbroken Lear supports the body of his beloved daughter Cordelia. Barry has set the tragic scene in an heroic landscape with Stonehenge in the background. (From the display caption September 2004)Paintings and sculptures in the Grand Manner were expected to represent noble acts from history and mythology. Their idealised style was derived from ancient and Renaissance art, and was meant to be appreciated only by an elite of wealthy, educated men.**The reprieve arrives too late to save Cordelia and Lear, desperately hoping she still lives, weeps with grief and says,And my poor fool is hang'd! No, no, no life! Why should a dog, a horse, a rat, have life, And thou no breath at all? Thou'lt come no more, Never, never, never, never, never! Pray you, undo this button: thank you, sir. Do you see this? Look on her, look, her lips, Look there, look there!With these last words he dies.This picture is displayed on the Tate Gallery's website where the Gallery has mounted many of the paintings from its magnificent collection. The site is well constructed and easy to navigate. All the pages will open in separate windows, so close them to return to Shakespeare Illustrated. If a picture has a display caption, read it; the notes will supplement what I have to say about an illustration.The works in this room show how the Grand Manner was taken up by British artists in the late eighteenth century and adapted to suit a modern, commercial art market.Traditionally, British artists had few opportunities to work in the Grand Manner. Some commentators actively opposed it, arguing that its exalted idealism was incompatible with the national character. But things changed in the 1760s when Britain became the dominant world power, with a vast empire and expanding economy. The foundation of the elitist Royal Academy of Arts in 1768 reflected a growing sense of national self-importance.Although the Academy promoted the ideals of the Grand Manner, only a few wealthy patrons supported this style of art. Most artists were obliged to seek out work in an increasingly competitive marketplace. As the pictures in this room show, painters would dress up their more saleable portraits as Grand Manner subjects, and sought out new subjects to grab the attention of a more socially diverse public.This display has been devised by curator Martin MyroneBP British Art Displays James Barry, « King Lear Weeping Over the Death of Cordelia » ( )Peintre irlandais dernier des romantiques, et bientôt chef de file du Néoclassicisme de l’époque.
40The two elder sisters Regan and Goneril find easy words with which to reassure the aged king. But Cordelia, the youngest, when she is invited to speak words which may win her a bigger share than theirs, can only answer : Cordelia - Nothing, my lord.'Lear - Nothing will come of nothing. Speak again. Unhappy that I am, I cannot heave My heart into my mouth: I love your majesty According to my bond: nor more, nor less.And so Lear calls the King of France and the Duke of Burgundy, husbands of his elder daughters, to take Cordelia's share between them: in symbol of which he gives her coronet to them.Lear - Which to confirm, this crownet part between you.And despite the protestations of the Earl of Kent (right) Cordelia is cast aside. The tragedy is set in motion.John Rogers Herbert ( ) was chiefly known for his religious pictures. It is recorded that for his Lear fresco he several times cut out the head of the king and repainted it, in order truly to capture the complex character of the man. When, along with the rest of the paintings here, this one began to decay, Herbert repainted it on canvas, and offered it to the Palace of Westminster. In the event the offer was not accepted, and this version of the picture is now in Nottingham Castle Museum.John Rogers Herbert
42Vision Préraphaélite 1843-44 The subject is based upon Act 1, Scene 1 of Shakespeare’s ‘King Lear’. Lear had dispossessed his youngest and favourite daughter Cordelia. Her honesty in answering that she loved her father ‘according to her bond’ rather than vying with her sisters to suggest that she loved them the most, had led to Lear depriving her of the third of his kingdom that was rightfully hers. Her sisters Goneril and Regan, and their respective husbands, the Dukes of Albany and Cornwall , are shown grasping the crown that Lear has passed to them. Madox Brown suggests the malevolent intent of these sisters by their mutual gaze. On the right, the King of France looks heavenward and swears love for his future wife, the dowerless Cordelia. The Duke of Burgundy, who will no longer press his suit for Cordelia now that she has been disinherited, stands pensively biting his finger beside Lear’s throne. Lear is shown in the grip of vain rage and already appears slightly crazed. Behind the throne stands the Duke of Gloucester, Lear’s fool and three spearmen. To the far left, a small figure gazes back into the room with an arm extended downwards in a distraught gesture. It is likely that he is the Duke of Kent who has suffered banishment for trying to persuade Lear to revoke his foolhardy plans. Madox Brown’s approach to historical verisimilitude in this picture is rather fanciful. The King of France wears vaguely fourteenth-century costume, Lear is dressed in a druidical toga, while Cornwall and Albany have some of the stock accompaniments of stage banditti. The mistletoe above Lear’s head strikes an authentically ancient British note as do the curiously placed oak leaves in the helmets of Lear’s soldiers. Rather less in keeping are the Greek honeysuckle motifs and the imperial griffins on the throne. The tripod table is Roman and the censer, orb and sceptre might well have emanated from the workshop of Morris, Marshall, Faulkner and Company. On the foreground map is marked Dover, where the play ends with the death of Lear, Cordelia and her sisters. A series of sixteen Lear drawings were first produced by Madox Brown in Paris in 1844 (Whitworth Art Gallery, Manchester). Three paintings were developed from these: two versions of this subject and an earlier depiction of ‘The Parting of Cordelia and her Sisters’ (1854 private collection). ‘Cordelia’s Portion’ was commissioned in 1865 by Frederick Craven of Manchester, who liked only watercolours. It displays the sinuous, decorative linearism of the artist’s later style which he described as ‘sensuous’, and the colours are of the mute, sandy hue that he began to favour at this time.Ford Madox Brown, 1821 – 1893« Cordelia's Portion » ( )Retour
43Ford Madox Brown 1821-1893 Lear et Cordelia (1849-1854) VisionPréraphaéliteFormé à Bruges, Gand et Anvers, il s'installe à Londres vers Il y rencontre Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Holman Hunt et John Everett Millais, fondateurs du mouvement préraphaélite. Ces rencontres l'incitent à prendre son inspiration dans les modèles du XVe siècle, en particulier Botticelli, qu'il admire par-dessus tout, et à qui il emprunte par exemple le format du médaillon.Ses sujets touchent à la fois à l'Antiquité et à l'actualité sociale du Royaume-Uni victorien. Son style est caractérisé par la vivacité des couleurs et le raffinement des détails.Lear and Cordelia This is the first of three paintings by Brown that illustrate scenes from Shakespeare's tragedy King Lear. All three pictures are based on a series of pen and ink sketches produced during a trip to Paris in On 2 May 1848 Brown saw William Charles Macready ( ) in a production of the play, and began work on this picture in November of the same year. The painting illustrates Act IV, Scene vii from the play. The location is Cordelia's tent in the French camp at Dover. Lear is asleep, his thinning hair straggling across the pillow, his hands still clutching a set of keys. The physician on the left raises his baton and commands the musicians to play more loudly. Cordelia, anxious that her father should be allowed to sleep, utters this lament, inscribed in both spandrels of the frame: Had you not been their father, these white flakes Had challeng'd pity of them. Was this a face To be explosed against the warring winds? To stand against the deep dread-bolted thunder? Mine enemy's dog, Though he had bit me, should have stood that might Against my fire; and wast thou fair, poor father, To hovel thee with swine, and rogues forlorn, In short and musty straw! Lear's recumbent pose suggests the exhausted sleep of old age, while Cordelia, kneeling with outstretched hands, is the pitying onlooker. The stage-like setting is organised into a many-angled tent, its shape reinforced by the shallow arch of the frame. The isolation and stillness of the foreground figures are underlined by the half screen and the throng of musicians beyond. They seem constricted in their movements and the bright light of the distant seashore through the tiny opening in the tent only serves to emphasise the darkness and gloom of the claustrophobic interior. Brown used models for most of the figures, but the head of Lear was inspired by 'a cast of Dante's and a drawing of Coulton' (diary entry, quoted in Parris, p.65). He used his favourite model, Maitland, for the soldiers on the right, and his new pupil and friend, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, for the fool, who holds Lear in his sinister stare. He modelled the head of Cordelia on his own wife-to-be, Emma, but the hands were those of a professional model, Mrs Ashley. In order to render the spirit of Shakespeare's play, he chose to dress his figures in the costume of the 6th century when, according to Brown himself, as noted in his 1865 catalogue, 'paganism was still rife, and deeds were at their darkest.' Behind Lear's head he includes a detail from on of the main scenes in the Bayeux Tapestry.The picture was first shown at the Free Exhibition in 1849, where it was well received, but remained unsold. Brown continued to work on the picture intermittently until 1854, when it was bought by John Seddon the architect for 15 guineas. Further reading: Leslie Parris (ed.), The Pre-Raphaelites, exhibition catalogue, Tate Gallery, London 1984, reprinted 1994, pp.65-66, reproduced p.66, in colour. Virginia Surtees, The Diary of Ford Madox Brown, New Haven and London, Kenneth Bendiner, The Art of Ford Madox Brown, Pennsylvania 1998, p.41, reproduced fig.21. Frances Fowle December 2000 Ford Madox Brown Lear et Cordelia ( )après avoir fait 18 croquis lors d’un voyage à Paris en , Madox assistera en 48 à une représentation de Charles Macready ( ) et développera l’un de ses croquis
44Visionpréraphaélite ?1851Oil on canvas, size approximately 30 x 43 inches, Manchester City Art Galleries.A viewer might look a long time at this painting for the source in Shakespeare and never find it, but these lines from Act II, scene vi of King Lear,spoken by Edgar disguised as the madman Tom, accompanied the picture when it was first exhibited at the Royal Academy:Sleepeth or waketh thou, jolly shepherd? Thy sheep be in the corn; And for one blast of thy minikin mouth, Thy sheep shall take no harm.The association may begin to come into focus, but the implications of the song from King Lear are not totally clear without these comments from a letter written by Hunt.Shakespeare's song represents a Shepherd who is neglecting his real duty of guarding the sheep: instead of using his voice in truthfully performing his duty, he is using his "minikin mouth" in some idle way. He was a type thus of other muddle headed pastors who instead of performing their services to their flock--which is in constant peril--discuss vain questions of no value to any human soul. My fool has found a death's head moth, and this fills his little mind with forebodings of evil and he takes it to an equally sage counsellor for her opinion. She scorns his anxiety from ignorance rather than profundity, but only the more distracts his faithfulness: while she feeds her lamb with sour apples his sheep have burst bounds and got into the corn. It is not merely that the wheat will be spoilt, but in eating it the sheep are doomed to destruction from becoming what farmers call "blown." (Quoted by Landow, 39)The painting, Hunt says, is thus to be read allegorically as a comment on good and bad pastors, a topic of particular concern at mid-century with the debate between evangelical and high church factions in the Church of England. Following Hunt's lead for a religious interpretation of the painting and the passage from King Lear,critics have as well suggested other possible sources in John 10:11-14 and John Milton's Lycidas.Hunt was perhaps the firmest adherent to the principles of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood of which he was a founding member: The Hireling Shepherd is a brilliant and faithful depiction of a natural rural scene (some say that he is the best artist at reproducing the actual effects of sunlight and shadow) and at the same time says something important and timeless that reaches beyond the actual painting itself. As George Landow puts it in William Holman Hunt and Typological Symbolism,the artist wanted to create an art "that could marry realism and elaborate iconography, fact and feeling, matter and spirit an art that demanded both an immediate emotional response and one that was meditative and analytical he wanted to create an art that would be simultaneously intellectual and deeply moving, popular and appealing to an elite, objective and subjective" (1).The allusion to King Lear does not stop here, for Hunt returned again to the subject of lost sheep in another painting, Our English Coasts, 1852, which he exhibited in 1853 and then later renamed Strayed Sheep.Ideas similar to The Hireling Shepherd are, A. C. Gissing notes, hinted at in Strayed Sheep(77).In this painting the sheep are in imminent danger as they wander along the precipice of the cliff, and here there is no shepherd in sight to protect them from falling over the edge. They are completely abandoned. Critics immediately associated Our English Coastswith Hunt's earlier painting, The Hireling Shepherdand suggested that the painting had another meaning and spoke "of men, and not of sheep." Others read into the painting political overtones and speculated about not only negligent pastors but irresponsible political leaders who allowed the electorate to wander dangerously. Given Hunt's "intense nationalism," Landow suggests that some sort of political as well as religious interpretation may be plausible (43).A political reading of both the passage from King Lear and the painting is more than plausible in our own century. Critics note that Lear is in a sense the bad shepherd in Tom's song, for his subjects do indeed suffer from the initial act of foolishness when he gives up kingship and throws his country into chaos and civil war. Much like a painter, Grigori Kozintsev graphically depicts this fact in his 1970 film of King Lear. Jack Jorgens in Shakespeare on Filmanalyzes the opening scenes of this "Christian-Marxist" Russian King Learand notes that the groups of citizens coming to Lear's meeting with his daughters in the opening scene of the play "become larger until they cover the hillsides like ants. Having gathered, they wait in silence before the massive walls of Lear's castle Kozintsev shows us a wasteland peopled, masses of subjects who have suffered from Lear's tyranny, blindness, and neglect, who after his rash, fatal act are ravaged by the civil war and must rebuild when it is over" (238). Modern critics of King Learcertainly would not reject a political reading of either The Hireling Shepherdor Strayed Sheep.This picture is displayed on the Tate Gallery's website. The various collections and their locations are listed, searches can be done quickly, and the Gallery's site is easy to navigate. Those who are interested can find more information in the Tate's descriptions and comments on their pictures. The collection of British pictures--especially those based on Shakespeare--is magnificent and I urge you to visit the Tate Gallery's homepage.William Holman Hunt, The Hireling Shepherd (1851) Cette toile idylique a-t-elle un rapport avec le Roi Lear ? Fort probablement car lors de la première exposition, le peintre accompagne la toile de la petite chanson d’Edgard déguisé en pauvre Tom le fou ! (Acte II sc 6) Tom en berger insensé qui compte fleurette à une belle et oublie ses moutons ? Un certain nombre de critiques penchent vers cette hypothèse. La tragédie transformée en pastorale ? La version de Nahum Tate peut autoriser cette interprétation. Voici une énigme.
45William Frederick Yeames 1835 – 1918), Cordelia (1888) Une visionDe l’art dit « Victorien »1888The weekly newspaper the Graphic commissioned twenty-one studies of Shakespeare's heroines that were exhibited in London in Before this project the Graphic frequently published pictures of beautiful women--under the inspirational guise of "ideal beauty"--and had previously commissioned illustrations where each artist was asked "to portray his idea of female beauty." The review of Shakespeare's Heroines in the Art Journal of 1889 suggests that it was the success of this earlier venture into feminine beauty that "prompted them to elicit once more the opinions of our artists upon the subject; this time, however, narrowing the selection to the HEROINES OF SHAKESPEARE" (vol. 51, p. 95).The pictures were published in the Graphic and then offered for sale to the public in various formats and sizes. For example, the complete set of paintings by twenty-one different artists was published in 1890 as a special supplement to the Christmas issue of the Graphic. The pictures remained popular and in 1896 the publisher offered a collection of reasonably priced colored lithographs unframed or framed and ready for the parlor wall.William Frederick Yeames 1835 – 1918), Cordelia (1888)
46Une vision archéologisante et symboliste 1889 Abbey exhibited King Lear, another of his large, dramatic pictures, at the Royal Academy in 1898; the painting was accompanied in the catalog by these lines from Act I, scene i: Ye jewels of our father, with washed eyes Cordelia leaves you. I know what you are; And, like a sister, am most loth to call Your faults as they are named. Love well our father. To your professed bosoms I commit him. But yet, alas! stood I within his grace, I would prefer him to a better place. So farewell to you both.The critics saw much to like in Abbey's King Lear. The reviewer for The Art Journal (1898, p. 176) comments especially on the bold use of color and the grouping of the figures on the canvas:If the admirers of Mr. Abbey felt that the note of the superbly dramatic 'Richard III.' was not repeated with similar force in last year's 'Hamlet and Ophelia,' all doubts should be set at rest by the barbaric majesty of the Scene from 'Lear,' a subject which, under the title of 'Cordelia's Portion,' inspired Madox Brown to the production of one of his finest compositions. The dominant figure in Mr. Abbey's commanding decoration is Cordelia, and it is impossible to resist the colour-charm in which she is invested. Her yellow-green vestment with the deep blue border set against the green robe of France, and opposed to the menacing reds and blacks of Goneril and Regan, is a triumph of originality. As in Richard III. there is a strong suggestion motion, and the drooping figure of Lear sustained by his pages and followed by his men-at-arms from the left to right of the canvas gives this note. The dramatic figure of the sisters in the attitudes of dignified indifference and mock courtesy are splendidly realized, and the foot-light effect discernible throughout the picture certainly adds to the intenseness of the composition. Unmistakably in this important group, Mr. Abbey has reached a very high level and is going far to prove, by this magnificent series of object lessons, that his decorative style is capable of giving the fullest expression of dramatic motives. "H. S.," the reviewer for The Spectator (May 14, 1898, p. 694), also remarks on the "audacity of the colour" and judges the effects "gorgeous and beautiful." "The truth of the gestures," he adds, "are as finely conceived as are the combinations of scarlet and purple black crimson and sea-green." He notes the dark-colored "poisonous beauty" of Regan and Goneril on the left and the striking contrast they make to Cordelia's pale clothing and the white robe of old Lear, who is led off to the right by his fool and knights. The colors are, he says, "as subtle a piece of characterization as any in the picture." This symbolic use of color in the painting is enhanced by the outstretched arm of Cordelia. The king of France holds and kisses Cordelia's hand, but at the same time she seems to reach out to the bent figure of her father. My favorite detail in the painting is the old dog that follows Lear. He too is lightly colored and hence forms, like Cordelia's arm, a bond between the figures of the disowned daughter and her father, and the symbolism of the faithful dog is not lost on the viewer. Dogs are alluded to seventeen times in King Lear (although I doubt the painter took the time to count them), and Abbey pointedly reinforces this recurrent image in the play. Lucy Oakley in her remarks on the painting sees even more detailed imagery:The sinuous red border of Goneril's cloak resembles the coil and spring of a cobra, its line continuing up through her arm and ending in the fisted hand poised beneath her chin, with two fingers extended like the forked tongue of a snake. The reptilian effect is reinforced in the stiff, haughty pose of the head and in the steely expression of a character whom Shakespeare often identifies with snakes Regan's dress is decorated with figures of large beasts The red color of her dress, the low, central knotting of her hip-slung belt, and the long riverine fall of its cords through the valley created by the raising of her skirt all focus attention on her female sex, with its connotations of mystery, blood, and darkness. (46-7)Oakley perhaps risks overreading the details of the painting in her comments, but Abbey does seem to echo the 133 references to 64 different animals that form a large measure of the textured imagery Shakespeare creates in King Lear.Une vision archéologisante et symboliste 1889Edwin Austin Abbey, , King Lear (1898) Peintre illustrateur américain il se fixe en Angleterre. Il fait ses débuts au Harpers Magazine, puis se spécialise dans l’illustration de Shakespeare où il obtient une immense notoriété.
47Shakespeare : la construction du culte d’un génie Vision 1799Smith, Benjamin (London, )Designer:Romney, George (Lancashire, London, 1802)Date:1799 (Shearjashub Spooner edition 1852)Medium:Original Line and Stipple EngravingPublisher:John Boydell, LondonNote:Benjamin Smith: A great 18th and early nineteenth century engraver, Benjamin Smith studied stippling techniques under Francesco Bartolozzi in London. During his career Smith engraved many fine plates after the designs of contemporary masters such as Hogarth, Beechey and Romney. He also created portrait engravings of such noteworthy individuals as Marquis Cornwallis and George III. Benjamin Smith was frequently commissioned by John Boydell to engrave plates for both his Shakespeare Gallery and for his Milton set. George Romney: After Gainsborough and Reynolds, George Romney ranks as the greatest English portrait and historical painter of the late eighteenth century. Born into humble circumstances he was sent to Kendal as a young man to apprentice under the painter, Christopher Steele. He remained in this town until the early 1760's, making his way as a local portrait painter. Romney then set out for London and made an almost overnight success of his career with his 1763 painting, "The Death of General Wolfe". In the following years he created some of the greatest portraits in the history of British art, including that of Lady Hamilton. During the 1790's Romney was a contributor to both Boydell's Shakespeare and Milton sets. The frontis piece engraving, Milton and his Two Daughters was designed by Romney and engraved by Benjamin Smith in Four years later these two artists again collaborated for the important Shakespeare engravings, Shakespeare Nursed by Tragedy and Comedy and The Infant Shakespeare Attended by Nature and the Passions. John Boydell is easily one of England's most remarkable 18th century personalities. Born in poverty, he began his career as an at best mediocre engraver of small book plates. At this time England was at a very low ebb as a serious centre for the visual arts (particularly engraving) and Boydell sought to eradicate this situation by beginning a second career as a publisher of fine prints. Modest initial experiments in the 1760's led to a rapid expansion of his business and during the 1770's he published his striking series of mezzotint engravings, Liber Veritas, engraved by Richard Earlom after the drawings of Claude Lorrain. This ambitious undertaking put England back on the printmaking map and was a huge financial success for John Boydell. Boydell had now established London as a major centre for the arts and this once poor and struggling engraver/publisher was acknowledged for his efforts by being elected no less than Lord Mayor of London, in The same year marked the beginning of Boydell's most grandiose undertaking. His new publishing establishment in Pall Mall, 'The Shakespeare Gallery', began by commissioning the most esteemed painters and engravers in the country to create and design large and expensive engravings based upon the plays and life of William Shakespeare. By this time as well John Boydell's brother, Joshua, had joined the firm. This monumental venture continued until Boydell's death thirteen years later. By that time, The Shakespeare Gallery had created and published one hundred and seventy engravings on a grand scale. Alas, the expenses for this vast project had been so large that England's foremost publisher of art ended his life the way he began, dying penniless. Both George Romney and Benjamin Smith were important contributors to Boydell's publishing house. Boydell commissioned these artists to work in collaboration on some of the most important plates from both The Shakespeare Gallery and another Boydell undertaking, The Poetical Works of John Milton, which was published between 1794 and 1797.Edition:Original Shearjashub Spooner Edition 1852Source:The Shakespeare Gallery An Important Note on Boydell States and Editions: The vast majority of Boydell Shakespeare engravings offered for sale are posthumous impressions. Proof impressions and true first edition impressions are easily identified by their fine lines and strong contrasts of black and white tones. Later more common editions print in a more overall grey tone and contain areas of re-working. Briefly, the publishing history of these great engravings can be categorized into five states or editions:1. 'Artist's Proofs'. These are the earliest of states and were printed in only a handful of impressions. They are identified not only by their vibrant lines and tones but by the fact that they lack any letters along the lower margin. 2. 'Proofs Before Title'. These impressions usually contain the names of the artist, publisher and engraver along the lower margin. They lack the title of the specific play depicted and usually the heading -- 'Shakspeare' -- is smaller than in the published edition. Once again, this state was printed in a very small numbers. 3. 'Open Letter Proofs'. These impressions bear the title of the play. The heading, 'Shakespeare', is yet to be filled in with stippling. These impressions were printed before the publication of the first edition and were probably struck from the plate at a customer's request. Perhaps ten to twenty Open Letter Proofs exist for each engraving. 4. 'First Edition Impressions'. The completed set of Boydell's Shakespeare engravings was published in London in The full publisher's address appears along the lower margin as well as the text for the play. The heading, 'Shakspeare', is now filled in with stippling. Both first edition impressions and proofs were most often printed on either hand-made, laid paper or wove paper bearing the 'J. Whatman' watermark. 5. 'Posthumous Impressions and Restrikes' As early as 1807, John Stockdale of London issued a second edition of the Shakespeare prints. They continued to be published throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. Finally, in 1852, an enterprising dentist in New York City (with the delightful name of Shearjashub Spooner) acquired the plates, restored them and produced the last edition. These prints are most commonly offered for sale.Image Size:19 X 24 1/2 (Sizes in inches are approximate, height preceding width of plate-mark or image.) Matted with 100% Archival MaterialsCondition:Printed upon thick wove paper and with full margins as published by Spooner in New York in Containing several very small scratch marks within the image, else a strongly printed impression showing very little loss of line and tonal values that one often encounters with posthumous printings. The Infant Shakespeare Attended by Nature and the Passions represents a prime, original example of British art from the famous Boydell Gallery.Price:Sold - The price is no longer available. The artist biography and information pertaining to this work of art has been written and designed by Greg & Connie Peters exclusively for "www.artoftheprint.com". Check our site periodically for new additons. There are new biographies and works of art for sale posted on a regular basis. We hope you found the information you required and that it has been beneficial.We guarantee the authenticity of every work of art we sell 100%. Full documentation and certification is provided.Smith, Benjamin (London, ) : « The Infant Shakespeare Attended by Nature and the Passions »
48Vision 1803Smith, Benjamin (London, )Designer:Romney, George (Lancashire, London, 1802)Date:1803Medium:Original Stipple EngravingPublisher:John Boydell, LondonNote:Benjamin Smith: A great 18th and early nineteenth century engraver, Benjamin Smith studied stippling techniques under Francesco Bartolozzi in London. During his career Smith engraved many fine plates after the designs of contemporary masters such as Hogarth, Beechey and Romney. He also created portrait engravings of such noteworthy individuals as Marquis Cornwallis and George III. Benjamin Smith was frequently commissioned by John Boydell to engrave plates for both his Shakespeare Gallery and for his Milton set. George Romney: After Gainsborough and Reynolds, George Romney ranks as the greatest English portrait and historical painter of the late eighteenth century. Born into humble circumstances he was sent to Kendal as a young man to apprentice under the painter, Christopher Steele. He remained in this town until the early 1760's, making his way as a local portrait painter. Romney then set out for London and made an almost overnight success of his career with his 1763 painting, "The Death of General Wolfe". In the following years he created some of the greatest portraits in the history of British art, including that of Lady Hamilton. During the 1790's Romney was a contributor to both Boydell's Shakespeare and Milton sets. The frontis piece engraving, Milton and his Two Daughters was designed by Romney and engraved by Benjamin Smith in For the Shakespeare venture, these two artists again collaborated for the important, allegorical engravings, Shakespeare Nursed by Tragedy and Comedy and The Infant Shakespeare Attended by Nature and the Passions. John Boydell (Shropshire, London, 1804): John Boydell is easily one of England’s most remarkable 18th century personalities. Born in poverty, he began his career as an at best mediocre engraver of small book plates. At this time England was at a very low ebb as a serious centre for the visual arts (particularly engraving) and Boydell sought to eradicate this situation by beginning a second career as a publisher of fine prints. Modest initial experiments in the 1760’s led to a rapid expansion of his business and during the 1770’s he published his striking series of mezzotint engravings, Liber Veritas, engraved by Richard Earlom after the drawings of Claude Lorrain. This ambitious undertaking put England back on the printmaking map and was a huge financial success for John Boydell. Boydell had now established London as an important publisher for the arts and this once poor and struggling engraver/publisher was acknowledged for his efforts by being elected no less than Lord Mayor of London, in The same year marked the beginning of Boydell’s most grandiose undertaking. His new publishing establishment in Pall Mall, ‘The Shakespeare Gallery’, began by commissioning the most esteemed painters and engravers in the country to create and design large and expensive engravings based upon the plays and life of William Shakespeare. By this time as well John Boydell’s brother, Joshua, had joined the firm. This monumental venture continued until Boydell’s death thirteen years later. By that time, The Shakespeare Gallery had created and published one hundred and seventy engravings on a grand scale. Alas, the expenses for this vast project had been so large that England’s foremost publisher of art ended his life the way he began, dying penniless.Edition:Original 'First Edition Impression' 4. 'First Edition Impressions'. The completed set of Boydell's Shakespeare engravings was published in London in The full publisher's address appears along the lower margin as well as the text for the play. The heading, 'Shakspeare', is now filled in with stippling.Source:The Shakespeare Gallery An Important Note on Boydell States and Editions: The vast majority of Boydell Shakespeare engravings offered for sale are posthumous impressions. Proof impressions and true first edition impressions are easily identified by their fine lines and strong contrasts of black and white tones. Later more common editions print in a more overall grey tone and contain areas of re-working. Briefly, the publishing history of these great engravings can be categorized into five states or editions:1. 'Artist's Proofs'. These are the earliest of states and were printed in only a handful of impressions. They are identified not only by their vibrant lines and tones but by the fact that they lack any letters along the lower margin. 2. 'Proofs Before Title'. These impressions usually contain the names of the artist, publisher and engraver along the lower margin. They lack the title of the specific play depicted and usually the heading -- 'Shakspeare' -- is smaller than in the published edition. Once again, this state was printed in a very small numbers. 3. 'Open Letter Proofs'. These impressions bear the title of the play. The heading, 'Shakespeare', is yet to be filled in with stippling. These impressions were printed before the publication of the first edition and were probably struck from the plate at a customer's request. Perhaps ten to twenty Open Letter Proofs exist for each engraving. 4. 'First Edition Impressions'. The completed set of Boydell's Shakespeare engravings was published in London in The full publisher's address appears along the lower margin as well as the text for the play. The heading, 'Shakspeare', is now filled in with stippling. Both first edition impressions and proofs were most often printed on either hand-made, laid paper or wove paper bearing the 'J. Whatman' watermark. 5. 'Posthumous Impressions and Restrikes' As early as 1807, John Stockdale of London issued a second edition of the Shakespeare prints. They continued to be published throughout the first half of the nineteenth century. Finally, in 1852, an enterprising dentist in New York City (with the delightful name of Shearjashub Spooner) acquired the plates, restored them and produced the last edition. These prints are most commonly offered for sale.Image Size:14 1/8 X 17 3/8 (Sizes in inches are approximate, height preceding width of plate-mark or image.) Matted with 100% Archival MaterialsPrice:$ USCondition:Printed upon thick wove paper and with full margins as published by Boydell in London in Containing slight creasing with the image (probably due to the pressure of printing) else a vibrant, early first edition impression and in very good condition throughout. Shakespeare Nursed by Tragedy and Comedy represents a superb, original example of the famous art of Boydell's Shakespeare Gallery.Note:The artist biography and information pertaining to this work of art has been written and designed by Greg & Connie Peters exclusively for "www.artoftheprint.com". Check our site periodically for new additons. There are new biographies and works of art for sale posted on a regular basis. We hope you found the information you required and that it has been beneficial.We guarantee the authenticity of every work of art we sell 100%. Full documentation and certification is provided.Smith, Benjamin (London, ) Shakespeare élevé par la comédie et la tragédie
49Voir également sur le Site ArchitheA PWT - Shakespeare : un résumé de la tragédie du Roi LearEn passant par le module Recherche du siteVous trouverez d’autres documentsVoir également sur le Site ArchitheAEcole spectateur : Roi Lear autour de la version de Laurent Fréchuret : Vous trouverez au lien suivant un recueil de textes sur le Roi Lear. Il regroupe des notes d'intentions, interview et diverses critiques qui permettront de mieux savourer la mémoire de la version de Laurent FréchuretAndré Engel : « Le public n’est jamais renvoyé à ses propres insuffisances mais toujours aux insuffisances de la scène, c’est cela qui l’autorise à juger ».Le Roi Lear : Les réécritures du texte de Shakespeare ou les infortunes de la vertu...Roi Lear : Sivadier et son trapèze rallument la querelle du metteur en scène tyran : « big Brother de la coulisse » ?Traduire Shakespeare suppose-t-il qu’on ait des vues sur le sexe des canards sauvages ? Une réflexion d’André Gide.King's Lear synopsisLe Roi Lear : aventures diverses du texte de Shakespeare et de ses représentations.
50Sitographie indicative : thttp://www.fedephoto.com/ des photographies de la version Sivadier de Jacky Ley et Agathe Poupeney]Ceci est un essai qui ne demande qu’à être « transformé », toute suggestion, compléments d’informations, sont les bienvenus…Contact :