La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

La présentation est en train de télécharger. S'il vous plaît, attendez

1 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) Kernreaktoren: Status und Perspektiven DPG Frühjahrstagung.

Présentations similaires


Présentation au sujet: "1 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) Kernreaktoren: Status und Perspektiven DPG Frühjahrstagung."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 1 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) Kernreaktoren: Status und Perspektiven DPG Frühjahrstagung 2011, AKE Sitzung

2 2 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March /10/ EJ 232EJ 229EJ Rejected Energy Useful Energy Primary Energy Source: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory chart figures in quads – 1 quad=1.05 EJ 2005 World Energy Flow Diagram

3 3 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Hypothese for 2050 Energy consumption will only increase by a foctor of 2 (energy economies !!) CO 2 emissions will be reduced by a factor of Consommation ~10 Gtep (% de 10 Gtep) 20 Gtep (% de 20 Gtep) Fossiles % : % Bio & Waste % x % Hydro 0.6 6% x % Other Renewables* % x % Nuclear 0.6 6% x % * Solar (thermal and photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, biomasse) The dilemma of the future energy mix

4 4 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March /10/2010 Key technologies for a low carbon energy system Source SET-Plan UE

5 5 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Total life cycle raw material requirements Source: Marheineke 2002

6 6 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Generations of nuclear power plants - Early prototype/ demo reactors - Shippingport - Dresden, Fermi I - Magnox Generation I - First demo of nuclear power on commercial scale - Close relationship with DOD - LWR dominates - LWR-PWR, BWR - CANDU - HTGR/AGR - VVER/RBMK Generation II - Multiple vendors - Custom designs - Size, costs, licensing times driven up - ABWR, System 80+, AP600, EPR Generation III - Passive safety features - Standardized designs - Combined license Generation IV - Highly economical - Proliferation resistant - Enhanced safety - Minimize waste Atoms for Peace TMI-2Chernobyl from van Heek Groningen Energy Convention 2005 Tsunami Japan

7 7 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Present Gen-II Nuclear Power Plants in Europe Worldwide: 440 NPP on grid 560 planned (170 sites)

8 8 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller From fuel to waste in a (typical) present Gen-II reactor

9 9 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Geologic time storage of spent fuel is heavily debated leakage in the biosphère ? expensive (1000 /kg), sites? (Yucca mountain would hold 0.07 Mio tons!!) public opposition Nuclear Waste from present LWR's (Light Water Reactors) is highly radiotoxic (10 8 Sv/ton) at the end of present- type nuclear deployment about 0.3 Mtons, or 3x10 13 Sv, compare to radiation workers limiting dose of 20mSv the initial radiotoxicity level of the mine is reached after more than 1 Mio years worldwide, at present 370 "1GW el equiv. LWR" produce 16% of the net electricity Nuclear energy makes 880 TWh/y (35% of EU's electricity), but PWR produce important amounts of high level waste

10 10 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller In the United States, the plan is/was to send all spent nuclear fuel to the In the United States, the plan is/was to send all spent nuclear fuel to the Yucca Mountain Repository. The challenge they are faced with is that new Yucca Mountain Repository. The challenge they are faced with is that new repositories will be needed as nuclear energy continues or grows. repositories will be needed as nuclear energy continues or grows. Legislatedc apacity 6-Lab Strategy MIT Study EIA 1.5% Growth Constant 100 GWe Secretarial Recommendation on second repository Spent Fuel (metric tons) Capacity based on limited exploration Year The Yucca Mountain Dilemma Yucca Mountain M. Capiello & G. Imel (ANL) (ICRS-10/RPS2004)

11 11 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller β-β- β-β- +n Z 245 Cm 241 Am 242 Am 242 Pu 243 Am 238 U 239 U 239 Np 239 Pu 240 Pu 241 Pu 246 Cm 247 Cm 248 Cm 249 Cm 249 Bk 249 Cf 250 Cf 251 Cf 252 Cf 242 Cm 243 Cm 244 Cm 244 Am 243 Pu 250 Bk +n AXAX AXAX Emitter Emitter Nuclear Reaction Flow in a PWR building up MA-waste

12 12 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller blue = neutron capture green = neutron-induced fission

13 13 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller l D 0 implies a source of neutrons is required, l whereas D < 0 implies excess neutron self-production Neutron consumption per fission ("D-factor") for thermal (red) and fast (blue) neutron spectra Sustainability = Fast Neutrons thermal neutron "make nuclear waste" and do not use the resource optimally

14 14 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Partitioning and Transmutation for GEN-II/III Partitioning: Separating out of spend fuel certain chemical elements Transmutation: Transforming a chemical element into another Advanced fuel cycles with P/T may greatly benefit to deep geological storage: – Reduction of radiotoxicity. – Reduction of the heat load larger amount of wastes can be stored in the same repository according to the PATEROS study a one-order-of-magnitude reduction in the needed repositories can be expected (a factor of 50 under optimum conditions)

15 15 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller ADS: Accelerator Driven (subcritical) System for transmutation Proton Beam Spallation Target accelerator Both critical (fast!!) reactors and sub-critical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. Critical reactors, however, loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose safety problems caused by unfavourable reactivity coefficients and small delayed neutron fraction. ADS operates flexible and safe at high transmutation rate (sub-criticality not virtue but necessity!)

16 16 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Faisceaux de protons requis 10 3 Abaques Courant/Energie/Sous-Criticité pour un démonstrateur de 80 MW therm (simulation par ANSALDO) Dépôt de puissance dans le Pb-Bi

17 17 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller 2006: Succes of the Megapie experiment at PSI

18 18 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller PDS-XADS Reference Accelerator Layout Strong R&D & construction programs for LINACs underway worldwide for many applications (Spallation Sources for Neutron Science, Radioactive Ions & Neutrino Beam Facilities, Irradiation Facilities)

19 19 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Accelerator main specifications Extrememely high reliability is required !!! High-power proton CW beams

20 20 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller An example of R&D Intermediate-energy RF structure started in FP6 EUROTRANS and continued in FP7 MAX Intermediate Energy Section (3/5 MeV -> 100 MeV) 2 main types of structures are evaluated -Multi-gap H structures (front end) -Superconducting spoke cavities (independently-phased linac)

21 21 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Testexperiment in Mol (B): GENEPI-3C coupled to VENUS-F GENEPI-3C Dipole VENUS-F core Accelerator control room Reactor control room Ventilation room Alex C. Mueller INAUGURATION By Belgian Gvt et High-level F Represetatives 4 March 2010!

22 22 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 GENEPI 3C Acelerator IN2P3-LPSC, March 2009 Alex C. Mueller

23 23 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 SCK-CEN MYRRHA MYRRHA

24 24 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 FREYA Expérience GUINEVERE SCKCEN CDT Design réacteur SCKCEN MAX Design accélérateur CNRS Expériences à basse puissance (monitoring sous-criticité...) Intéractions sur le design de la machine, notamment à linterface réacteur/accélérateur Feedbacks de lopération de laccélérateur Present R&D for Myrrha within FP7

25 25 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 FP7 CDT : The purpose Build on what has been accomplished up till now in the FP5, FP6 projects and national programmes projects related to this topic (starting from MYRRHA/XT-ADS) Obtain an advanced design of a flexible fast spectrum irradiation facility working in sub-critical mode (ADS) and critical mode Set up of a centralised multi-disciplinary team –Based at the Mol-site (core group) –Members from industry and research organisations Alex C. Mueller MYRRHA-D 2005 XT-ADS Myrrha 2009MYRRHA/FASTEF 2012

26 26 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 FP7: refining MYRRHA (1/2) To be operated as a flexible fast spectrum irradiation facility working in subcritical and critical mode allowing for: –fuel developments for innovative reactor systems; –material developments for GEN IV systems; –material developments for fusion reactors; –radioisotope production; –industrial applications, such as Si-doping; –To allow the study of the efficient transmutation of high- level nuclear waste (MA) requesting high fast flux intensity (Φ >0.75MeV = n.cm -2.s -1 ); Alex C. Mueller

27 27 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 FP7: refined MYRRHA objectives (2/2) To demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator; To contribute to the demonstration of LBE technology and to demonstrate the critical mode operation of a heavy liquid metal cooled reactor as an alternative technology to SFR Alex C. Mueller

28 28 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller On March 5, 2010 the Belgian government decided the funding of the MYRRHA at a level of 40% of the total cost of the project with a first budget release of 60 M for the period aiming at: completing the front-end engineering design (FEED) of the project, securing the licensing of the project obtaining the construction permit establishing the international consortium The main next milestones of the project are as follows: : Completion of Front End Engineering Design 2014 :Obtaining the construction permit 2014 : Consolidation of the international consortium 2015 : Tendering and contract awarding :Construction of components and civil engineering 2019 : On-site assembly :Commissioning 2023 :Progressive start-up 2024 :Full power operation The Roadmap for MYRRHA

29 29 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Main features of the ADS demo MWth power k eff around MeV, mA proton beam Highly-enriched MOX fuel Pb-Bi Eutectic coolant & target ADS Demonstrator = MYRRHA

30 30 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Agenda européen pour le développement des démonstrateurs de réacteurs de 4 ème génération MYRRHA and Gen-IV: a LFR demonstrator

31 31 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Laccélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

32 32 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Laccélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

33 33 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Laccélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

34 34 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 La ligne de faisceau finale Ligne de faisceau en cours de conception (CNRS, projet CDT) Triple déviation achromatique & télescopique Robotisée dans le hall réacteur Arrêt faisceau 2.4 MW Balayage cible Diagnostics faisceau Distributio n faisceau sur cible

35 35 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Trois cibles de spallation P = 3 GW th I tot ~ 100 mA K eff ~ 0.98 Barres de commandes à étudier 165 cm 235 cm 100 cm faisceau de protons 1 GeV Assemblage Crayon Assemblage commande Réflecteur Combustible Cible de spallation Assemblage commande From Tholière et al.: MUST : MUltiple Spallation Target ADS

36 36 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March Barres de commandes trop importantes - Chute du flux au delà des cibles - Nappe de puissance aplatie « dans » les cibles cible spallation cible spallation … Energie moyenne : peu de différences… Exploitation du flux rapide ? Flux radiaux avec 3 cibles (from Guertin et al.) Neutron fllux (a.u.) Energie (MeV) Assemblage

37 37 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Quatre cibles de spallation P = 3 GW th I tot ~ 100 mA K eff ~ 0.98 Barres de commandes à inclure Le flux de neutrons est distribué de façon plus homogène dans le cœur sous- critique Concept MUST à 4 cibles Neutron fllux (a.u.) Assembly Number

38 38 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Strate électrogène RNR-MOX : Puissance totale = 63.8 GW e Nombre dunités = 44 réacteurs de 1.45 GW e M Np = 4.6 kg/GWe.an M Am = 34.6 kg/GWe.an M Cm = 1.21 kg/GWe.an M A.M. = kg/GWe.an Flux dactinides mineurs : 2578 kg/an Ordres de grandeurs à léquilibre Strate incinératrice ADS : Puissance unitaire = 3 GW th Taux de disparition dactinides mineurs : 1319 kg/an 2 ADS pour y parvenir 1kg dAM : P = 2.5 MWth 2.2 ADS 1.01 t1.57 tCm 0.97 t8.51 tAm 0.02 t1.15 tNp Masse à t final Masse à t = 0 an Atomes Application dACDC #1 - Durée de cycle = 7 ans - Multi-recyclé : 237 Np, - Durée de refroidissement = ans 241 Am, 243 Am - Composition initiale : A.M. sortie RNR/MOX 242 Cm, 244 Cm

39 39 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Ordres de grandeurs à léquilibre Application dACDC #2 - Durée de cycle = 7 ans - Multi-recyclé : 237 Np, - Durée de refroidissement = ans 241 Am, 242* Am, 243 Am, - Composition initiale : A.M. sortie REP/UOX 243 Cm, 244 Cm, 245 Cm, 246 Cm, 247 Cm Strate électrogène REP-UOX : Puissance totale = 63 GW e Nombre dunités = 49 réacteurs de ~1.3 GW e M Np = 1.83 kg/TWhé 1008 kg/an M Am = 7.25 kg/TWhé 4001 kg/an M Cm = 1.25 kg/TWhé 690 kg/an Flux dactinides mineurs : 5699 kg/an 4.6 ADS pour y parvenir 1kg dAM : P = 2.5 MW th 4.7 ADS Strate incinératrice ADS : Puissance unitaire = 3 GW th Taux de disparition dactinides mineurs : 1246 kg/an 1.33 t2.86 tCm 5.93 t6.82 tAm 1.46 t1.64 tNp Masse à t final Masse à t = 0 an Atomes

40 40 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Once-through vs.Transmutation

41 41 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller EUROPART-IP EUROTRANS-IP DM1 DESIGN DM2 ECATS DM3 AFTRA DM4 DEMETRA DM5 NUDATRA FP6 CDT MAX FREYA ACSEPT ANDES FAIRFUELS F-BRIDGE PERFORM 60 GETMAT FP7 ADOPT Network Partitioning Cluster Transmutation R&D Clusters PARTITION - PYROREP - PARTNEW - CALIXPART PDS-XADS - MUSE - HINDAS - nTOF_ND_ADS - FUTURE - CONFIRM - THORIUM CYCLE - ASCHLIM - MEGAPIE-TEST - TECLA - SPIRE BASTRA FUETRA TESTRA FP5 FP 5,6,7 R&D clusters on Partitioning and Transmutation

42 42 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. Mueller Concluding Remarks Phasing out of fossile fuel needs to be done in a sustainable way Nuclear Power likely (?) to increase by factor 2-5 worldwide (possible influence from Japan Tsunami???) Waste from present (Gen-2), and now-installed (Gen-3) can be adressed by dedicated transmutation systems (ADS) (fast) Gen-4 concepts "self-incinerate" their waste. ADS for taking care of GEN-II/III legacy good progress for a european ADS demonstrator Gen-4 molten salt reactor with Thorium produces much less waste


Télécharger ppt "1 DPG Tagung, AKE, Dresden, 14 March 2011 Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) Kernreaktoren: Status und Perspektiven DPG Frühjahrstagung."

Présentations similaires


Annonces Google