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Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/2014 05:28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 1 INCINERATION a CRUCIAL.

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Présentation au sujet: "Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/2014 05:28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 1 INCINERATION a CRUCIAL."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 1 INCINERATION a CRUCIAL STEP in WASTE RECOVERY

2 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 2 Waste = problem NUISANCE resources lWaste = NUISANCE + resources  NUISANCES Bulky Disagreeable (visual, olfactory, …) Health risks (epidemic)Health risks (epidemic) Environmental RiskEnvironmental Risk  Resources Energy Materials lWaste Policy : share out the money available as well as possible in order to  REDUCE PRODUCTION  MINIMISE POLLUTION potential  OPTIMISE RECOVERY

3 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 3 Incineration  Nuisance abatement lVolume REDUCTION from 10 to 1 : and even from 100 to 1 :1 FlueGas Cleaning Residues Flue Gas Cleaning Residues 100 waste 10 Bottom ashes Historical goal

4 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 4 Incineration  Nuisance abatement lPut an end to unpleasantness  Abatement of olfactory & Nuisances visual Historical goal

5 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 5 Incineration  Nuisance abatement Hygiene  Destruction of biological pollutants Viruses Microbes Bacteria Prions … MAJOR BENEFIT Historical goal

6 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 6 Incineration  Nuisance abatement lHealth and Environment  Concentration and capturing of chemical pollutants Fine particles Heavy Metals Dioxins …  No accumulation of pollution for future generations Modern goal (80’s)

7 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 7 Incineration  Nuisance abatement lProtection of the Planet  Reduction of the greenhouse effectIncinerationIncineration Modern goal (90’s)

8 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 8 CO 2 from biomass = 0 Fossil C remains sequestered CH 4 avoided : Greenhouse effect < 0 W I N Greenhouse effect : win on all sides 5 to 10 Mt eqCO 2 /yr in France

9 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 9 Waste = Pollutants  Maximum surveillance stricter and stricter legislation  stricter and stricter legislation  one of the  cleanest activities   one of the  cleanest activities Emissions : calories of such low toxicity National Legislation EC Directives National Legislation EC Directive

10 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY MW Boiler 10 MW - Waste is cleaner than fossil fuels Waste Coal Oil Gas Dust 2 nd 4 th 3 rd 1 st CO 2 nd 4 th 3 rd 1 st Acids 2 nd 3 rd 3 rd 1 st Metals 3 rd 2 nd 4 th 1 st Dioxins 4 th 3 rd 2 nd 1 st 3 Oil 4 Coal 2 Waste 1 Gas

11 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 11 Dioxins : public subject

12 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 12 Dioxins : Recognised as solved by the European Commission 0,1 ng/Nm 3  « Negligible risk » “… providing that this legislation is enforced by Member States, a high level of protection will be ensured.” l0,1 ng/Nm 3 : can easily be achieved continuously in incineration plants “ From a purely technical point of view, dioxin emissions from some processes, such as waste incineration, can be better controlled than emissions from other processes.” Quotations taken from the Answer given by Mrs. Wallström on behalf of the Commission (12 July 2002) to a WRITTEN QUESTION (E-1585/02, ) to the Commission by Caroline Jackson (PPE-DE) Technically solved Health Impact Studies Incineration : ELV Other industrial sectors : BAT

13 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 13 “According to the ‘European Dioxin Emission Inventory, Stage II’ (Landesumweltamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, December 2000), funded by the Commission, incineration of municipal solid wastes has experienced a rapid decrease of dioxin and furan emissions to air during the last decade due to efficient abatement measures : Dioxins : rapid decrease, efficient abatement dioxin emission levels in 2000 have decreased by 58 % compared to the levels in 1995 and they foresee a decrease of 81% comparing the levels of 1995 to 2005” Mrs. Wallström g/an 300 g/an 5 g/an France

14 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 14 Main concern : Uncontrolled burning industrial sources 90% reduction “For the industrial sources a considerable emission reduction has been achieved (based on current trends and activities it is foreseen that the target set in the 5 th Environment Action Programme of a 90% reduction will be nearly realised in 2005 compared to the levels in 1985). non-industrial sources much lower But, for the non-industrial sources (domestic solid fuel burning, domestic waste burning, fires, etc.) the rate of emission reduction is much lower. The relation between industrial and non-industrial sources is shifting towards growing importance of non-industrial sources” Mrs. Wallström on behalf of the Commission

15 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY Dioxins - miscellaneous sources lCombustion when Cl is present  Existed at all times (ice North Pole years) lDomestic  Backyard burning  Ditch fires, … lUnauthorized  Tyres, …  Animal carcasses Pyres! Incomplete combustion ! Low temperatures ! In the de novo synthesis windows, 250 to 400 °C !

16 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 16 All Types of Impact Studies

17 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 17 BAT (Best Available Techniques) In-te-gra-ted ! It is a wrong approach to focus on atmospheric emissions ! Every environmental parameters must be taken into consideration “ achieving a high general level of protection of the environment as a whole ”

18 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 18 Incineration  Recovery lRecovery of Materials  Ferrous (incineration : greatest source of scrap iron from waste)  Non ferrous (Al, Cu)  Inert materials Today : road construction Tomorrow : concrete … Modern goal (70-90’s)

19 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 19 Incineration  Mat. recovery Protires lBottom ashes size-sorted lFerrous and non-ferrous separation

20 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 20 Incineration  Material recovery lValorisation acier (complémentaire)  La plus grosse source de ferrailles à partir de déchets  Recyclable à l’infini  « Propre » au sortir de l’incinérateur Toulouse Bessières Fost Plus

21 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 21 Incineration  Material & Energy recovery lValorisation aluminium (complémentaire)  Économie d’énergie : 95% (par rapport à aluminium depuis bauxite)  Recyclable à l’infini  « Propre » au sortir de l’incinérateur Fost Plus Intexalu

22 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 22 Incineration  Energy Recovery lGeneration of energy + Economy of financial resources + Economy of the planet’s resources + Pollution avoided (greenhouse effect, SOx, …) Modern goal (70-90’s)

23 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 23 Energy : consume in moderation Finite reserves : lmaxi : Gbl lmini : Gbl  Of which 800 Gbl already consumed [1 Gbl = 1 Giga baril = 10 9 baril (of oil)]

24 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY Energy : until when can we deplete resources? : Drying up of the planet’s energy

25 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY Energy : “The parents drink … … the children pay” The generations which will suffer the results of our actions will still have Our portraits Hanging above the fireplace

26 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 26 Self sustaining combustion lWhat quantity of energy is needed to burn 1 ton of household waste ? lMost people think a lot lWhat about you ?

27 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 27 A final (?) renewable energy 1 tonne of Waste Gas oil : 220 l Gas oil : 200 l If : 1 tonne of sorting residue

28 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 28 Energy-from-Waste : a significant source lPetrol consumption of France : 90 Mtoe (M tonne of oil equivalent) lEnergy recovery 1 Mtoe  Today 1 Mtoe :1 % 5 Mtoe  Tomorrow 5 Mtoe :6 % 6 % of the planet’s resources saved 6 % of the planet’s resources saved 6 % of the petrol bill bill €

29 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 29 What importance amongst renewable energies ? Mtoe  Hydroelectricity11  Wood 8  Waste1  5 ?  Waste 1  5 ?  Heat pumps 1  Geothermal 0,4  Solar, wind, waves 0,05  TOTAL 21,5  Summer / winter (daylight saving) 0,3

30 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 30 So, should we burn everything ? lBurn everything ?Certainly NOT ! lBURN WHAT THEN ?  Give priority to a better use of waste when possible: Reuse Material and organic recycling Landfill  The rest to Energy recovery : 60 % à 75 %} 25 % à 40 %

31 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 31 Thermal Treatment : a 2 nd opportunity to recover Thermal treatment is best suited to that which remains after other treatments (the part which contains the majority of the pollutants) It recovers the RESIDUES and NON-RECYCLABLE part from sorting 2 nd service

32 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 32 The WAR between treatment OPTIONS has no reason to exist lToday all are convinced that : the OPTIONS are COMPLEMENTARY and not competitive => FLEXIBILITY (MULTIPLE OPTIONS) lDistributed according to ECONOMIC & ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMISATION

33 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 33 lThis is THE question of the moment lOptimal ‘environmental et economic’ depends on COMPLETE ECO-ASSESSMENTS lThese indispensable tools for use in decision-making are conspicuous in their absence lPublic authorities must urgently develop them How to optimise ?  today  when ? To Optimise  To Maximise

34 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 34 Current affairs : When the EU meddles ! EU since 1996 : RECOVERY  DISPOSAL ! lCourt Decision EU 2/2003 based on the Primary Objective !  Cement Kiln for cement  Recovery  Municipal Waste Incinerator  NO  Recovery ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! lDiverges from Incineration Directive which requires recovery if incineration takes places lLooking for an ON/OFF border ‘test’ for trans-frontier transfers of waste : this system does not offer env. protection ! IGNORANCE of the TECHNIQUE and PRECONCEIVED IDEAS ! !! ! ! !

35 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 35 Clarify the notion of RECOVERY RECOVERY  DISPOSAL l3 levels in the EU texts  INTENTION to Recover (collected for sending to a sorting centre)  EFFECTIVE RECOVERY (OUT / IN ratio)  ENVIRONMENTAL RECOVERY  ENVIRONMENTAL RECOVERY (integrated, multiple parameters) lRECOVERY based on the RESULT and not on the intention lRECOVERY not on an ON/OFF basis, but in %age lRECOVERY should be judged on the whole chain and not on only one link (e.g.: sorting alone)

36 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 36 Further explanations ?

37 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 37 Questions ?

38 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 38 Déchets en France lMUNICIPAUX 50 Mt/an  O.M. et assimilés ( en 2000 ) 27  Autres déchets municipaux 23 des ménages : dangereux, verts, inertes de voirie et assainissement lDIB, DASRI, Automobile113 lDIS 7 lAgricoles, Industriels dits inertes480 lTOTAL650 Mt/an

39 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 39 OM en Europe lFrance : OM et assimilés (en 2000) 27 Mt/an  i.e. 440 kg/an.hab lUE : 165 Mt/an  Allemagne 41 Mt/an, GB 27 Mt/an, Italie 25 Mt/an, … lMais évaluation approx.  déf. des catégories différentes selon pays et Même à l’intérieur du même pays

40 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 40 Filières de traitement des OM et assimilés lFranceO.M. strictes O.M. & traités avec (22,6 Mt/an)(45,3 Mt/an)  Décharge 47 % 56 %  Incinération 44 % 27 % avec ValEne 24 %avec ValEne 24 % sans ValEne 3 %sans ValEne 3 %  Recyclage mat. …11 %  Trait. Bio. 8 % 9 %

41 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 41 Incinérateurs lNombre  France 123 ( en 1/2003)  Allemagne 61  Danemark 34  Italie 32  Suède 22  Pays-bas 11

42 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 42 Capacités lFrance (2003) > 6 t/h80 < 6 t/h, conformesArrêté 9143 < 6 t/h, non conformes 0 Capacité totale stable Évolution du parc français Capacité totale stable 300 usines en en en 1/2003 Tendance :  PETITS fours « artisanaux » et polluants FERMÉS  DAVANTAGE de GRANDS fours « industriels » à IMPACT NEGLIGEABLE ! AMALGAME !

43 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 43 Plages de capacité lTonnage  Grandes :12 à 30 t/h Maxi 50 t/h (Ivry 2 x 50 t/h)  Moyennes : 6 à 12 t/h env.  Petites : 2,5 à 6 < 2,5 t/h : plus industriel lPCI  à 3000 kcal/kg  Typiquement :1800 – 2000 (O.M. brutes), 2200 – 2400 (O.M. triées)

44 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 44 Très nombreux acteurs lMO ( Maîtres d’Ouvrage )  Communes, Syndicats, C. G al, C. R al  Elus et Fonctionnaires lmo ( Maîtres d’Œuvre ) et AMO ( Assistants MO )  BE (Bureaux d’études) lServices de l’Etat lLégislateurs (N al, UE) lExploitants ( parfois DSP, i.e. délégataires ) lConstructeurs lPublic, vecteurs d’opinion, associatifs COMPLEXE : Processus décisionnaire très long !

45 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 45 Entreprises lFNADE (Fédération Nationale des Activités de Dépollution et de l’Environnement)  7 Syndicats Constructeurs Exploitants Services  280 entreprises privées  salariés  CA : 6 milliards €  Membre de FEAD (UE) l Hubert de Chefdebien  A, SNIDE (Constr.), SVDU (Expl.), FNADE, FEAD

46 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 46 Diagramme de Grille DEBIT DE DECHETS, t/h CHALEUR BRUTE, Gcal/h 10 t/h 23 Gcal/h kcal/kg kJ/kg POINT NOMINAL kcal/kg kJ/kg kcal/kg kJ/kg (1 kcal = 4,1868 kJ 1 Gcal = 10 9 cal)

47 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 47 Evolution de la réglementation

48 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 48 Greenhouse effect : and one ! 75% of the Carbon in waste = biomass Combustion of biomass : No increase of the greenhouse effect Combustion of biomass : No increase of the greenhouse effect SHORT CYCLE of C : ~ 1 to 100 years Decomposition or combustion

49 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 49 Greenhouse effect : and two ! Combustion of waste  C  CO 2 Fermentation of waste  C  CH 4 Greenhouse effect (mass, 50 yrs) 1 CH 4 ~ 60 CO 2 Greenhouse effect (mass, 50 yrs) 1 CH 4 ~ 60 CO 2 CH 4 avoided : negative contribution To greenhouse effect CH 4 avoided : negative contribution To greenhouse effect Combustion : 1 C  1 eq. CO 2 Fermentation avec récup. biogaz :1 C  2,8 eq. CO 2 sans récup. biogaz : 1 C  5,2 eq. CO 2 Combustion : 1 C  1 eq. CO 2 Fermentation avec récup. biogaz :1 C  2,8 eq. CO 2 sans récup. biogaz : 1 C  5,2 eq. CO 2

50 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 50 Greenhouse effect : and three ! Fossil carbon remains sequestered : No growth of the greenhouse effect Fossil carbon remains sequestered : No growth of the greenhouse effect Recovery of energy-from-waste = economy in fossil fuels Very LONG CYCLE from C : > yrs C. Fossil yrs

51 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 51 Inventaire par secteur : qq. métaux et POP caractéristiques Corinair 1990, France ( avant traitement des fumées ) As Cr Hg Pb ZnHAP Cd CuNi Se Diox 100 % émissions France 1,8% 0,5%49%1,4% 11,8%0,14% 23% 5,8%0,6% 0,4% 30% 23% 5,8%0,6% 0,4% 30% Trait. thermique des déchets Poussières (1994) 3,5 % des poussières Tr. therm. déchets : 3,5 % des poussières Métaux POP

52 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 52 Inventaire par secteur : contribution modeste Corinair 1990, France ( avant traitement des fumées ) 3,5 % des acides Tr. therm. déchets : 40 % du HCl 1990, i.e. 3,5 % des acides 20 à 100 fois moins Aujourd'hui : TF  20 à 100 fois moins de HCl Gaz acides SO 2 COV CO N 2 O NOxCH 4 CO 2 NH 3 1,5%0,3% 2,1%0,04% 1,5%0,4% 2,1% 0,0% Trait. thermique des déchets 100 % émissions France

53 Hubert de Chefdebien, 17/12/ :28 FEAD seminar at Entsorga, 24 September 2003, Köln : WASTE AS A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ENERGY 53 Example of NOx catalytic converter with without 2,5 g NO x /km 0,4 g NO x /km 1 ton / yr 2200 g NO x / yr 2200 g NO x / 900 km 2200 g NO x / 5500 km burnt q = 1 q = 22 q = 3, km / yr


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