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Introduction aux guides pratiques du PFUA sur la gestion des frontières en Afrique Supported by:

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1 Introduction aux guides pratiques du PFUA sur la gestion des frontières en Afrique
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2 Objectifs des guides du PFUA
Sensibiliser, transmettre des connaissances et populariser le sujet de la gestion des frontières Inspirer et guider des acteurs concernés dans les processus clés de la gestion des frontières Partager et reproduire les meilleures pratiques Renforcer la coopération The guidebooks serve as critical instruments to: To avail knowledge based on actual experiences of the AUBP with Member States and stakeholders involved in the management of border issues To inspire and guide relevant actors on key border management processes To share and replicate best practices To strengthen cooperation in the area of African border management between AU Member States and universities and research/training centres with the overall long-term objective to create sustainable African support networks which promote, enhance and add expertise to the implementation of border management in general, among others through delimitation, demarcation and reaffirmation, as well as through peaceful cross-border cooperation and regional integration. Image:

3 Universités, instituts de recherche/ de formation
Valeur ajoutée Combler les lacunes de la recherche et du discours africain: “Les frontières ne sont plus un tabou” Universités, instituts de recherche/ de formation Etats Membres de l’UA/ CER PFUA transdisciplinarité: des sujets politiques, juridiques, socio-économiques, techniques, scientifiques Usage multidimensionnel: décideurs, praticiens, parties prenantes, étudiants, stagiaires Pertinence réelle: les guides sont basés sur les expériences du travail sur le terrain

4 Implementation of Policies
Des barrières aux passerelles : Recueil des textes relatif aux frontières en Afrique Des documents avec une pertinence pour la gestion des frontières au niveau de l‘UA, offrant des textes de référence sur les fondements historiques et juridiques du PFUA ainsi que sur son implémentation pratique. La vision et la mission du PFUA Les instruments fondateurs Cadre juridique La mise en œuvre des politiques Objectifs stratégiques et marches à suivre This volume assembles official documents issued at the AU-level with a relevance for border management. It features historical founding instruments and legal frameworks of the AUBP (declarations, decisions, policies, reports, communiqués, etc.) and records the AUBP’s practical implementation. In this vein, the publication serves as crucial reference material for exploring the history, mandate, political framework and operation modalities of border management generated in the AU context, but implicating the continental, regional, national as well as local levels of stakeholders. The structure of the book is divided up into: .... Containing, for example... Founding Instruments, e.g.: Charter of the OAU, Addis Ababa, May 1963 Resolution AHG/Res. 16(1) on Border Disputes between African States, Cairo, July 1964: the Principle of “respect [for] the borders existing on the achievement of national independence” Establishment of an OAU Boundaries Commission, Abuja, May/June 1991 with, as primary objective, a continental border regime “in which boundary issues would be depoliticised and treated as a purely technical subject” Legal Frameworks, e.g.: Memorandum of Understanding on Security, Stability and Development in Africa, Durban, July 2002 (based on CSSDCA and NEPAD) Commitment to conclude delimitation and demarcation of African borders by 2012; deadline extended to 2017 at AU Ordinary Summit, Malabo, July 2011 Declaration on the AUBP and its Implementation Modalities. First Conference of African Ministers in Charge of Border Issues, Addis Ababa, June 2007 “a new form of pragmatic border management, aimed at promoting peace, security and stability but also facilitating the integration process and sustainable development in Africa” AU Convention on Cross-Border Cooperation (Niamey Convention), EX.CL/726 (XXI) Annex III, May 2012 Based on Second (Addis Ababa, March 2010) and Third (Niamey, May 2012) Declaration on the AUBP Legal foundation for effective cross-border cooperation in Africa , “necessary for the transformation of border areas into zones of trade and cooperation” Implementation of Policies reports, communiqués and conclusions, e.g.: Theoretical backgrounds, preparations for Ministerial Conferences, international seminars and workshops Status of implementation of AUBP: pan-African Survey of Borders, AU Boundary Information System, sensitisation, popularisation and outreach, partnership and resource mobilisation ©African Union Commission/AUBP, May 2013; 186 pages (English); 198 pages (French)

5 Délimitation et démarcation des frontières en Afrique: Le guide de l’utilisateur
Un guide pratique pour assister les États membres de l’Union Africaine, les praticiens et des autres parties prenantes étape par étape dans le processus de délimitation, démarcation et réaffirmation. Perspectives africaines sur les frontières Délimitation et démarcation: étape par étape Maintenance des frontières Graphiques et études de cas utiles en annexes This practical guide aims to assist AU Member States, practitioners and relevant stakeholders in the process of delimitation, demarcation and reaffirmation – from legal aspects and negotiation frameworks to the technical implantation of boundary pillars on the ground. The book contains the following sections... Boundaries: The African Perspective Principles governing boundary-making and border management in Africa The political context Delimitation of Boundaries: Step-by-Step National-level and bilateral preparations for boundary talks Negotiation processes Drafting and entry into force of boundary treaties Demarcation of Boundaries: Step-by-Step Preparatory steps: Political consensus, institutional framework, financial resources Personnel training, legal and technical data collection for recovery of boundary line, work plans and technical guidelines, field work, surveying, erection of boundary pillars, reporting and documentation Sensitisation of border communities Demarcation Treaty and Maintenance of Boundaries Boundary management (e.g. cross-border natural resources) Boundary maintenance (e.g. repair and substitution of boundary pillars) Cross-border cooperation © African Union Commission/AUBP, May 2013; 83 pages (English); 87 pages (French)

6 Création et fonctionnement des commissions des frontières en Afrique: Le guide de l’utilisateur
Un guide pratique pour assister les autorités chargées des questions frontalières dans la création des commissions des frontières (nationales ou bilatérales/mixtes) Concepts juridiques internationaux pertinents pour les commissions des frontières Création des commissions des frontières Responsabilité des commissions des frontières Recommandations pour le bon fonctionnement des commissions des frontières This guide seeks to support African States in creating national as well as bilateral / mixed boundary commissions that are able to respond to problems linked to the definition of borders, to sustainably prevent conflict and to encourage cross-border cooperation. Boundary commissions are a crucial factor in the development of border zones. The guide outlines the international legal concepts that constitute the framework of a boundary commission’s work. It explores the procedures of how to create a commission, including the general context of its operation, different types of structure and mandates. The guide concludes with recommendations for good practice in the work of national and mixed boundary commissions. ©African Union Commission / AUBP, May 2013; 55 pages (English); 57 pages (French)

7 Réalisation d’une infrastructure transfrontalière de service de base – le guide de l’utilisateur
Guide pratique pour assister les États membres de l’UA et autres parties prenantes dans le processus de mise en place d’une infrastructure transfrontalière avec le but de renforcer la coopération locale et la coexistence paisible des populations frontalières. Aperçu: objectifs du PFUA dans le domaine de la coopération transfrontalière Modèle de stratégie: 5 phases d’implémentation du Centre de Santé Transfrontalier (Burkina Faso / Mali) Directives pour le suivi et l’évaluation This guide depicts the experience of implementing a cross-border basic service infrastructure in the health sector for Burkina Faso and Mali in West Africa. The Cross-Border Health Centre, jointly set-up and used by the border villages Ouarokuy (Burkina Faso) and Wanian (Mali), emerged as an initiative of the African Union Border Programme supporting the two States’ administrations. The guide outlines the various steps of the project: the initiation and preparation, the institutional set-up, constructing and equipping the infrastructure, the growing self-reliance of the actors and the monitoring of the project. As such, this publication serves governments, national institutions, local administrations and partnering border authorities, as well as other actors in the field. The reader will find a suggested method and various tools for the implementation of such a project, as well as a detailed glossary and examples of local conventions. Hence, this innovative guide contributes to the development of similar cross-border projects on the African continent. Structure Foreword by the AUC Summary of the objectives of the AUBP in the area of CBC Five phases of the project implementation of a cross-border basic service infrastructure Monitoring and evaluation of the project Annexes: various templates of technical forms and monitoring sheets. ©African Union Commission/AUBP, forthcoming

8 Délimitation et démarcation des frontières en Afrique: Considérations générales et études de cas
Un aperçu pluridimensionnel sur les questions générales de la gestion des frontières, offrant des expériences de quatre cas d’ étude africains. Frontières et création des frontières: aspects (socio-)politiques, juridiques et techniques Études de cas africaines Lexique sur les frontières Annexes: normes de précision des cartes, décisions des tribunaux judiciaires récentes, etc. This Guidebook, containing contributions from several experts is the most extensive volume in the book series covering a wide range of border management aspects from the socio-political to the practical realms. – e.g. from the foundational "Imperative of Boundary Delimitation and Demarcation”, to technical aspects, such as “Managing Border Information Systems”, to socio-political concerns, such as “The Factor of Local Affected Populations”. Four case studies emphasise recent practices and the concrete experiences made during the delimitation and demarcation of borders in different regions of the African continent (Algeria, Mali and Burkina Faso, Nigeria and Cameroon, Mozambique). The book moreover contains a number of useful graphs, images, examples of technical forms and tables, as well as a lexicon explaining the terminology of boundary-making, and theoretical appendices, e.g. on map accuracy standards. In sum, the message of the book is that based on the experiences of the authors, any legal, technical or political problem encountered in boundary delimitation and demarcation can be overcome if states are willing to seek equitable and practical solutions. Even more directly, the very exercise of boundary delimitation and demarcation opens up dialogue between officials in neighbouring states, facilitating more open and comfortable relationships. Approaching boundaries as a shared responsibility rather than as a matter of contestation, builds the foundation for continuous cooperation between neighbouring administrations in all aspects of border management. ©African Union Commission/AUBP, October 2013; 292 pages (English), 318 pages (French)

9 Résolution des conflits frontaliers en Afrique
Quelles institutions africaines et internationales les États membres de l’Union Africaine peuvent-ils consulter en cas de différends frontaliers? Comment accéder à ces institutions? Quelles sont les alternatives? Exemples et cas d’études qui illustrent des méthodes différentes de règlement des litiges transfrontaliers. [Publication en 2014] This guidebook is currently under production and will be published in 2014.

10 Les guides sont disponibles gratuitement sur le site du PFUA
(en anglais et français): MERCI commentaires, questions, discussion -

11 Aperçu des publication
Publications disponibles en ligne Des barrières aux passerelles: Recueil des textes officiels relatifs aux frontières en Afrique de 1963 à 2012 Délimitation et démarcation des frontières en Afrique: Le guide de l’utilisateur Création et fonctionnement des commissions des frontiéres en Afrique: Le guide de l’utilisateur Délimitation et démarcation des frontières en Afrique: Considérations générales et études de cas A venir Réalisation d’une infrastructure transfrontalière de service de base: Le guide de l’utilisateur [2013] Résolution des conflits frontaliers en Afrique: Le guide de l’utilisateur [2014]

12 Contexte: Programme Frontières de l’Union Africaine
Cadre juridique du PFUA adopté par les Ministres africains chargés des questions frontalières Première Déclaration sur le Programme Frontières de l’Union Africaine et ses modes d’implémentation, Addis-Abeba (Ethiopie), 7 Juin 2007, BP/MIN/Decl.(II) Deuxième Déclaration sur le Programme Frontières de l’Union Africaine et ses modalités pour la poursuivi et accélération de son implémentation, Addis-Abeba (Ethiopie), 25 Mars 2010, AUBP/EXP-MIN/7(II) Troisième Déclaration sur le Programme Frontière de l’Union Africaine, Niamey (Niger), 17 Mai 2012, AUBP/EXP-MIN 7(V) In 2007, the African Ministers in Charge of Border Issues encouraged the Commission of the AU to enhance the pursuit of the structural prevention of conflicts on the African continent, based on earlier discussions, e.g. during the Conference on Security, Stability and Development, held in Durban in It is within this context that the AUBP was created under the First Declaration on this Programme and its Implementation Modalities on 7 June The AUBP’s mandate was reaffirmed and endorsed in 2010 through the Second Declaration. During the Third Conference of African Ministers in Charge of Border Issues, held in May 2012, the status of implementation of the AUBP was reviewed and a continued and intensified commitment to the principles of the AUBP was agreed upon. Aside from the Third Declaration on the AUBP, the Niamey Conference in 2012 also resulted in the AU Convention on Cross-Border Cooperation to promote peace, stability and integration, and to deepen the unity of the Continent.

13 Contexte: Programme Frontieres de l’Union Africaine
Mandat du PFUA Assister aux Etats membres dans la délimitation, la démarcation et la réaffirmation de leurs frontières Encourager et soutenir les activités de coopération transfrontalière Consolider et renforcer les gains faits pendant le processus de l’intégration régionale Faciliter le développement des dynamiques de l’intégration transfrontalière Développer des compétences dans le domaine de la gestion des frontières sur le continent africain Based on the Three Declarations on the AUBP and the related Decisions and Conventions, the overall mandate of the Programme can be summarised as follows by highlighting the main objectives to: ... In the context of the capacity building aspect, the AUBP has now achieved a significant milestone through the ongoing publication of its practical guidebooks, available in English and in French, each of which addresses a different area of the complex border management process.

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