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Survol de lhistoire de linformatique Anatol SLISSENKO Université Paris 12 © Anatol Slissenko For personal usage only.

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Présentation au sujet: "Survol de lhistoire de linformatique Anatol SLISSENKO Université Paris 12 © Anatol Slissenko For personal usage only."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Survol de lhistoire de linformatique Anatol SLISSENKO Université Paris 12 © Anatol Slissenko For personal usage only

2 Au commencement était le Verbe Parole (la Parole)… Évangile selon Jean Word In the beginning was the Word… Gospel of John Au commencement était le Signe Signe =code Symbole (sémantique) Signe : son, geste, pictogramme, … Informatique = Information + Automatique Ce terme a été introduit en France. Il est très répandu dans le monde à part les pays anglo-saxons où le terme dominant est computer science

3 Egypte 3000 BC

4 Museum HomepageMuseum Homepage | Fun+GamesFun+Games Anatol en hiéroglyphes chinois

5

6 Os avec des nombres : 8500 BC Les entailles : il y a ans

7 Des entailles sont efficaces pour larithmétique: ||||||| + ||| = |||||||||| (7+3= 10) ||||||| · ||| = ||||||||||||||||||||| (7 · 3= 21) Mais inefficaces pour la représentation et la sauvegarde Comparez : cent en décimal et cent en entailles 100 |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||||||| Comment améliorer? Introduire des symboles pour les grands nombres? Mais larithmétique devient difficile! XXV+XXVI=LI (notation latine)

8 Les Egyptiens avaient un système décriture hiéroglyphique en 3000 BC. Larithmétique est difficile

9 Système sexagésimal Babylonien : BC Le premier système positionnel connu (la valeur dun chiffre dépend de sa position) Les chinois utilisaient un système positionnel en 1300 BC Pour calculer les sommes et les produits assez vite il faut connaître les tables de laddition et de la multiplication. Pour le système sexagésimal ils sont trop grands (il y a 58 nombres non triviaux : 2, 3, …, 59; la taille de la table est 3364). Mais on peut utiliser différents trucs pour réduire les tables, par exemple 58·58=(60–2)·(60–2) = 60 2 – 4·60 +4

10 59 symboles du système Babylonien construits à partir de deux symboles. Il ny a pas zéro !

11 Zéro Babylone: 300 BC; pas de symbole pour la valeur zéro. Comment distinguer 1 et 60 ? A laide du contexte. Finalement un symbole pour une position a été introduit, mais nétait pas considéré comme un chiffre. La valeur zéro et les nombres négatifs ont apparu en Inde autour de AD (peut-être avant). Les nombres négatifs ont été bien compris seulement dans les temps modernes. Même au 18ème siècle les résultats négatifs étaient ignorés comme nayant aucun sens.

12 La première `machine de calcul connue est labaque (boulier). On pense quelle a été inventée par les Babyloniens entre 1000 BC et 500 BC. Mais certains historiens pensent que labaque a été inventée par les chinois.

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14 unités dizaines Cest une abaque moderne pour le système décimal. Laddition est simple: on commence avec les unités, on met la retenue sur la tige des dizaines, et on continue avec les dizaines etc.

15 Le traitement de linformation ne se réduit pas au calcul. On la sauvegarde. On la transforme. On raisonne. Raisonner suppose une logique. Aristote Stagire, Macédoine, Chalcis, Eubée, 322 BC

16 La contribution la plus renommée dAristote comme logicien est sa théorie de linférence, traditionnellement appelée syllogistique (non par Aristote). La syllogistique est proche de la `logique de pertinence (relevance logique). Aristote a développé aussi les notions dinduction et de déduction.

17 La stéganographie étymologiquement veut dire écriture cachée. A part le calcul numérique, linformatique a été fortement stimulée par la sécurité de linformation. Certains moyens de sécurisation de linformation ont été utilisés depuis les temps anciens, à savoir la stéganographie et la cryptographie.

18 Dans ses Histoires, Hérodote ( BC) raconte comment vers 440 BC on rasa la tête d'un esclave, puis on y tatoua un message qui devint invisible après que les cheveux aient repoussé. Le but était de lancer une révolte contre les Perses. Énée le Tacticien (env. 350 BC) proposa de cacher un message dans un autre texte en changeant la hauteur des lettres ou en perçant des petits trous au dessus ou en dessous des lettres du message de couverture. Cette technique, toujours utilisée au 17ème siècle, fut améliorée par Wilkins qui utilisa des encres invisibles pour inscrire ces petits points au lieu de faire des trous. Cette dernière idée fut reprise par les espions allemands durant les deux guerres mondiales.

19 Le chiffrement a été largement utilisé déjà par Jules César (en latin Caius Julius Caesar) Rome 100 ou Rome 44 av. J.-C. Chiffrement (cryptage) César utilisait un chiffrement de substitution qui décale les lettres de lalphabet. Un décalage de 7 transforme « mot » en « tva ».

20 Pendant les premiers 1011 siècles AD on voit un développement des langues modernes et des notations modernes pour les nombres naturels. Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Musa al-Khwarizmi (خوارزمی en Perse, أبو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي en Arabe) Entre 780 et : livre sur les mathématiques al-Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa'l- muqabala (حساب الجبر و المقابلة) Le livre abrégé sur le calcul par achèvement et mise en équilibre ". 825 : Sur le calcul avec les nombres hindous (Kitab al-Jam'a wal-Tafreeq bil Hisab al-Hindi) Ce dernier livre explique les nombres décimaux comme nombres indiens dont la source était un livre en sanscrit. Timbre-poste soviétique avec un portrait imaginé dal-Khwarizmi

21 Les livres dAl-Khowarizmi ont été traduits ou utilisés en Europe au 12e siècle. Une contribution importante dans la dissémination de ces connaissances a été faite par Adelard of Bath (1075 – 1160), né à Bath en Angleterre, il a fait ses études en France, en Italie et dans les pays de langue arabe) Cela a donné, en particulier, les mots Algorithme qui provient du nom latinisé d Al-Khowarizmi Algèbre qui provient du nom latinisé du mot al-jabr dans le titre de son ouvrage mentionné sur le transparent précédent Via ces sources les nombres décimaux deviennent connus en Europe. Pour cette raison ils sappellent souvent « nombres arabes » bien que leur origine soit lInde.

22 Guillaume d'Occam ou d'Ockham Ockham, Surrey, vers Munich vers 1349 Théologien et philosophe anglais. Elève et professeur à Oxford de 1309 à Il a établi les fondations pour les équivalences logiques quon appelle aujourdhui Transformations de DeMorgan.TransformationsDeMorgan Ces équivalences ont été décrites par Augustus DeMorganAugustus DeMorgan 500 plus tard. Pour honorer sa position dans lhistoire de linformatique un langage de programmation pour INMOS transputer est appelé OCCAM

23 La première machine mécanique de calcul, Machine Arithmétique, a été construite par Blaise Pascal en Il a produit 50 machines dans les 10 années suivantes. En fait, la machine de Pascal peut additionner directement et soustraire par addition du nombre complémentaire (comme les ordinateurs modernes). Multiplication et division étaient faites par additions et soustractions. Pascal avait des prédécesseurs. Epoque récente Soustraction par addition du nombre complémentaire. Exemple : 117 – 19 = 117+(1000 – 19) sans le chiffre gauche= sans le chiffre gauche = 1098 sans le chiffre gauche = 98. Le nombre 981est le complément de 19.

24 Blaise Pascal 1623 Clermont-Ferrand – 1662 Paris On voit les roues dentées --- la technique développée par les constructeurs dhorloges.

25 Dans les notes de Léonard de Vinci (autour de 1500) on trouve un schéma et une description dune machine à calculer Un modèle fonctionnel construit selon le schéma de de Vinci Léonard de Vinci Vinci, près de Florence, Manoir du Clos-Lucé, près d'Amboise, 1519

26 Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz ( Leipzig Hanovre 1716) a développé les idées de Pascal et en 1671 a construit le Step Reckoner Cette machine pouvait calculer les additions, soustractions, et aussi les multiplications, les divisions et les racines carrées par des séquences dadditions décalées.

27 Machine à taper. Un brevet pour un outil de ce genre a été délivré en 1714 à lingénieur anglais Henry Mill. Une des premières machines à taper commerciales a été inventée par Christopher Latham Sholes ( ), ingénieur américain, brevetée en Il a conçu cette machine avec ses partenaires S. W. Soule and G. Glidden. La fabrication a commencé en 1873 par Remington Arms Company

28 1870 Hansen Le clavier QWERTY a été conçu en 1868 par Christopher Latham Sholes. Les paires de lettres les plus usitées dans la langue anglaise sont réparties aux extrêmes du clavier. De cette manière, la vitesse de frappe est réduite et les tiges se coincent plus rarement. Remington a acquis ce clavier en AZERTY : même considérations pour le français.

29 Joseph Marie Jacquard Lyon Oullins, Rhône, 1834 Inventeur français. Peu après 1800, s'inspirant notamment des travaux de Vaucanson, il donna sa forme définitive au métier à tisser qui porte son nom, équipé d'un mécanisme qui permet la sélection des fils de chaîne par un programme inscrit sur des cartons perforés. Jacques de Vaucanson ( ) Inventeur français. Après avoir créé trois automates célèbres, il fut chargé, à partir de 1741, de réorganiser l'industrie de la soie. Il créa de nombreuses machines préfigurant les machines-outils ainsi qu'un outillage perfectionné (notamment un tour à charioter), pour les fabriquer.

30

31

32 Les cartes perforées étaient utilisées pour représenter la musique pour les pianos mécaniques, machines de tabulations, programmes pour les ordinateurs etc.

33 Charles Babbage (Teignmouth, Devon, Londres 1871) Mathématicien britannique. Il imagina, et s'efforça en vain de réaliser, une machine à calculer commandée par un programme enregistré sur des cartes perforées, qui peut être regardée comme l'ancêtre des ordinateurs.

34 En 1822 Babbage a conçu un Engin Différentiel (Difference Engine ) pour calculer automatiquementDifference Engine des tables de fonctions mathématiques. Il navait pas fini la réalisation de cette machine quand il est arrivé à lidée dune machine plus sophistiquée quil a appelée Engin Analytique (Analytical Engine). Cette dernière machine devait avoir des traits des ordinateurs modernes : contrôle séquentiel branchement boucles. Lutilisation des cartes perforées a été prévue pour introduire les programmes et les données.

35 Augusta Ada Lovelace Byron, (Augusta) Ada, Countess of Lovelace ( ) Mathématicienne britannique. Fille du poéte George Gordon Byron Brillante mathématicienne, Ada était parmi le petit nombre de personnes qui ont vraiment compris la vision de Babbage. Elle a programmé pour Engin Analytique. Sa contribution dans le développement de linformatique a été honorée par lattribution de son prénom au langage de programmation Ada.

36 Machine de Babbage

37 Babbage a travaillé sur le développement de son Engin Analytique depuis 1830 jusquà sa mort en 1871, mais malheureusement il na jamais été fini. On dit souvent que lobstacle principal était le niveau de technologie de cette époque. Cest discutable car en 1834 deux ingénieurs suédois Georg et Edward Scheutz ont construit une petite machine différentielle selon la description de Babbage.

38 1837: Le télégraphe britannique a été inventé par Sir Charles Wheatstone (il a aussi inventé laccordéon) et Sir William Fothergill Cooke, ingénieur Ce télégraphe utilisait 5 fils pour coder les lettres La même année un inventeur américain Samuel Finley Breese Morse a développé le premier télégraphe américain (breveté en 1840 ) qui utilisait ce quon appelle le code de Morse (point – tiret) transmis via un seul fil Samuel Finley Breese Morse (1791 – 1872), inventeur et peintre américain Les deux méthodes sont utilisées pour la transmission de données dans les systèmes informatiques modernes.

39

40 George Boole Lincoln Ballintemple, près de Cork, 1864 Au temps où Babbage luttait pour construire son Engin Analytique George Boole, mathématicien et logicien britannique, a posé les fondements dune partie importante de la logique mathématique moderne (l'algèbre de Boole). Vrai = 1, Faux=0 X et Y est vrai (X et Y)=1 X=1 et Y=1 XY=1 conjonction (X ou Y) = 0 (XvY) =0 X=0 et Y=0 disjonction ¬X=1 X=0 négation X·(YvZ) = X·Y v X·Z

41 Augustus De Morgan a fondé, en même temps que Boole, la logique des classes et des relations, et formalisé un ensemble dopérations logiques connues aujourdhui comme les transformations de De Morgan. Un autre mathématicien britannique Augustus De Morgan ¬(X·Y) = (¬X v ¬Y)

42 Herman Hollerith Buffalo Washington 1929, USA Ingénieur américain. Il inventa les machines à statistiques à cartes perforées de Jacquard (1880) et fonda la Tabulating Machine Corporation (1896), qui deviendra IBM en 1924.

43 Tabulateur de Hollerith

44 1895: Guglielmo Marconi transmet un signal radio : Brevet pour le premier télégraphe sans fil. Guglielmo Marconi Bologne Rome 1937

45 1904: Sir John Ambrose Fleming ( ), ingénieur britannique, invente la lampe à vide (diode) 1906: Lee de Forest fait une triode cathode anode grille de contrôle triode Le courant passe ou ne passe pas de la cathode à lanode en fonction de la tension sur la grille. Ce phénomène peut modéliser une commutation (switch) de 2 états.

46 1908: Campbell Swinton, scientifique britannique, décrit une méthode de balayage électronique (electronic scanning) qui présage lutilisation du tube à rayons cathodiques pour la télévision 1915: Manson Benedicks, physicien, découvre que le cristal de germanium peut être utilisé pour convertir le courant alternatif en courant continu; cela présage les puces (microchips) 1917: Le mot "robot" (dérivé du mot tchèque pour travail) est introduit par Karel Čapek ( ) dans sa pièce de théâtre R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots).

47 1927: la première démonstration de TV aux Etats-Unis. Le son est transmis via les fils téléphoniques. 1928: Vladimir Zworykin invente le Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) qui sera utilisé comme le premier élément de mémoire dordinateur Vladimir Zworykin (Mourom 1889, Russie - Princeton 1982, USA) Ingénieur américain d'origine russe. Surtout connu pour son invention de l'iconoscope (1934), premier d'une longue lignée de tubes électroniques utilisés en télévision. 1929: Des signaux de TV en couleur sont transmis. 1928: Lhorloge à cristal de quartz rend possible une précision de maintenance du temps sans précédent.

48 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Konrad Zuse (Berlin Hünfeld 1995) Ingénieur allemand. En 1941 il a construit lordinateur électromécanique Z3, qui utilisait la numération binaire et le procédé de calcul en virgule flottante, et qui peut être considéré comme le premier ordinateur. Zuse a développé un des premiers langages de programmation Electromécanique veut dire que pour implémenter les commutations entre 2 états on utilise des relais électromécaniques.

49 1934: Konrad Zuse commence son travail sur la conception dordinateurs. Il comprend quun ordinateur doit avoir un contrôle, une mémoire et une unité arithmétique 1936: Zuse comprend que des programmes composés de suites de bits peuvent être mis dans la mémoire (stored) et dépose un brevet. 1938: Zuse costruit le Z1 -- le premier ordinateur numérique binaire électromécanique (digital electromechanical binary computer) du monde. Il raffine la conception qui donne le Z : Konrad Zuse achève le Z2 qui utilise les relais téléphoniques à la place des circuits logiques mécaniques.

50 Le lien entre lalgèbre de Boole et les circuits de commutation a été compris en 1886 par Charles Pierce ( ), mathématicien, logicien, philosophe américain Cette idée est devenue opérationnelle seulement en 1938 après la publication de la thèse de Claude Elwood Shannon ( , USA)

51 Système binaire: système positionnel de base 2 7 = 1· · ·2 0 4 = 1· · · = =1011= 1· · · ·2 0 X+Y=UZ (laddition de 2 bits) : Z = X+Y mod2 = (X v Y) · (¬X v ¬ Y) U = X·Y Les tables daddition et de multiplication sont très simples: 0+0=1+1=0, 0+1=1+0=1 0·0=0·1=1·0=0, 1·1=1 (conjonction) Un transistor peut représenter 2 états: le courant passe ou ne passe pas entre Emetteur et Collecteur en fonction de la tension sur la Base. Base Emetteur Collecteur

52 Peut être utilisé comme commutateur (switch) Conjonction A·B Cest une idée très approximative car il faut contrôler les commutations!

53 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : George Robert Stibitz ( , USA) de Bell Laboratories construit une machine numérique électromécanique : il réalise une connexion entre son ordinateur et une télé imprimante qui permet de communiquer avec lordinateur à distance (le premier exemple de calcul à distance)

54 1939– 1941: John Vincent Atanasoff et un étudiant brillant Clifford E. Berry développent le premier ordinateur électronique ABC ( ). Il nétait ni universel (seulement solution des équations différentielles), ni vraiment fonctionnel. John Vincent Atanasoff ( ) Clifford E. Berry ( )

55 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Machines allemandes de chiffrement Enigma La cryptanalyse pendant la guerre de a stimulé le développement des ordinateurs Lorenz Plus compliqué quEnigma

56 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Contribution polonaise : ils ont cassé la première Enigma militaire, développé les premiers éléments de la cryptanalyse moderne et construit une machine mécanique « Bomba » quils ont utilisée pour ce décryptage. Marian Adam Rejewski (1905 – 1980) Henryk Zygalski ( )

57 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Bletchley Park. Le centre britannique de linterception et du décryptage pendant la guerre Aujourdhui cest un musée.

58 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Bletchley Park Alan Mathison Turing Londres Wilmslow, Cheshire, : article On computable numbers Introduit les notions de machine de Turing. et de machine universelle. La notion de machine universelle a permit déclaircir la structure des ordinateurs avec le programme stocké dans la mémoire. Cela a été fait par John von Neumann qui connaissait bien cette notion.

59 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Bletchley Park Bombe (nommé après Bombe polonais) Une machine électromécanique utilisée par A. Turing à Bletchley Park pour le décryptage

60 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. COLOSSUS Le premier ordinateur électronique vraiment fonctionnel 1943 [December]: Colossus, un ordinateur britannique électronique (vacuum tube computer), est opérationnel au Bletchley Park grâce à Alan Turing, Tommy Flowers et M.H.A. Newman. Il a joué un rôle crucial dans le décryptage des chiffrements allemands.

61 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Bletchley Park COLOSSUS 2

62 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator), Lordinateur entièrement électronique développé et construit sous la direction de John Eckert (1919 – 1995, USA ) et John William Mauchly ( , USA) Lancêtre des ordinateurs commerciaux

63 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. John William Mauchly ( )

64 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. J. Presper Eckert Jr.J. Presper Eckert Jr., Philadelphie Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvanie, 1995

65 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) [1946]

66 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. ENIAC: un monstre de 30 tonnes, 200 kW de consommation dénergie nécessitait un climatisation puissante lampes électroniques 500 relais Des centaines de milliers de résistances, condensateurs, inducteurs 42 boîtes 180x60x30 cm Données: cartes perforées Programme: connexions à la main Multiplication de 2 nombres de 10 chiffres: 3,5 ms Un portable moderne est au moins 10 millions fois plus puissant

67 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received [June]: John von Neumann clarifie le concept de programme stocké dans le rapport du 30 Juin 1945 sur la conception de lEDVAC. Cela donne le terme « larchitecture de von Neumann » Johann ou John von Neumann ( Budapest Washington 1957) 1945: J. Presper Eckert et John Mauchly signe un contrat pour construire lEDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer ).

68 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Le premier `bug dans le contexte de calcul à laide dun ordinateur. 9/9/1945 : une mite (phalène) a bloqué un relais de Mark II au Naval Weapons Center à Dahlgren, Virginia. Il a été mis dans le rapport ("First actual case of a bug being found.)

69 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. La découverte de ce bug est traditionnellement attribuée à lAmiral (1983) Grace Murray Hopper ( ) mais peut-être elle nétait pas là. Elle est un pionnier dans la construction des compilateurs.

70 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. In fact the word "bug" was already being used in Thomas Edison's time toThomas Edison's imply a glitch, error, or defect in a mechanical system or an industrial process. Furthermore, "bug" was used as far back as Shakespearean times meaning a frightful object (derived from a Welsh mythological monster called the "Bugbear") (commencé en 1948): UNIVAC. Le premier ordinateur commercial. Il y a un avis que le mot "bug" nétait pas utilisé dans ce sens auparavant. Non :

71 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received (décembre ) : Le premier transistor en germanium (point-contact transistor). Bell Laboratories, USA. William Shockley ( ), Walter Brattain ( ) et John Bardeen ( ) 1950: First bipolar junction transistor. Shockley. Plus fiable.

72

73 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. 1952: G.W.A. Dummer, spécialiste en radar britannique, conçoit les circuits intégrés (article). 1958: Jack Kilby, Texas Instruments, fabrique le premier circuit intégré sur germanium. 1961: Robert Noyce, Fairchild Semiconductor, fabrique un circuit intégré sur silicium, plus compliqué. Kilby ( ) Noyce

74 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : le premier microprocesseur, Intel 4004 Intel 4040: 740 KHz, 24-pin – la même vitesse que Intel 4004, une plus grande mémoire Intel 4004 Ce microprocesseur intègre les opérations logiques, arithmétiques etc., la mémoire et dautres services

75 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : microprocesseur Intel 8008, une grande réussite 1973 (mai) : le premier micro-ordinateur Micral (France). ……………………………………………………………… : l'Osborne 1, le premier ordinateur portable (presque 10 kg), fut mis sur le marché : Apple commercialisa le Macintosh qui a donné un « standard » de PC (personal computer), en particulier dinterface graphique avec les icônes. Apple II, fin des années 70 Apple Macintosh Steve Jobs Steve Wozniak

76 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Superordinateurs 1976: Sortie du premier Cray, le Cray-1. Succès total, avec 160 MegaFlops (Flop floating point operation. Les opérations avec la virgule flottante sont les plus lentes. Lidée de la virgule flottante : si on a 10 chiffres on peut mettre la virgule dans différentes positions, cela permet davoir soit la partie entière plus grande soit une plus grande précision. ) Seymour Roger Cray ( ), USA

77 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Super-ordinateurs 2005: BlueGene/L, IBM, jusquà 136 TeraFlops Processeur: Power PC 440 GHz (2.8 GFlops)

78 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : Alan Turing écrit de lintelligence artificielle. Il introduit « Le test de Turing » pour mesurer « lintelligence » dun ordinateur. (Après combien de tentatives devine-t-on quon parle avec un ordinateur et non avec un être humain.) LOGICIEL (SOFTWARE) Premiers langages de programmation: -- C. Babbage, A. Lovelace -- K. Zuse -- G. Hopper ……………………………………….

79 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Fortran. (Formula Translator). Le premier langage de programmation moderne. Conçu en 1954 sous la direction de John Backus (né en 1924) Langages de programmation modernes Compilateur: ,000 lignes de code machine Fortran, qui évolue, est largement utilisé aujourdhui pour le calcul scientifique : météo, séismologie, aérodynamique (avions, missiles), hydrodynamique (bateaux, sous- marins), physique (nucléaire, …), mécanique, … Ce sont les domaines dapplication des super-ordinateurs.

80 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Algol : 1958, équipe internationale (avec participation de J. Backus) Ada : les années Initiative du Ministère de la défense des Etats-Unis Smalltalk: (version moderne), langage orienté objet. Alan Kay. Alan Kay Simula : 1967, le premier langage orienté objet. Ole-Johan Dahl et Kristen Nygaard, Oslo Ole-Johan Dahl Kristen Nygaard

81 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Unix et C (les années 70). LUnix fleurit, et il nourrit linformatique jusquà aujourdhui. Cest le système dexploitation (operating system) le plus connu. Dennis Ritchie (né en 1941) Kenneth Thompson (né en 1943)

82 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. DOS: 1973 – : MS-DOS 1988 : MS-DOS avec interface graphique et la souris 1995 : Windows 95 (basé sur MS-DOS 7.0) 1984 : le début de MacOS. Linterface des ordinateurs Apple reste la meilleure interface dutilisateur, et leurs systèmes dexploitations sont les plus fiables parmi les systèmes répandus (Windows, Linux). Remarquons que les systèmes MacOS 10+ sont fondés sur Unix. MacOS1 interface

83 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Souris: 1964, Doug Engelbart (né en 1925) Lutilisation commerciale 20 ans plus tard. Doug Engelbart est un des pionniers de lInternet 1968 : il réalise la première vidéo conférence

84 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. Réseaux 1967 : Lawrence G. Roberts publie un article sur Arpanet 1969: Arpanet est opérationnel Le premier réseau global ARPA : Advanced Research Projects Agency Ministère de la défense des Etats Unis

85 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received. 1971: Ray Tomlinson envoie le premier message 1973: ordinateur PC Alto avec une souris, lEthernet et une interface Graphique. La contribution principale est faite par Robert Metcalfe (né en 1946) Il a participé aussi dans le développement de lArpanet 1975: Metcalfe développe lEthernet pour le premier réseau local (LAN) Les années 70 : Développement de lEthernet (les services en matériel et en logiciel pour faire des réseaux locaux)

86 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : les premiers téléphones cellulaires sont testés à Chicago et au Japon 1983 : le passage aux TCP/IP de lArpanet marque la création de lInternet global Les auteurs des protocoles TCP/IP TCP= Transmission Control Protocol, IP = Internet Protocol. TCP/IP est une famille de protocoles qui permettent de partager les ressources des réseaux globaux. Ils sont le fondement des réseaux modernes.

87 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : DNS (Domain Name System) : Network Working Group. Les adresses sont attribuées par Network Information Center (NIC). Pour être visible sur le web il vous faut avoir un nom enregistré dans Le DNS : le World Wide Web (www) est conçu par Tim Berners-Lee au CERN (Centre Européen de la Recherche Nucléaire) Le premier prototype est créé en 1990.

88 The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! The Mark I was constructed out of switches, relays, rotating shafts, and clutches, and was described as sounding like a "roomful of ladies knitting." The machine contained more than 750,000 components, was 50 feet long, 8 feet tall, and weighed approximately 5 tons! a IBM automatic sequence controlled calculator (ASCC) (Courtesy of IBM) Although the Mark I is considered to be the first digital computer, its architecture was significantly different from modern machines. The device consisted of many calculators which worked on parts of the same problem under the guidance of a single control unit. Instructions were read in on paper tape, data was provided on punched cards, and the device could only perform operations in the sequence in which they were received : Le système américain de positionnement par satellite est craqué par un hacker de 14 ans 1991 : Paul Linder et Mark McCahill créent le premier browser pour lInternet Gopher 1993 : Mosaic, le premier browser graphique est créé par Marc Andreessen à lUniversité dIllinois à Urbana-Champaign 1997 : plus de 150 pays sont connectés à lInternet Il est un des fondateurs de Netscape

89 On arrive à lépoque de la recherche et de la protection dinformation Recherche : exemple Google Google Boys - Sergy Brin & Larry Page Le mot « Google » a été introduit en 1938 par Milton Sirotta, un neveu de 9 ans du Mathématicien américain Edward Kasner pour nommer le nombre représenté par 1 suivi par cent zéros. Google utilise ce terme pour souligner le but de cette entreprise de faire une quantité immense dinformation accessible sur le Web.

90 Linformatique daujourdhui est en pleine expansion. On voit un progrès impressionnant dans les applications de linformatique non traditionnelles : réalité virtuelle, intelligence artificielle, contrôle de robots, conception et analyse industrielle, biologie, … Modélisation du comportement dun enzyme à laide dun super-ordinateur

91 Parmi les grands défis de linformatique daujourdhui on trouve -- le problème de la qualité du logiciel -- le problème de lutilisation et de lanalyse des énormes quantités de données disponibles -- le problème de la sécurité des systèmes informatique …………………………………………………………………………..


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