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Variations Stratégiques et Vieillissement Patrick LEMAIRE Master 1 – EAV.

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Présentation au sujet: "Variations Stratégiques et Vieillissement Patrick LEMAIRE Master 1 – EAV."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 Variations Stratégiques et Vieillissement Patrick LEMAIRE Master 1 – EAV

2 Vieillissement et Stratégies Existe-t-il des variations stratégiques au cours du vieillissement? Si oui, lesquelles? Ces variations sont-elles déterminantes des différences jeunes-âgés? Quels sont les facteurs affectant ces variations stratégiques? Quels sont les mécanismes à la base des variations stratégiques?

3 STRATEGIC VARIATIONS AND COGNITIVE AGING No Strat. Variations Memory Glynn et al.,83; Rankin et al.,84; Rice & Meyer, 85; Wodd & Pratt, 87; Parkinson et al., 82; Hertzog & Dunlosky, 98 Language Cohen & Faulkner, 83; Stine, 96 Problem solv. Reason., and Decision Making Salthouse & Prill, 87; Salthouse, 87; Salthouse et al., 90; Lemaire & Arnaud, 2008 Strategic Variations Memory Cimbalo & Brink, 82; Thomas, 85; Sanders et al., 80; Verhaeghen & Marcoen, 94 Language Adams et al., 90; Reder et al., 86 Problem solv. Reason., and Decision Making Charness, 81, 82; Salthouse et al., 88; Lemaire et al., 2004; Mata et al., 2007

4 STRATEGIC VARIATIONS AND COGNITIVE AGING: Limits of previous works No appropriate conceptual framework What are the right questions? No appropriate methodological approach How to best investigate strategic variations?

5 Aspects of Strategic Changes Changes SelectionExecution Lemaire & Siegler, 95, JEP:Gen. RepertoireDistribution

6 Dimensions (Variations) Stratégiques Répertoire: Liste des stratégies disponibles pour une tâche donnée Distribution: Fréquence dutilisation des stratégies disponibles Exécution: Performances (Vitesse, précision) obtenue avec chaque stratégie Sélection: Choix stratégique (sur chaque type de problème, dans chaque type de situation).

7 Age-related differences in Strategy Repertoire Do young and older adults use the same strategies to accomplish cognitive tasks?

8 Strategy identification methods Direct approach Indirect approach

9 Direct approach: Principle Collecting as many external behavioral evidence (verbal reports, video-recordings, direct observ°) of strategies as possible

10 Direct approach: Example of arithmetic / Arnaud & Lemaire, 2008 (Cortex) Finger Counting Direct Retrieval

11 Two-digit addition problem solving: Use of 9 strategies Strategies Example (12+46) 1 - Rounding the first operand down( ) Rounding the second operand down( ) Rounding both operands down( ) + (2 + 6) 4 - Columnar retrieval(2 + 6) + ( ) 5 - Rounding the first operand up( ) Rounding the second operand up( ) Rounding both operands up( ) Borrowing units Retrieving58 Lemaire & Arnaud, 2008 (AJP)

12 Effect of Age on Number of Strat. * Lemaire & Arnaud, 2008 (AJP)

13 Aging, EF, & Strategy Repertoire -91% -63% -89% Hodzik & Lemaire, 2011

14 Indirect approach: Principle « The use of multiple strategies is inferred from the patterns of speed and accuracy that arise as a function of the factors that define the stimulus set » (Lemaire & Reder, 1997, p. 365)

15 Indirect Approach: Example 1 8x5 < 41 vs. 8x5< 47

16 RT differences -> Strategy Differences Duverne & Lemaire, 2004 (JoG:PS) Exhaustive verificationApproximate verification

17 Age x Problem * Duverne & Lemaire, 2004 (JoG:PS)

18 ERP Data YoungOlder Fixation First Second operand Small Large Second operand El Yagoubi, Lemaire, & Besson, 2005 (JoCN) 215 ms

19 Vieillissement et Variations Stratégiques. Recherches actuelles: Parity-rule violation effects 4x17=64 4x17=67 TR Lemaire & Reder, 1997

20 Vieillissement et Variations Stratégiques. Recherches actuelles Five-rule violation effects 5x17=90 5x17=89 TR 5x17=84 ?

21 Vieillissement et Variations Stratégiques: Recherches actuelles Five-rule violation only: 27x5=143 Parity-rule violation: 26x5=125 Five-/Parity-rule violation: 29x5=142 No-rule violation: 67x5=345

22 Predictions w/ rule violation 29x5=142 27x5=14326x5=12567x5=345 RT FPV FVPVNV

23 Aspects of Strategic Changes Changes Lemaire & Siegler, 95 (JEP:Gen). RepertoireDistribution

24 How many dots?

25 Age effects on % use of Benchmark Gandini, Lemaire, & Dufau (2009)

26 Vieillissement et Distributions Strategiques

27 Vieillissement, Distributions Stratégiques en mémoire épisodique

28 Aspects of Strategic Changes Changes Selection Lemaire & Siegler, 95, JEP:Gen. RepertoireDistribution

29 Computational estimation 43 x 59 Rounding – Down 40 x50 Rounding – Up 50 x60 Task: Select the best strategy to find the best estimate

30 Age-related changes in best strategy selection

31 Aspects of Strategic Changes Changes SelectionExecution Lemaire & Siegler, 95, JEP:Gen. RepertoireDistribution

32 Comptage et additions répétées: TR

33 Aging, EF, Strategy Selection -39% -44% Hodzik & Lemaire, 2011

34 Aging, Processing Speed, and Strategy Selection -70% Duverne & Lemaire, 2004 Age

35 Problem Size Effects 3x47x8 4x69x7 2x36x9 Retrieval Repeated Additions 3.9 sec.18.8 sec.

36 Age effects on Strategy Execution: Numerosity Estimation Benchmark vs. Anchoring CHOICE NO-CHOICE Benchmark Anchoring Gandini, Lemaire, & Dufau (2008)

37 Age x Strategies (no-choice latencies) Gandini, Lemaire, & Dufau (2009)

38 Benchmark Strategy in Young Adults L R Insula Postcentral Gyrus

39 Benchmark strategy Postcentral Gyrus Retrievaing Memory representations of numerosities Insula selection of one of the potential candidates Numerical comparison tasks e.g., Chochon, Cohen, van de Moortele, & Dehaene, 1999; Dehaene, 1996 Phonological loop/articulatory processes e.g., Paulesu, et al., 1993; Venkatram, et al., 2005

40 Benchmark strategy in Older Adults L R Postcentral Gyrus Precentral Gyrus Inferior Parietal Lobule - Middle Gyrus - Lingual Gyrus Occipital Areas: Insula

41 Aging & Strategic Variations: New Directions Issue 1: Strategy selection: Strategy repetition effects Issue 2: Strategy execution: Strategy sequential difficulty effects

42 Strategy Selection: Strategy Repetition Lemaire & Leclère, revision 61x37 36x24 52x46 61x37 52x46 36x24 jkmekl One-PrimeTwo-Prime

43 Aging & Strategy Repetitions Leclere & Lemaire, submitted

44 Strategy Repetitions during Normal and Pathological Aging Leclere & Lemaire, submitted

45 Strategy Execution: Strategy Sequential Difficulty Effects 52 x 63 RD 47 x 23 MR 56 x 69 RU 47 x 23 MR

46 Strategy Sequential Difficulty Effects Uittenhove & Lemaire, 2012 Uittenhove & Lemaire, in press 277 ms* 180 ms* 1591 ms*


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