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Le Japon sur le chemin dune reprise économique ….durable? E. Merk EPFL STS - May 2004.

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Présentation au sujet: "Le Japon sur le chemin dune reprise économique ….durable? E. Merk EPFL STS - May 2004."— Transcription de la présentation:

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2 Le Japon sur le chemin dune reprise économique ….durable? E. Merk EPFL STS - May 2004

3 Plan Remarques générales Politique scientifique et Technologique & Budget La Réforme des Universités Les biotechnologies au Japon Les nanotechnologies au Japon Divers

4 STS Mai 2003:Le Japon à bout de souffle? Mai 2004: des indicateurs conjoncturels orientés au vert: croissance denviron 3% du PIB durant FY2003 indice de confiance Tankan en progression taux de chômage en régression signes de reprise de la consommation intérieure Une reprise tirée principalement par les exportations et les dépenses dinvestissements. Egalement bénéfices des multiples restructurations au sein des compagnies japonaises (profitabilité accrûe)

5 Kamikaze sauveur une fois de plus! 1281: la flotte denvahisseurs mongols et chinois (4000 navires) en vue de coloniser le Japon anéantie par un typhon -> concept de « kamikaze »: vent divin qui sauva le Japon 2nde guerre mondiale: des milliers de pilotes suicides (kamikaze) se jettent contre les navires de la flotte américaine pour tenter de sauver le Japon Depuis 2003: La Chine nest plus vue comme une menace mais un partenaire économique vital – on invoque de nouveau leffet « kamikaze»; la forte demande chinoise sauve une économie japonaise dépressive conséquence dun marché intérieur anémique (exportations vers la Chine en hausse de 35% par rapport à lannée passée ):

6 Si le Japon était un village de 1000 habitants… 511 seraient des femmes et 489 des hommes 10 étrangers vivraient dans ce village 506 habitants travailleraient: 297 hommes 209 femmes dont 423 dans les entreprises (50 dans le secteur de la construction) et 34 dans ladministration 50 seraient au chômage 46 habitants auraient moins de 4 ans, et 179 plus de 65 ans Et dans 50 ans ce village ne comptera plus que… 791 habitants!

7 La société nippone Une société basée sur: Lharmonie et lunité – légalitarisme – la poursuite du consensus La société japonaise nest pas fondée sur lindividu mais sur les relations entre individus: « Nous sommes donc je suis » La coopération des individus – importance primordiale du groupe (responsabilité partagée) La loyauté à une organisation (contrat réciproque: emploi à vie) Le respect de la séniorité – hiérarchie - tradition

8 Japan Competitiveness Japan is still performing poorly in the world competitiveness ranking established by the IMD: in 2004, Japan is 23th (among 49 countries)! just in front of China... (in 2003, 25th; in 2002, 27th; in the 80s, 1st!!!) Japan seems to lack an attractive business climate in terms of: heavy costs, reputation of a closed society, excess regulations and v. heavy bureaucracy, lack of internationally minded skilled people.

9 Foreign Direct Investment Key to Japans revitalization: Koizumis announcement in January 2003 to double FDI in 5 years – Japans priority sectors for FDI: biotechnology, medical care, environment, ICT Inward FDI for Japan represents only 1% of GDP (1/11 of US) – large investments in the fields of automotive, telecom and finance

10 Japanese Strength in Technology: a technological powerhouse! Technology Exports: ca.$10 bn (+18% from prev. year) Technology Imports: ca.$4.6 bn (+23.7% from prev. year) => Technology Trade Balance = 2.17 (in comparison USA, TTB = 0.85) Worlds largest number of patents (220000) #people involved in R&D activities: ca.1 mio, = 16/1000 labor force, one of the highest ratio in the world (n 0 4) Ratio of R&D expenditures ($125 bn) against GDP = 3.18%, the largest in history (in comp. USA = 2.6%) Total expenditure on R&D per capita: 2 nd !

11 PRESENT CHALLENGES FOR JAPAN Paradigm shift: >from catch up to front-runner (->basic sciences) Mounting competition from China & SE Asia >increase high tech industries Compatibility to the new global economy > New human Management necessary Increase its industrial competitiveness >eliminate overcapacity, deregulate, stimulate private sector R&D (tax breaks, restructurate certain industrial sectors), improve transfer of technology Academia- Ind.-Government Reform the Education System: promote competition, cultivate creativity & individuality

12 Driving Forces for Economic Growth Capital Intensive Heavy Industries: Chemical; Shipbuilding Labor Intensive industries Knowledge Intensive Light Industries: Semiconductors PCs Knowledge Creating Industries CyberTechnology Biotechnology Nanotechnology 50s - 60s70s - 80s21st Century Pre-Modern Era SMILE S for Systemization and integration M for Materials and nanosciences I for Information L for Life Sciences E for Environment

13 Les défis de la société de la connaissance Création recherche fondamentale Aquisition universités, écoles Transfert coop. univ. entreprises Echanges stratégie gestion Propriété intellectuelle

14 S&T POLICY S&T POLICY Five-year Basic Science &Technology Plans April 96 to March 01 TARGET > Doubling spending public money on R&D: commitment to invest Yen 17 trillion ($150 billion) in R&D over this 5 year period !!! April 01 to March 06 TARGETS > Half of govt. research funds earmarked for basic research should go to curiosity-oriented research > Double the amount of competitive funds (from 9% to 18%) Invest 24 trillion yen!

15 S&T POLICY S&T POLICY Second Science & Technology Basic Plan Three major goals: The promotion of science, with an emphasis on contributions to the world through scientific knowledge Ensuring a safe, healthy life for the japanese people Achieving sustainable economic development through technological innovation

16 S&T POLICY S&T POLICY 2nd Science & Technology Basic Plan Adopting a strategic approach to government research investments: Promoting Basic research Focus on R&D responding national and social issues: 4 highly prioritized areas Life sciences, Health and Medical treatment Information and Telecommunications, Environmental Science, Nanotechnology and Materials

17 S&T POLICY 2nd Science & Technology Basic Plan Reforming the S&T systems Building competitive research environment Improving university facilities Improving evaluation system Enhancing young researchers independence and mobility Promoting cooperation among academic, industrial and governmental research sectors Enhancing communications with society

18 Science and Technology Administration in Japan Prime Minister Cabinet Office for basic policy and general coordination on important for cabinet Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Post and Telecommunications Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy and Technology Policy Science Vice- Minister ParliamentarySecretary Director-General Bureau of Science and Technology Policy Council for Science and Technology Policy Atomic Energy Commission Nuclear Safety Commission Ministry of the Environment Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry National Research Institutes National Universities and Laboratories Science Council of Japan

19 FY 2004 Budget on Science & Technology in Japan

20 Governmental Budget on S&T FY 2004: 3636 Mia Yen (49 Mia CHF) +0.8% FY 2003: 3588 Mia Yen + Budget complémentaire 4.1 Mia Yen FY 2002: 3544 Mia Yen (SFr. 45 Mia) + budget complémentaire 324 Mia Yen FY 2001: 3469 Mia Yen + budget complémentaire Mia yen Second S&T Basic Plan (FY ): Aims at Spending 24 Trillion Yen (ca. SFr. 300 Mia) over the next 5 years

21 Government R&D Expenditures Evolution over last decade: constant increase! (in 100 bn Yen)

22 Japan R&D Expenditures (FY2001) $138 bn (+1,5% from FY2000) ca. 3.3% GDP Performers Sources

23 Distribution of R&D Expenditures in Japan

24 Budget 2004: Axes prioritaires Réforme et augmentation de fonds pour projets spécifiques Amélioration des infrastructures universitaires Réforme de lUniversité et mise en place de collaborations Industrie-Université-Gouvernement Développement de la recherche à léchelon local (financement par les régions) Protection et utilisation des droits de propriété intellectuelle Mise en place dun système dévaluation équitable et transparent de la R&D Réforme des entreprises ou des associations impliquées dans la recherche Introduction de « local Intellectual clusters » pour revitaliser les régions par une association Ind.-Univ.-Gouv. sur les thèmes R&D

25 JFY 2004 Budget for Major 4 fields Life Sciences, Health & Medical Treatment Yen bn ( FY2003: 427.0) +2.1% Information & Telecommunication Yen bn (FY2002: 169.6) + 3.6% Environmental ScienceYen bn ( FY2002: 109.9) +7% Nanotechnology & Material Science Yen 94 bn (FY2002: 91.2) +3.1%

26 University Reform

27 Hokkaido (7) Tohoku (7) Shikoku (7) Kanto (20) Chubu (22) Kinki (15) Chugoku (6) Kyushu (14) Okinawa (1) (Number of National Universities as of April 2002) Total = 99 ->89 as of April 2004

28 1. Universities in Japan: (1) Education 49% of eligible students proceed to univ. (2,8 Mio students) 89 national universities and colleges 512 private universities - educating 70% of nations students 66 regional universities All national universities offer Masters, 80 of them offer Ph.D.

29 1. University in Japan: (2) Research 20 % national research budget goes to national universities 424 venture companies emerged from universities by Aug 02 ( from 251 in August 01 and 65 in 2000) For comparison in US: 3300!!! Very few licensed patents in regard of their R&D expenditures Only a small percentage of the new inventions created at Jap. Univ. were used or transferred to private companies (in US: 60%)

30 1. University in Japan: (3) Collaboration with industry Domestic Collaboration still very much based on individual networks (a professor – company resonance): informal and consultative. R&D funds paid by Jap. companies to Japanese Univ. increased from 38,4 bn Yen in FY96 to 67.5 bn Yen in FY2000, less than half the 157 bn Yen they spent in collaboration with foreign research institutes; 65% going to national universities

31 1. University in Japan: (3) Collaboration with industry International Unit: $ mio FY99 Industry increasingly outsourcing R&D abroad

32 2. May 1st, 2004: Transition to Independent Administrative Bodies March 2002: MEXT issued Final Report on Study of Privatization of National Universities: On New Form of National Universities FY 2004: Transfer all national universities to the independent administrative bodies –Mergers and realignment of universities to be done by FY 2004

33 3. Toyama Plan: Guideline by MEXT for Univ. Structural Reform Promote consolidation and realignment of universities Revitalize universities Introduce private sectors competition theory Prompt transfer to independent admin bodies Introduce competitions via third-party evaluation Elevate the level of Japanese universities: Top 30 universities in Japan to be world top class

34 3. Toyama Plan: Guideline by MEXT for Univ. Structural Reform In a nutshell Amélioration de la base de gestion des universités: assouplissement des règles budgétaires, organisationnelles et de gestion des personnels Principe de compétitivité Meilleure insertion des univesrités dans le tissus économique et social Elévation du niveau de léducation et de la recherche dans les universités Evaluation et suivi des universités: allocation budgétaire fonction des résultats de lévaluation

35 3. Toyama Plan: TOP 30 Program for Universities Select top 30 universities in 10 fields Nurture the top 30 universities to the world class, by competition via evaluation and prioritized resource allocation (between yen 100 mio and Yen 500 mio/year/Univ.) Goals: 1) World-class environment and system for research & education, 2) Internationally competitive HR, 3) Contribution to the society Sept. 2002: 70% of Universities selected were national universities

36 4. New Management System for Universities More Teaching staff from outside organization, industry, and abroad HR Management based on merits and abilities Increase Tenure Track Professors Independence for parts of universities (Business Schools, Law Schools) Increased Transparency Evaluation by the Third Party Organization

37 5. Competitive Funds (1) Govt Scheme 2nd S&T Basic Plan: Goal to double competitive funds 30% Overhead to be secured within competitive funds Reform Planning on Competitive Funds at CSTP

38 Research funds on open and competitive-proposal basis ( Bil $) [+6.4%] [+10.0%] [+13.5%] [+12.5%] 1$=130yen [+7.6%] [+27.0%]

39 6. Industry-Academia Cooperation (1) Laws to facilitate tech transfer 1998: Law for Promotion of Technology Transfer from Universities (Natl univs can establish TLOs) 2000: Law to Strengthen Industrial Technological Ability 2000: Change in rules for professors at national univ.: now possible to take up executive positions in companies 2001: Ease Patent Law for National University Researchers;

40 Professors will be able to obtain equities such as stock options as remuneration from their venture companies (2002) Ceiling on compensation money for inventions will be removed (2002) (used to be 6 Mio Yen) 6. Industry-Academia Cooperation

41 6. Industry-Academia Cooperation Government Initiatives Toyama Plan (MEXT; June 2001) –Corporatize 700 patents at Univ in 5 years –Create 10 Silicon Valleys in 10 years Hiranuma Plan (METI; May 2001) –Venture Companies 1000 in 3 years –10 Fold Patents from Univ in 10 Years

42 6. Industry-Academia Cooperation (4) Technology Licensing Offices 33 TLOs Domestic Patent Application through TLOs: 4000 cases 424 Venture companies from Univ.spin-off During FY 2002 METI invested 47.7 billion yen (SFr.600 mio), MEXT 32.4 billion (SFr.400 mio), in academia-industry cooperation

43 6. Industry-Academia Cooperation (5) Local Intellectual Clusters Launch FY 2002 ~ by MEXT 5-year program, 6 billion yen annually To make national universities the cores of industrial clusters for innovation Boost local economy via cooperation with industry 10 Clusters will be launched in FY 2002

44 6. (5) Intellectual Clusters Sapporo: IT Sendai: IT Takamatsu: Bio Hiroshima: Bio Nagano/Ueda : Nanotech Hamamatsu: Opto-Electronics Osaka Area : Biomedicine Keihanna: IT/Genome Kyoto: Nanotech Kita Kyushu : IT(LSI) Fukuoka: IT Kobe: Med

45 Outlook Biotechnology in Japan

46 The 2010 vision for Japan A cutting-edge bio-society and bio-based economy that simultaneously achieve health, safety and harmony with Nature. JABEX (Japan Association of Bioindustries Executives)

47 Une stratégie pour les biotech basée sur Les besoins de la société japonaise, c.a.d une société au vieillissement accéléré par un taux de fécondité très bas, une sociét résolument tournée vers la santé et lenvironnement La nécessité dêtre plus compétitif en développant sa capacité dinnovation Le retard pris par les entreprises biotech japonaises par rapport à leurs rivales américaines et européennes – conséquence dinvestissements relativement faibles dans ce secteur, par le manque dune véritable stratégie long terme aussi bien dans le secteur privé que public, et par des régulations très strictes Les contraintes dun marché global et une compétition accrûe: la Chine devance déjà le Japon en terme de brevets déposés sans le secteur post- génomique

48 Stratégie politique (initiée en 1999) action coordonnée de 5 ministères! Augmentation des capacités de R&D augmentation des programmes nationaux de recherche biotech, augmentation des budgets, dével. Des ressources humaines Permettre une bonne acceptation des biotechnologies par le public information continue et claire, mise en place de comités indépend. du gouvernement resp. de léthique et de la sécurité, lancement de programmes déduction dans les écoles Favoriser le transfert technologique: valorisation- industrialisation mise en place de nouveaux schémas juridiques pour lindustrialisation, promotion coop. Univ-entreprises-gouvt, dérégulation, nouvelle gestion de la propriété intellectuelle

49 Life Science Budget FY02 (SFr. 4.4 Mia) By Ministry

50 Biotech Market Size Outlook

51 Bio Ventures in Japan ~1998 September (Target) Source: Presentation by Japan Bioindustry Association 1000 The National Strategy for Industrial Biotechnologies 334 Mars 2003

52 MAJOR OBJECTS OF RESEARCH IN LIFE SCIENCE Age-Associated Diseases : Prevention and Treatment Based on Genomics, Postgenomics and Regenerative Medicine Infectious, Autoimmune and Allergic Diseases ; Mechanisms and Prevention Brain Research ; Basic and Clinical Use of Biological Materials for Industries or Bioremediation of Environment Food Production & Functional Foods Through Plant Genomics Bioengineering &Challenge to New Interdisciplinary Areas Biological Resources as Infrastructure Source: CSTP

53 Outlook Nanotechnology in Japan

54 Nanotech Market Size Outlook = 350 Mia CHF Billion Y

55 FY01 Budget on nanotechnology-related items: (Total 60.5 billion yen)

56 Inter-Ministerial Structure of Nanotech R&D Strategy METI MPHPT MAFF MHWL Flagship Projects MEXT JST RIKEN NIMS Universities Priority Projects (Challenge-Type Projects) Generic Technologies (nano-analysis, nano-fabrication, nano-simulation, etc.) Fundamental Research

57 Strategy R&D in Nanotech: Flagship Projects 1) Next generation semiconductor technology 2) Terabit-level information storage technology 3) Network Devices IT: Developing Low-Power, High-performance Technology for Building a Ubiquitous network Society

58 MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF HIGH PRIORITY IN NANOTECHNOLOGY AND MATERIAL SCIENCE Nanodevice and Materials for IT and Telecommunication of the Next Generation Materials for Efficient Energy Utilization and for Reduction of Environmental Chemicals Nanobiology for Medical Use and Technologies Based on Biological Mechanisms Basic Technologies for Measurement, Standardization. Processing and Mathematical Simulation Materials with Innovative Characters and Functions Source: CSTP

59 MAJOR OBJECTS OF RESEARCH IN IT AND TELECOMMUNICATION Ubiquitous Network Society ; Broadband, Mobile Internet System with Convenience, Security and High Fidelity New Device and Software ; Human Interface Technology, Quantum Technology etc. Next Generation Computer Interdisciplinary Areas and Infrastructure Including Data Base Source: CSTP

60 MAJOR OBJECTIVES OF HIGH PRIORITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE Global Warming and Modeling. Eco-engineering for Recycling of Resources. Eco-science of Urban and Suburban Areas from Viewpoint of Water Management. Management and Risk Assessment of Chemical Substances. Source: CSTP

61 WHAT ARE EMERGING NEW FIELDS Integrative or Interdisciplinary Area of Biotechnology, Information Technology and Nanotechnology Integrative Area of Cognitive, Behavioral and Social Sciences Source: CSTP

62 World Fair Aichi 2005 Theme: Harmony with Nature Hope to see you there…!

63 Thank you!


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