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Monitoring the learner – who, why and what for? Jean-Claude Bertin, Université du Havre, France Jean-Paul Narcy-Combes, Université Paris 3, France.

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Présentation au sujet: "Monitoring the learner – who, why and what for? Jean-Claude Bertin, Université du Havre, France Jean-Paul Narcy-Combes, Université Paris 3, France."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Monitoring the learner – who, why and what for? Jean-Claude Bertin, Université du Havre, France Jean-Paul Narcy-Combes, Université Paris 3, France

2 Content 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical assumptions 3. Defining terms 4. Technological mediation 5. Understanding relations in the models 6. Impact of theory on practical issues

3 Epistemological position: technological capacities must be questioned in the terms of SLA theory (Chapelle) Epistemological position: technological capacities must be questioned in the terms of SLA theory (Chapelle) Practical position: monitoring must have clearly defined objectives Practical position: monitoring must have clearly defined objectives Monitoring depends on the theoretical model of the learning situation on which the system is based. Monitoring depends on the theoretical model of the learning situation on which the system is based. Theoretical assumptions :Because of the very nature of the human faculty of language and its indissociable relationship with society,culture and human knowledge, our assumption is that L2 acquisition is made easier if learning activities combine real-world, content-based, socially and culturally viable activities. Language production is seen as the result of a dual-processing system (rule and exemplar-based)(Ellis, Skehan). Theoretical assumptions :Because of the very nature of the human faculty of language and its indissociable relationship with society,culture and human knowledge, our assumption is that L2 acquisition is made easier if learning activities combine real-world, content-based, socially and culturally viable activities. Language production is seen as the result of a dual-processing system (rule and exemplar-based)(Ellis, Skehan). Introduction

4 From didactic relation to task (theoretical assumptions) From a systemic perspective of language to communication and the European Framework. Which indicators for a qualitative monitoring of learner activity + language production and mediation? European action-based learning : sociocultural theory (Vygostki) and collaborative work.

5 From didactic relation to task (theoretical assumptions) Authenticity of task vs authenticity of document Authenticity of task vs authenticity of document A shift in references: language production – from systemics to social act. A shift in references: language production – from systemics to social act.

6 Defining terms TEACHER TUTOR LEARNER TASK help (software) aids (hardware) monitoring Mediation Mediation Help Help Aids Aids Monitoring Monitoring Follow-up Follow-up Feedback Feedback Scaffolding Scaffolding help (software) follow-upfeedback scaffolding human tutor machine tutor retroaction on task and/or form of mediation mediation

7 Technological mediation and learning situation the learning cycle

8 The learning cycle Environment, objectives, individuality LEARNING SYSTEM Tutor/learner meetings Organizing « progress » Interaction (macro-tasks) CONTENT DISCIPLINE Evaluation / critical information Is noticing efficient ? CONTENT : LANGUAGE INTEGRATION (1)(2) Restructuring Training (micro-tasks with Deep-processing) LANGUAGE Aids : yes / Help : yes Feedback : yes Scaffolding : by teacher Monitoring : yes Follow-up : yes Objective : create needs Aids : yes / Help : no Feedback : if problems Scaffolding : by peers Monitoring : yes Follow-up : yes (2)

9 How distance plays on the model

10 Understanding relations in the models (expliciting the meaning of the arrows) Focusing on the RELATIONS between the poles of the model. Focusing on the RELATIONS between the poles of the model. Various types of guidance may co-exist within a learning environment. Various types of guidance may co-exist within a learning environment.

11 How does theory affect our question: what is monitoring for? What should be noticed (tracked) – knowledge or learning paths? What should be noticed (tracked) – knowledge or learning paths? Learning paths: do they reveal learning strategies? Learning paths: do they reveal learning strategies? Are these strategies of a linguistic (systemic), interactionnal or pragmatic nature? Are these strategies of a linguistic (systemic), interactionnal or pragmatic nature?

12 What is to be monitored ? Learner macro-activity Learner macro-activity Learner micro-activity Learner micro-activity In relation with the object of learning (SLA perspectives) In relation with the object of learning (SLA perspectives) Data used for monitoring will depend on the answers to these questions. Data used for monitoring will depend on the answers to these questions. Language used or strategies chosen? Language used or strategies chosen?

13 Putting theory into practice: ex. 1 Writing task (Learning Lab Suite online) Tutor /Peer feedback «Rule» Vs «Exemplars» learning

14 Putting theory into practice - example 2 Cognitive agents (University of Le Havre) Research programme : linguistics / education / computer sciences Using multi-layer / multi-agents systems to monitor learner activity and offer individualized feedback in distant learning environments How to devise a cognitive agent for distance language learning (Bertin, Gravé)

15 Conclusion… ? Final objective of monitoring : trace features of socio- cognitive and emotional conflicts (in order to provide help for their resolution) Final objective of monitoring : trace features of socio- cognitive and emotional conflicts (in order to provide help for their resolution) Suggesting (not controlling) alternative strategies and paths (scaffolfing Suggesting (not controlling) alternative strategies and paths (scaffolfing Monitoring modalities: human and/or technological mediation – proaction/reaction Monitoring modalities: human and/or technological mediation – proaction/reaction Research perspectives : opening new grounds for monitoring systems in computer-mediated learning environments… Research perspectives : opening new grounds for monitoring systems in computer-mediated learning environments…

16 A few references… Jean-Paul Narcy-Combes : Jean-Claude Bertin : BERTIN Jean-Claude, Des outils pour des langues - Multimédia et apprentissage des langues, Ellipses, Paris, 2001 BERTIN Jean-Claude, Des outils pour des langues - Multimédia et apprentissage des langues, Ellipses, Paris, 2001 BERTIN Jean-Claude, ANNOOT Emmanuelle, GRAVE Patrick, « Quelles médiations dans les formations à distance avec les nouvelles technologies dans lEnseignement Supérieur ? », rapport de recherche IRSHS, Janvier claude.bertin/SiteBertin.htm BERTIN Jean-Claude, ANNOOT Emmanuelle, GRAVE Patrick, « Quelles médiations dans les formations à distance avec les nouvelles technologies dans lEnseignement Supérieur ? », rapport de recherche IRSHS, Janvier claude.bertin/SiteBertin.htmhttp://perso.wanadoo.fr/jean- claude.bertin/SiteBertin.htmhttp://perso.wanadoo.fr/jean- claude.bertin/SiteBertin.htm BERTIN Jean-Claude, GRAVE Patrick, « How to design a cognitive agent for distance language learning », CALICO? 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