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LE SYSTEM DIGESTIF Biologie F 11 CHS lyon1.fr/physiogerland/sys_digestif/page%20html/pr%E9- requis%202.html.

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Présentation au sujet: "LE SYSTEM DIGESTIF Biologie F 11 CHS lyon1.fr/physiogerland/sys_digestif/page%20html/pr%E9- requis%202.html."— Transcription de la présentation:

1 LE SYSTEM DIGESTIF Biologie F 11 CHS lyon1.fr/physiogerland/sys_digestif/page%20html/pr%E9- requis%202.html

2 SYSTEM DIGESTIF

3 Le Processus Digestif Le processus commence dans la bouche: La nourriture est partiellement briser par le processus de mâcher (mastication). La nourriture est partiellement briser par le processus de mâcher (mastication). Les glands salivaires produit la salive et brises lamidon (starche) chimiquement. Les glands salivaires produit la salive et brises lamidon (starche) chimiquement.

4 Le chemin a lestomac L œsophage – Après que la nourriture est mâcher et avaler, ca descend lœsophage. Lœsophage est un longue tube qui conduit de la bouche a lestomac. Les muscles de lœsophage contracte rythmiquement (appeler peristalse) pour pousser la nourriture de la gorge a lestomac.

5 Dans lestomac Lestomac est un grand organe dans la forme dun sac. La nourriture est tourbillonner (churned) dans lestomac et lacide gastrique est ajoute pour aider la digestion. Nourriture dans lestomac qui est partiellement digérer et mélanger avec lacide est appeler chyme.

6 Intestin grele Après lestomac, la nourriture entre le duodénum, le premier partie du intestin grêle. Puis il entre le jéjunum et puis le iléon (le dernier partie de lintestin grêle). Dans lintestin grêle, la bile (produit dans le foie et emmagasiner dans la vésicule biliaire), les enzymes pancréatique, et dautres enzymes produit par les murs de lintestin grêle aide a briser la nourriture.

7 Le Gros Intestin Après lintestin grêle, la nourriture entre le gros intestin. Dans lintestin, leau et les électrolytes (le sel) sont enlever du nourriture et retourner au sang. Plusieurs microbes (bactérie etc.) aide le digestion dans le gros intestin. Le premier partie de lintestin est appeler caecum (lappendice est connecter a le caecum). La nourriture voyage en haute dans le colon ascendant, puis a travers labdomen dans le colon transverse et ensuite descend le colon descendant sur lautre cote du corps. Finalement, ca passe a travers le colon sigmoïde.

8 Le fin du processus Les déchets solides sont emmagasiner dans le rectum jusquau temps quil peut être évacuer par lanus.

9 LABSORPTION et TRANSPORT des NUTRIMENTS Digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals from the diet, are absorbed from the cavity of the upper small intestine. Most absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood and are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change Digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals from the diet, are absorbed from the cavity of the upper small intestine. Most absorbed materials cross the mucosa into the blood and are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change

10 Hydrates de Carbone Digestible carbohydrates are broken into simpler molecules by enzymes in the saliva, in juice produced by the pancreas, and in the lining of the small intestine. Starch is digested in two steps: First, an enzyme in the saliva and pancreatic juice breaks the starch into molecules called maltose; then an enzyme in the lining of the small intestine (maltase) splits the maltose into glucose molecules that can be absorbed into the blood. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to the liver, where it is stored or used to provide energy for the work of the body.

11 Protein Protein is digested by enzymes before they can be used to build and repair body tissues. Protein is digested by enzymes before they can be used to build and repair body tissues. An enzyme in the juice of the stomach starts the digestion of swallowed protein. An enzyme in the juice of the stomach starts the digestion of swallowed protein. Further digestion of the protein is completed in the small intestine. Here, several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the lining of the intestine carry out the breakdown of huge protein molecules into small molecules called amino acids. Further digestion of the protein is completed in the small intestine. Here, several enzymes from the pancreatic juice and the lining of the intestine carry out the breakdown of huge protein molecules into small molecules called amino acids.

12 Lipids The first step in digestion of a fat is to dissolve it into the watery content of the intestinal cavity. The first step in digestion of a fat is to dissolve it into the watery content of the intestinal cavity. The bile acids produced by the liver act as natural detergents to dissolve fat in water and allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller molecules, some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol. The bile acids produced by the liver act as natural detergents to dissolve fat in water and allow the enzymes to break the large fat molecules into smaller molecules, some of which are fatty acids and cholesterol. The bile acids combine with the fatty acids and cholesterol and help these molecules to move into the cells of the mucosa. The bile acids combine with the fatty acids and cholesterol and help these molecules to move into the cells of the mucosa. The blood carries the fat to storage depots in different parts of the body. The blood carries the fat to storage depots in different parts of the body.

13 Vitamines Another vital part of our food that is absorbed from the small intestine is the class of chemicals we call vitamins. Another vital part of our food that is absorbed from the small intestine is the class of chemicals we call vitamins. The two different types of vitamins are classified by the fluid in which they can be dissolved: water-soluble vitamins (all the B vitamins and vitamin C) and water-soluble vitamins (all the B vitamins and vitamin C) and fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and K). fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, and K).


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