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Language and Languages (ctd) A8633 C. Tardieu. II- Regional or minority languages Source: Ottavi, P. (2010) « Enseignement des langues régionales et didactique.

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Présentation au sujet: "Language and Languages (ctd) A8633 C. Tardieu. II- Regional or minority languages Source: Ottavi, P. (2010) « Enseignement des langues régionales et didactique."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Language and Languages (ctd) A8633 C. Tardieu

2 II- Regional or minority languages Source: Ottavi, P. (2010) « Enseignement des langues régionales et didactique des langues : un point sur lévolution des textes ». Association pour le Développement de lEnseignement Bi/plurilingue.

3 How the regional languages were introduced in the French schools In parallel with FLT: EPLV (1989); EILE (1995); ELVE (1999) 1975: Loi Haby: un enseignement des langues et cultures régionales peut être dispensé tout au long de la scolarité » (Article 12 de la loi N° du 11 juillet 1975 relative à léducation, JO du 12 juillet 1975).

4 Difficult to change the « all French habit » « Si, par ailleurs, le premier degré de lenseignement demeure sanctuarisé quant à la langue nationale, il ne faut pas y voir de hasard car selon Serge BOULOT et Danièle BOIZON-FRADET (1987: 163), il constitue encore le pilier de la formation de lindividu tandis que le lycée illustre létape des choix conscients, une fois le formatage citoyen initial assuré. »

5 Primary school and the three Rs Read, wRite, aRithmetics : Mitterrands speech in Brittany: « Le temps est venu dun statut des langues et cultures de France qui leur reconnaisse une existence réelle. Le temps est venu de leur ouvrir grandes les portes de lécole, de la radio et de la télévision permettant leur diffusion, de leur accorder toute la place quelles méritent dans la vie publique ». La circulaire n° , datée du 30 décembre 1983 : il sagit de « fixer à lenseignement des cultures et langues régionales des objectifs pédagogiques qui soient les mêmes pour tous, et déclairer des méthodologies également communes ». (Ottavi, 2010 : 14)

6 A bilingual teaching Pupils are taught in two languages one of which being usually but not always their first language Siguan et Mackey, (SIGUÁN M. et MACKEY W. F., 1986, Éducation et bilinguisme, Lausanne, Unesco/Delachaux et Niestlé, p. 42) It implies a teaching of the language and in the language

7 In 1988, (larrêté du 15 avril 1988, BOEN supplémentaire n° 17 du 5 mai 1988) a focus on secondary school level CEFR has been refered to for RLT at junior high school since In 1995 (Note de service n° du 12 avril 1995, BO n° 16, 20 avril 1995) A clear distinction was made between initiation to a regional language and proper bilingual teaching, sharing equal time.

8 The importance of the Council of Europe How many languages in Europe?

9 Bilingualism vs Monolingualism Advantages Cognitive development Creativity and flexibility A delay in the onset of symptoms of dementia by four years Drawbacks Lower score in receptive vocabulary

10 Second Language Learning at Primary school Is it true that children learn better than adults? What language to teach first? Who will teach this language?

11 Early Language Learning Piaget, Vygotsky, Chomsky, Bruner The Critical Threshold of Critical Period Hypothesis (CPA)? Phonological aspects : Gubérina, Tomatis, Boisson-Bardies Nativisation (Robinson, 2002) Assimilation, accomodation, equilibration (Piaget) Before 3 vs before 7 Bilinguals (Lüdi)

12 Conclusion Is it true that children learn better than adults? Natural learning vs school learning (Deyrich) Different ways of learning Fossilisation

13 Dörnyeis conclusion The problem with the younger is the better view is that it only applies in optimal naturalistic SLA contexts, that is, when the learner is immersed in the host environment and has regular and rich interactions with a variety fo native speakers. In formal learning contexts younger is not better but worse. Accordingly, recent initiatives taht attempt to push forward the starting age of learning a foreign language as a school subject in many countries of the world are misguided and potentially counter-productive. Thus, I am in full agreement with Lightbrown and Spada (2006), who conclude that older learners are likely to be able to make better use of the limited time they have access to L2 instructions. Sources of the age effect in formal school learning contexts: superiority of older learners is due to: the cognitive maturity and superior literacy, a shift from implicit to explicit learning, and quantitative and qualitative aspects of the typical L2 instruction (drip-feed approach – one or two hours a week for seven or eight years and poor quality of the input – no rich naturalistic-like input) (Dörnyei, Z The Psychology of Second Language Acquisitio. Oxford:Oxford University Press, p ).

14 Our conclusion Early language learning differs from adult language learning; Early language learning is meaningful if it is done in natural conditions before the age of 6 or 7. The learning conditions and the time of exposure to an L2 are more important than the age factor. The school conditions are not necessarily appropriate for early language learning.

15 Conclusions about Learning an L2 at primary school level L1/L2 performances are correlative the learning of an L2 has an even greater positive influence on the performances in L1 among average pupils An improvement of the L2 competences at the end of compulsary education.

16 Some recommandations From the Ministry of Education: A rigorous progression ; Meaningful class activities in terms of theory and practice; An integration of L2 learning in the multi-skilled teaching practice. From scholars (Gaonach 2006, Hulstijn in Robinson 2002, Ellis 2003, among others) also suggest : a comprehensible input combined to noticing activities explicit or implicit learning (through enhancement activities): Two key factors that work against implicit learning: the issues of time and age. (Dornyei: 168) learning by automatisms (exemplar-based learning, repetition).

17 Can you answer the following questions? Is it really easier for a young child to learn a second language than for an adult? English is the most popular language learnt at school (more that 85%), still should it be the first second language to be taught? Should we compel primary school teachers to teach a second language they are not specialists of? Isnt it preferable to employ native speakers? Can one learn a language by simply watching television?


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