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Lesson 9 Terminology and lexicography M1 2009. Summary Lexicography –Status, development –Metalexicography Terminology –Status, development.

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Présentation au sujet: "Lesson 9 Terminology and lexicography M1 2009. Summary Lexicography –Status, development –Metalexicography Terminology –Status, development."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Lesson 9 Terminology and lexicography M1 2009

2 Summary Lexicography –Status, development –Metalexicography Terminology –Status, development

3 Lexicography and terminology Lexicography –a long-established craft of writing dictionaries –a more recent academic discipline teaching students to make dictionaries analysing existing dictionaries (metalexicography) Terminology –a relatively new field exploring specialised vocabulary –using documentation (corpora), IT, conceptology…

4 Status of lexicography has a congress –Euralex has a journal –International Journal of Lexicography has an encyclopaedia –Wörterbücher/ Dictionnaries/Dictionnaires (1989, 1999) recognized as a field even in English-speaking universities

5 Elements of metalexicography Dictionaries can be classified by –number of languages monolingual bilingual multilingual –finality encoding decoding –Cf. prescriptive and descriptive dictionaries

6 comparing monolingual dictionaries –Macrostructure nomenclature –choice –order cross-referencing front/back material –Microstructure headword grammatical information definition etc. bilingual dictionaries –Macrostructure nomenclature –choice –order cross-referencing front/back material –Microstructure headword grammatical information equivalent etc.

7 comparing decoding dictionaries large reference dictionaries nomeclature : very large encoding dictionaries selected vocabulary often restricted metalanguage contextual, combinatory dictionaries learner dictionaries

8 comparing prescriptive dictionaries Language as it ought to be –Dictionnaire de lAcadémie française Literary model –Encarta No swear words, no vulgarity… descriptive dictionaries Language as it is but how can this be determined? –Use of a comprehensive corpus

9 Basic methods in lexicography: decontextualisation The most typical form of words is taken, representing all variations –this form is culturally determined –It is supposed to be usable in a variety of contexts in particular : –lemmatisation of the headword e.g. tread is the headword for trod or trodden entry for kith, though it is only found in kith and kin

10 Determining the nomenclature lemmatisation –desinential variation is resumed in a traditional form –verbs are entered in the present infinitive headwords –usually graphically distinct words but, cf. French chemin de fer, pomme de terre… order of lems : alphabetical or onomasiological ordering into macro and micro structure –grouping and splitting

11 Medium : paper or electronic? slow change –initially only the medium changed, the structure remained constant –enhanced search facilities can find all slang words, all words borrowed from Russian… large dictionaries follow the example of encyclopedias –all electronic on line dictionaries CD-ROM dictionaries

12 migration to electronic Adapting to the format Revising ideas of presentation decontextualisation headword definition

13 trends more emphasis on lexicography –(preparing lexical data bases) less on dictionarics –(compiling dictionaries) (B. Quemada) – mechanisation of dictionary makers

14 The changing corpus A tried and true method, transformed by IT –Corpus of prescriptive and heritage dictionaries: great writers –Systematized in nineteenth century Littré : Littré and his family Oxford English Dictionary : James Murray (cf. Surgeon of Crowdace) –enlist volunteers Disadvantage of the manual corpus –salience (cognitive salience Hanks 2000) takes precedence over frequency e.g. kick the bucket in fact almost absent from large samples of authentic English - supplemented by consulting previous dictionaries: Sue Atkins : introspection at one remove.

15 Electronic corpora Most English language dictionaries based on electronic corpus statistically valid representation of a language sample –but the results reflect the sample e.g. downsizing: R. Moon first found in business context, but had been used for 10 years by IT specialists, in publications not analysed by linguists (LSP)

16 English… and the rest Difference between English and almost all other languages –English : large (often very large) corpora readily and often freely available Bank of English : 524 million words in 2007 –other languages : small corpora, difficult (and expensive) to access On what corpus is Le Petit Larousse illustré based?

17 Lexicography as an outcome of corpus linguistics lexicography has come closer to linguistics The most significant difference, I believe, between the 1967 lexicography and that of today is that in the interval my approach to lexicography has benefited from the insights of linguistics […] Linguistic theory, particularly recent work in lexical semantics, can light the way to better lexicography. (Atkins 2002 : 25)

18 Advances in semantics Different schools –Frame semantics –Prototype theory Dealing with polysemy –Using prototypes : core meaning (typical) Do we still need definitions? Or can well-chosen contexts (i.e. attestations, quotations) do the trick?

19 Recontextualising the definition corpus based, context sensitive blow /…./, blows, blowing, blew, blown. 1 When a wind, breeze, or draught blows, the air moves. eg There seemed to be a gale blowing all the time… The winds had been steadily blowing from the west. […] Collins COBUILD Dictionary 1987 corpus based, more traditional blow v. (past blew; past part. blown) 1 (of wind) move creating an air current. be carried or driven by the wind. […] Concise Oxford Dictionary 2001

20 Trends in lexicography less distinction made between grammar and lexis computational linguistics, corpus linguistics synchronic outlook (etymology is less often given? do we need dictionaries of neologisms,when dictionaries are constantly updated ?

21 Development of dictionary studies EURALEX (Barcelona July 2008) Towards a theory of lexicography ? –Wiegand : functions –Bergenholtz : user-orientated Differences between general lexicography, specialised lexicography, monolingual/bilingual encyclopaedias are less important.

22 and… what about terminology ? –Is it just specialised lexicography ?

23 Terminology depends on its finality Terminology and artificial intelligence Terminology and ontology Terminology and translation Terminology and cultural neology Terminology and automatic language processing Terminology and standardization Terminology and knowledge engineering Terminology and language planning Terminology and documentation Terminology and lexicography …

24 Classical terminology theory (after Wüster, Béjoint) based on the founding principle of the concept –universal conceptology as basis of specialized knowledge onomasiological approach - starting from the concept –technique of the tree diagramme aim of univocity : unambiguous scientific and technical communication need for standardization: keeping concepts defined and unambiguous –therefore no need to worry about syntax – the syntagmatic axis is irrelevant vision of semantics : the necessary and sufficient conditions role of language for special purposes (LSP)

25 New schools of terminology rejection of onomasiological bias in favour of a semasiological approach rejection of the necessity to make a tree diagramme primacy of the text as a source of terminological knowledge application of the principles of lexicology to terminology –a term is a word, which functions like other words –polysemy is accepted as part and parcel of semantics, even for terms taking into account various linguistic perspectives –sociolinguistics : François Gaudin –cognitive linguistics : Rita Temmerman –computational/corpus linguistics

26 Terminology and the computer Mainframes : development of first term bases Eurodicautom (IATE) Termium (base de TERMInologie de lUniversité de Montréal) Base de terminologie du Québec – Grand dictionnaire terminologique de lOffice québécois de la langue française Microcomputers terminology in the workplace –incorporated into translators workbench cf Multiterm in Trados Taylor-made term bases for specific uses

27 Different forms of terminological dictionaries The glossary (glossaire) : In English, glossary tends to be any sort of specialized dictionary, in lexicography, a selective terminological work giving explanations to hard or obscure terms, usually found in an accompanying text e.g. the glossary at the end of a thesis, where the candidate consigns all the terms for which he uses his own definitions



30 Bilingual or multilingual lexica a fairly rudimentary terminological work giving only the equivalences of terms in one or more languages, but which claims to give the terms of a specialized field (claim to exhaustivity) –example: Drevársky prekladový slovník


32 3209kruhcircle ring cercle (m) anneau (m) rond (m) 3210kruh aromatikcýaromatic ringanneau (m) aromatique 3211kruh ročný (pozri letokruh) annual ringcerne (m) ligneux cerne (m) cerne annuel (m) 3212kruh ročný nepravý……

33 pros and cons Advantages: can be made quickly, useful for translation Disadvantages: relies (too) heavily on isomorphism; too little redundancy

34 Supplementing the lexicon to improve bilingual lexica give additional indications –example : dictionary of food industries


36 vocabularies Terminological works giving the terms of a specialized field (claim to exhaustivity) but including a definition monolingual or bilingual the bilingual vocabulary may only give the definition in one language

37 model terminological dictionary


39 A conceptual macro-structure Since the terms of a subject field are structured a terminological dictionary attempts to reflect this structure


41 Focus on syntagmatic criteria Terminological dictionaries: - facilitate access to specialised knowledge - but give little information on how to use terms in texts, talks, translations…

42 The combinatory dictionary –Betty Cohen (198 ?), Dictionnaire combinatoire de la bourse et de la conjuncture –social need : Canadian French-speakers needed to talk freely about finance, then an English-speaking monopoly combinatory vocabulary –but with classical terminological definition –organised conceptually (i.e. onomasiologically)



45 Introducing lexicographical innovation into specialised dictionaries –ancestors: Descamps et al. (1976), Dictionnaire contextuel de français pour la géologie, Paris, Didier –aimed at the foreign student about to study geology in France –focusing on intermediary vocabulary, between general language and terminology sensu strictu –exposing the combinatory possibilities

46 A pioneering work

47 An extract : the verb conduire conduire ACTIVITE HUMAINE A/(A) CONDUIT UNE ACTIVITE HUMAINE analyses Le chimiste conduit ses analyses de bout en bout. Les analyses sont conduites suivant les méthodes …. La mise en œuvre nécessaire pour conduire ces analyses Des recherches conduites au niveau de…

48 conduire à 1.LIEU UN CHEMIN « CONDUIT » A UN LIEU Un petit chemin qui … conduit aux Croûtes …

49 conduire à (2a) conduire à 2. CONSECUTION UN TRAVAIL HUMAIN A. UN TRAVAIL HUMAIN « CONDUIT » A UN RESULTAT (=ACTIVITE HUMAINE) a) « CONDUIRE A » + NOM méthode La méthode conduit souvent à la découverte de schistes graphiteux techniques de diagraphie Les techniques de diagraphie conduisent alors à la découverte de gisements nouveaux réfraction La réfraction conduisit à lobtention dune pastille.

50 conduire à (2b) conduire à 2. CONSECUTION UNE ACTION NATURELLE B. UNE ACTION NATURELLE « CONDUIT » A UN RESULTAT (=ACTIVITE NATURELLE en général) putréfaction La putréfaction a conduit à la formation dhydrocarbures Processus sapropélique Processus sapropélique, qui conduisent à la formation de charbons bitumineux Cette adaptation Cette adaptation des formes peut conduire à la naissance de voûtes amples réactions Une série de réactions originales conduisant à un résultat coloré caractéristique…

51 Dictionnaire analytique de la distribution (2000) LABEL tag étiquette définition Document didentification du produit qui lui est apposé ou y est attaché et qui en décrit les caracéristiques (nature, prix, provenance, marque, etc.). precisions semantiques Les informations contenues sur létiquette sont destinées au caissier (prix, codification) et au consommateur (….] Depuis les années 1970, létiquette comprend généralement un code-barres (= > bar code) […] On distingue létiquette adhésive (self-sticking label) ou étiquette autocollante, et létiquette mobile (tag) attachée au produit. […]

52 label (2) relations internotionnelles Le terme anglais tag désigne une étiquette que lon peut facilement enlever, ce qui nest pas le cas de label. Ne pas confondre langlais label avec son homonyme label, qui a le sens de marque (=> brand), comme dans le terme private label (marque de distributeur). […] complements dinformation Lidée de remplacer le marquage (marking) des prix par des codes-barres sur les produits vendus en magasin a suscité beaucoup de craintes chez les consommateurs. […]

53 label (3) informations linguistiques Marquage a été normalisé por lOLF (1983) et lISO (1987). étiqueter : to ticket étiqueteuse : labeler, label machine contextes But it wasnt until 1900 that [he put the first Polar label on a bottle… […] Dans ce but, la réglementation mise au point par les organismes de la CEE et par ladministration française prévoit sur chaque étiquette la présence dun certain nombre de mentions…[…]

54 Satisfied? Do specialised dictionaries actually meet users needs? Determining users needs Determining how they are satisfied

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