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Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director

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Présentation au sujet: "Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director"— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Alex C. MUELLER Deputy Director
ADS (Accelerator-Driven System) Kernreaktoren: Status und Perspektiven DPG Frühjahrstagung 2011, AKE Sitzung

2 2005 World Energy Flow Diagram
Rejected Energy 229EJ Primary Energy Useful Energy 461 EJ 232EJ Source: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory chart figures in quads – 1 quad=1.05 EJ 30/10/2010

3 The dilemma of the future energy mix
Hypothese for 2050 Energy consumption will only increase by a foctor of 2 (energy economies !!) CO2 emissions will be reduced by a factor of 2 Consommation ~10 Gtep (% de 10 Gtep) Gtep (% de 20 Gtep) Fossiles % : % Bio & Waste % x % Hydro % x % Other Renewables* % x % Nuclear % x % *Solar (thermal and photovoltaic, wind, geothermal, biomasse)

4 Key technologies for a low carbon energy system
Source SET-Plan UE 30/10/2010

5 Total life cycle raw material requirements
Source: Marheineke 2002

6 Generations of nuclear power plants
Early prototype/ demo reactors Shippingport Dresden, Fermi I Magnox Generation I First demo of nuclear power on commercial scale Close relationship with DOD LWR dominates from van Heek Groningen Energy Convention 2005 LWR-PWR, BWR CANDU HTGR/AGR VVER/RBMK Generation II Multiple vendors Custom designs Size, costs, licensing times driven up Generation III ABWR, System 80+, AP600, EPR Generation IV Highly economical Proliferation resistant Enhanced safety Minimize waste Passive safety features Standardized designs Combined license Atoms for Peace TMI-2 Chernobyl Tsunami Japan 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

7 Present Gen-II Nuclear Power Plants in Europe
Worldwide: 440 NPP on grid 560 planned (170 sites)

8 From fuel to waste in a (typical) present Gen-II reactor

9 Geologic time storage of spent fuel is heavily debated
Nuclear energy makes 880 TWh/y (35% of EU's electricity), but PWR produce important amounts of high level waste Nuclear Waste from present LWR's (Light Water Reactors) is highly radiotoxic (108 Sv/ton) at the end of present- type nuclear deployment about 0.3 Mtons, or 3x1013 Sv, compare to radiation workers limiting dose of 20mSv the initial radiotoxicity level of the mine is reached after more than 1 Mio years worldwide, at present 370 "1GWel equiv. LWR" produce 16% of the net electricity Geologic time storage of spent fuel is heavily debated leakage in the biosphère ? expensive (1000 €/kg), sites? (Yucca mountain would hold 0.07 Mio tons!!) public opposition

10 The Yucca Mountain Dilemma
In the United States, the plan is/was to send all spent nuclear fuel to the Yucca Mountain Repository. The challenge they are faced with is that new repositories will be needed as nuclear energy continues or grows. Yucca Mountain M. Capiello & G. Imel (ANL) (ICRS-10/RPS2004) EIA 1.5% Growth MIT Study 6-Lab Strategy Spent Fuel (metric tons) Secretarial Recommendation on second repository Constant 100 GWe Year Capacity based on limited exploration Legislatedcapacity

11 Nuclear Reaction Flow in a PWR building up MA-waste
β- +n Z 245Cm 241Am 242Am 242Pu 243Am 238U 239U 239Np 239Pu 240Pu 241Pu 246Cm 247Cm 248Cm 249Cm 249Bk 249Cf 250Cf 251Cf 252Cf 242Cm 243Cm 244Cm 244Am 243Pu 250Bk AX a Emitter b Emitter

12 green = neutron-induced fission
blue = neutron capture green = neutron-induced fission

13 Sustainability = Fast Neutrons
Neutron consumption per fission ("D-factor") for thermal (red) and fast (blue) neutron spectra -3 -2,5 -2 -1,5 -1 -0,5 0,5 1 1,5 2 Np237 D(TRU) U238 Pu238 Pu239 Pu240 Pu241 Pu242 Am242 Am243 Cm244 Cm245 D(Pu) D  0 implies a source of neutrons is required, whereas D < 0 implies excess neutron self-production thermal neutron "make nuclear waste" and do not use the resource optimally Sustainability = Fast Neutrons

14 Partitioning and Transmutation for GEN-II/III
Separating out of spend fuel certain chemical elements Transmutation: Transforming a chemical element into another Advanced fuel cycles with P/T may greatly benefit to deep geological storage: Reduction of radiotoxicity. Reduction of the heat load larger amount of wastes can be stored in the same repository according to the PATEROS study a “one-order-of-magnitude” reduction in the needed repositories can be expected (a factor of 50 under optimum conditions)

15 ADS: Accelerator Driven (subcritical) System for transmutation
Both critical (fast!!) reactors and sub-critical Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are potential candidates as dedicated transmutation systems. Critical reactors, however, loaded with fuel containing large amounts of MA pose safety problems caused by unfavourable reactivity coefficients and small delayed neutron fraction. ADS operates flexible and safe at high transmutation rate (sub-criticality not virtue but necessity!) Proton Beam Spallation Target accelerator

16 Faisceaux de protons requis
Abaques Courant/Energie/Sous-Criticité pour un démonstrateur de 80 MWtherm (simulation par ANSALDO) 3 10 Dépôt de puissance dans le Pb-Bi

17 2006: Succes of the Megapie experiment at PSI

18 PDS-XADS Reference Accelerator Layout
Strong R&D & construction programs for LINACs underway worldwide for many applications (Spallation Sources for Neutron Science, Radioactive Ions & Neutrino Beam Facilities, Irradiation Facilities)

19 Accelerator main specifications
High-power proton CW beams Extrememely high reliability is required !!!

20 Intermediate Energy Section (3/5 MeV -> 100 MeV)
An example of R&D Intermediate-energy RF structure started in FP6 EUROTRANS and continued in FP7 MAX Intermediate Energy Section (3/5 MeV -> 100 MeV) 2 main types of structures are evaluated Multi-gap H structures (front end) Superconducting spoke cavities (independently-phased linac)

21 Testexperiment in Mol (B): GENEPI-3C coupled to VENUS-F
INAUGURATION By Belgian Gvt et High-level F Represetatives 4 March 2010! GENEPI-3C Ventilation room Dipole Accelerator control room Reactor control room VENUS-F core

22 GENEPI 3C Acelerator IN2P3-LPSC, March 2009


24 CDT FREYA MAX Present R&D for Myrrha within FP7 Design réacteur
Expériences à basse puissance (monitoring sous-criticité...) CDT Design réacteur SCK●CEN FREYA Expérience GUINEVERE SCK●CEN Intéractions sur le design de la machine, notamment à l’interface réacteur/accélérateur Feedbacks de l’opération de l’accélérateur MAX Design accélérateur CNRS

25 FP7 CDT : The purpose Build on what has been accomplished up till now in the FP5, FP6 projects and national programmes projects related to this topic (starting from MYRRHA/XT-ADS) Obtain an advanced design of a flexible fast spectrum irradiation facility working in sub-critical mode (ADS) and critical mode Set up of a centralised multi-disciplinary team Based at the Mol-site (core group) Members from industry and research organisations MYRRHA-D 2005 XT-ADS Myrrha 2009 MYRRHA/FASTEF 2012

26 FP7: refining MYRRHA (1/2)
To be operated as a flexible fast spectrum irradiation facility working in subcritical and critical mode allowing for: fuel developments for innovative reactor systems; material developments for GEN IV systems; material developments for fusion reactors; radioisotope production; industrial applications, such as Si-doping; To allow the study of the efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste (MA) requesting high fast flux intensity (Φ>0.75MeV = 1015;

27 FP7: refined MYRRHA objectives (2/2)
To demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and sub-critical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator; To contribute to the demonstration of LBE technology and to demonstrate the critical mode operation of a heavy liquid metal cooled reactor as an alternative technology to SFR

28 The Roadmap for MYRRHA On March 5, 2010 the Belgian government decided the funding of the MYRRHA at a level of 40% of the total cost of the project with a first budget release of 60 M€ for the period aiming at: completing the front-end engineering design (FEED) of the project, securing the licensing of the project obtaining the construction permit establishing the international consortium The main next milestones of the project are as follows: : Completion of Front End Engineering Design 2014 : Obtaining the construction permit 2014 : Consolidation of the international consortium 2015 : Tendering and contract awarding : Construction of components and civil engineering 2019 : On-site assembly : Commissioning 2023 : Progressive start-up 2024 : Full power operation

29 ADS Demonstrator = MYRRHA
Main features of the ADS demo MWth power keff around 0.95 600 MeV, mA proton beam Highly-enriched MOX fuel Pb-Bi Eutectic coolant & target

30 MYRRHA and Gen-IV: a LFR demonstrator
Agenda européen pour le développement des démonstrateurs de réacteurs de 4ème génération

31 L’accélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

32 L’accélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

33 L’accélérateur linéaire de MYRRHA

34 La ligne de faisceau finale
Ligne de faisceau en cours de conception (CNRS, projet CDT) Triple déviation achromatique & télescopique Robotisée dans le hall réacteur Arrêt faisceau 2.4 MW Balayage cible Diagnostics faisceau Distribution faisceau sur cible

35 faisceau de protons 1 GeV
From Tholière et al.: MUST : MUltiple Spallation Target ADS 165 cm 235 cm 100 cm faisceau de protons 1 GeV  Trois cibles de spallation  P = 3 GWth  Itot ~ 100 mA  Keff ~ 0.98 Barres de commandes à étudier Réflecteur Combustible Cible de spallation Assemblage commande Crayon Assemblage Assemblage commande

36 Nappe de puissance aplatie Exploitation du flux rapide ?
Flux radiaux avec 3 cibles (from Guertin et al.) cible spallation cible spallation Barres de commandes trop importantes Chute du flux au delà des cibles Nappe de puissance aplatie « dans » les cibles Neutron fllux (a.u.) Assemblage Neutron fllux (a.u.) 1 2 3 … Energie moyenne : peu de différences… Exploitation du flux rapide ? Energie (MeV)

37 Concept MUST à 4 cibles  Quatre cibles de spallation  P = 3 GWth
 Itot ~ 100 mA  Keff ~ 0.98 Barres de commandes à inclure Neutron fllux (a.u.) 2 4 6 8 1 Assembly Number Le flux de neutrons est distribué de façon plus homogène dans le cœur sous- critique

38 Ordres de grandeurs à l’équilibre
Application d’ACDC #1 - Durée de cycle = 7 ans Multi-recyclé : 237Np, - Durée de refroidissement = ans Am, 243Am - Composition initiale : A.M. sortie RNR/MOX 242Cm, 244Cm Strate incinératrice ADS : Puissance unitaire = 3 GWth Taux de disparition d’actinides mineurs : 1319 kg/an  2 ADS pour y parvenir 1kg d’AM : P = 2.5 MWth  2.2 ADS 1.01 t 1.57 t Cm 0.97 t 8.51 t Am 0.02 t 1.15 t Np Masse à t final Masse à t = 0 an Atomes Strate électrogène RNR-MOX : Puissance totale = 63.8 GWe Nombre d’unités = 44 réacteurs de 1.45 GWe MNp = 4.6 kg/ MAm = 34.6 kg/ MCm = 1.21 kg/  M A.M. = kg/ Flux d’actinides mineurs :  2578 kg/an

39 Ordres de grandeurs à l’équilibre
Application d’ACDC #2 - Durée de cycle = 7 ans Multi-recyclé : 237Np, - Durée de refroidissement = ans 241Am, 242*Am, 243Am, - Composition initiale : A.M. sortie REP/UOX Cm, 244Cm, 245Cm, 246Cm, 247Cm  4.6 ADS pour y parvenir 1kg d’AM : P = 2.5 MWth  4.7 ADS Strate incinératrice ADS : Puissance unitaire = 3 GWth Taux de disparition d’actinides mineurs : 1246 kg/an 1.33 t 2.86 t Cm 5.93 t 6.82 t Am 1.46 t 1.64 t Np ∆Masse à t final Masse à t = 0 an Atomes Strate électrogène REP-UOX : Puissance totale = 63 GWe Nombre d’unités = 49 réacteurs de ~1.3 GWe MNp = 1.83 kg/TWhé  1008 kg/an MAm = 7.25 kg/TWhé  4001 kg/an MCm = 1.25 kg/TWhé  690 kg/an Flux d’actinides mineurs :  kg/an

40 Once-through vs.Transmutation

41 FP 5,6,7 R&D clusters on Partitioning and Transmutation

42 Concluding Remarks Phasing out of fossile fuel needs to be done in a sustainable way Nuclear Power likely (?) to increase by factor 2-5 worldwide (possible influence from Japan Tsunami???) Waste from present (Gen-2), and now-installed (Gen-3) can be adressed by dedicated transmutation systems (ADS) (fast) Gen-4 concepts "self-incinerate" their waste. ADS for taking care of GEN-II/III legacy good progress for a european ADS demonstrator Gen-4 molten salt reactor with Thorium produces much less waste

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