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Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, 12-16 novembre 2007 GIS Fundamentals/ Geographic Database Design.

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1 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS Fundamentals/ Geographic Database Design

2 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS Concepts Information cycle: Data/Information/System/Information System Geographic Information System Main Components/Characteristics Geographic Database Data Modeling Data Representation Spatial Analysis Implementing a GIS

3 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Information Cycle ( Contexte d é mergence des SIG) Territory Information Decision DSS GIS Data

4 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data / Information Information is the result of interpretation of relations existing between a certain number of single elements (called data). Example: The Museum located at 5 th Avenue, NY, was built in Data: Museum, address, year of construction.

5 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 System A system is a set organized globally and comprising elements which coordinate for working towards doing a result. Example: Water supply system Elements: pipes, valves, hydrants, water meters, pumps, reservoirs, etc.

6 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Information System (IS) An Information System is a set organized globally and comprising elements (data, logiciel, equipment, procedures, users) that coordinate for working towards doing a result (information).

7 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS: G & IS Definition: A GIS is a collection of computer hardware and software, geographic data, methods, and personnel assembled to capture, store, analyze and display geographically referenced information in order to resolve complex problems of management and planning.

8 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 SIG: Système dInformation «Géographique»: Définition: Un SIG peut être défini comme un ensemble organisé intégrant le matériel, le logiciel, le personnel, les méthodes et les données nécessaires pour permettre la saisie, le stockage, lanalyse et laffichage de linformation géoréférencée en vue de résoudre des problèmes complexes de gestion et de planification.

9 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Components of a GIS

10 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS Components Input Output Maps Census Field Data RS Data Others Reports Maps Photo. Products Statistics Input Data for models Data Capture Storage Manipulation Analysis Display GIS Models Other GIS User Interface Geographic Data Geographic Information

11 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS: Main Characteristics Integration of Multiple data: - Sources - Scales - Formats Geographic Database Spatial Analysis

12 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GPS/ air photos/ satellite images Census/ Tabular data Picture & Multimedia Maps Data from multiple sources-at multiple scales-in multiple formats

13 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 To integrate geographic data from many different sources, we need to use a consistent spatial referencing system for all data sets Referencing map features: Coordinate systems & map projections

14 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 The Latitude/Longitude reference system latitude φ : angle from the equator to the parallel longitude λ : angle from Greenwich meridian

15 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Map Projections Curved surface of the earth needs to be flattened to be presented on a map: Map Projection Projections are classified according to which properties they preserve: area, distance, shape and angles, Some distortion is inevitable: Less distortion if maps show only small areas, but large if the entire earth is shown

16 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Minimal distortions of area, angles, distance and shape at large and medium scales Very popular for large and medium scale mapping (e.g., topographic maps) Cylindrical projection with a central meridian that is specific to a standard UTM zone 60 zones of longitude around the world

17 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Space as an indexing system

18 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 The concept of cartographic scale Scale is the ratio between distances on a map and the corresponding distances on the earths surface e.g., a scale of 1:100,000 means that 1 cm on the map corresponds to 100,000 cm or 1 km in the real world Small scale: small fraction such as 1:10,000,000 shows only large features Large scale: large fraction such as 1:25,000 shows great detail for a small area small scale vs large scale often confused

19 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Multi-scale The same feature represented in different scales. Example: lake Large scale (1:25.000) Small scale 1:

20 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Multi-formats Raster Vector Raster-Vector- Raster DXF-DGN-etc. Shapefile KML Etc.

21 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Geographic Database Geographic Data Characteristics/Examples Definitions: Entity/Attribute/Dataset/Database Data Modeling Spatial representation Vector/Raster Topology

22 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Descriptive Data vs Geographic Data Descriptive Data: Descriptive attributes Geographic Data: Descriptive attributes Spatial attributes Location Form

23 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Geographic Data Characteristics : Position: explicit geographic reference Cartesian coordinates :X,Y,Z Geographic coordinates (lat, log) implicit geographic reference Address Place-name Etc. Geometric Form: ex: a polygon representing a parcel of land

24 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example1: Parcel of land Attribute (descriptive) Data Landowner Area Etc. Spatial data Position Located at 100 Nelson Mandela Ave X= a; Y=b within system (X,Y) Form dimensions (sides and arcs, constituting a polygon)

25 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example 2: District Attribute (Descriptive) data: District-Code District-Name Population 1990 Population 2000 Population 2010 Spatial data: Geographical Position Polygon

26 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial entity We use the term entity to refer to a phenomenon that can not be subdivided into like units. Example: a house is not divisible into houses, but can be split into rooms. Others: a lake, a statistical unit, a school, etc. In database management systems, the collection of objects that share the same attributes. An entity is referenced by a single identifier, perhaps a place- name, or just a code number

27 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Attribute Each spatial entity has one or more attributes that identify what the entity is, and describe it. Example: you can categorize roads by whether they are local roads, highways, etc; by their length; their width; their pavement; etc. The type of analysis you plan to do depends on the type of attributes you are working with.

28 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Dataset A dataset is a single collection of values or objects without any particular requirement as to form of organization. Example: Streets, rivers, cities, etc.

29 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Geographic Database A geographic database is a collection of spatial data and related descriptive data organized for efficient storage, manipulation and analysis by many users. It supports all the different types of data that can be used by a GIS such as: Attribute tables Geographic features Satellite and aerial imagery Surface modeling data Survey measurements

30 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Modeling Data Modeling is the process of defining (geographic features) to be included in the database, their attributes and relationships, and their internal representation in the Database. It involves the development of conceptual, logical and physical models of the geographic Database. The outcomes include a Data Dictionary

31 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Modeling Process Reality Geographic Database Modeling (data & processing.) Abstracting the Real World

32 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Conceptual Model Logical Model Real World Physical Model External Model 1 Different users have different views of the world ANSI/SPARC: Study Group on Data Base Management Systems (1975) External Model 2External Model 3

33 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Conceptual Model A synthesis of all external models (users views). Schematic representations of phenomena and how they are related. Information content of the database (not the physical storage) so that the same conceptual model may be appropriate for diverse physical implementations. Therefore, the conceptual model is independent from technology.

34 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Conceptual Model (cont.) Easy to read Conceived for the analyst or designer Objective representation of the reality, therefore independently from the selected GDB System One conceptual model for the Database

35 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Logical Model & Physical Model We transform the conceptual model into a new modeling level which is more computing oriented: the logical model (Example: the Relational Database approach) We transform the logical model into an internal model (physical model) which is concerned with the byte-level data structure of the database. Whereas the logical model is concerned with tables and data records, the physical model deals with storage devices, file structure, access methods, and locations of data.

36 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Several types of data organization Hierarchical model - Hierarchical relationships between data(parent- child) Network Model - Focus on connections (e.g. airline booking system) Relational model - Based on relations (tables)- True Relat. DBMS use SQL Object-Oriented model - Focus on Objects

37 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Entity-relationship Formalism ENTITY_NAME1 -attribute 1 -attribute 2 … ENTITY_NAME2 -attribute 1 -attribute 2 … 0-N 0-1 Minimum cardinality Maximum cardinality (indeterminable/any number) Attributes Association (relationship) Entity Entity name Identifier (key-attribute) (0,N) refers to the cardinality of the relationship

38 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 An example of land parcels

39 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 The E/R diagram for land parcels STREET -name PARCEL -number POINT -number -x,y 2-N 3-N 2-N SEGMENT -number LANDOWNER -name -date-of-birth 1-N AB C D A: Streets have edges (segments) B: parcels have boundaries (segments) C: line have two endpoints D: parcels have owners, and people own land.

40 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Tables

41 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Dictionary Definition: A data catalog that describes the contents of a database. Information is listed about each field in the attribute table and about the format, definitions and structures of the attribute tables. A data dictionary is an essential component of metadata information.

42 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example Definition of entities RAIL: way of communication and transportation Definition of attributes RAIL-ID: reference numbers for rail segments RAIL_CLASS: single track, double track, electrified, etc. RAIL_NAME: name for particular railway Explanations for measurements of attributes (type of attribute values) or coding practices RAIL-ID: INTEGER RAIL-NAME: CHARACTER, LONG=30

43 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Sample components of a digital EA map

44 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 EA database entities EA EA-code Area Pop. Street Number Name --- Buildings Number HHs Etc. Crew leader area CL-code Name RO responsible Admin. Unit AU AU_Pop. --- Landmark

45 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example of Relations EA entity can be linked to the entity crew leader area. The table for this entity could have attributes such as the name of the crew leader, the regional office responsible, contact information, and the crew leader code (CL code) as primary code, which is also present in the EA entity. Crew leader area CL-code Name RO responsible 1-N EA EA-code Area Pop. 1-1 R

46 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Entity: Enumeration areas EA-code Area Pop. CL-code … … … Identifier Type (attributes)

47 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Components of a digital EA database Boundary database

48 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 A Simpler Alternative In many countries, EA map design may be simpler than in this example Instead of a fully integrated digital base map in vector format, rasterized images of topographic maps may be used as a backdrop for EA boundaries In some instances, map features may be more generalized, for instance by using only the centerlines for the streets and polygons for entire city blocks rather than for individual houses

49 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Representation Raster Vector Real World

50 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Two Fundamental Types of Data GIS work with two fundamentally different types of geographic information Vector Raster (or Grid) Both types have unique advantages and disadvantages A GIS should be able to handle both types

51 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector Data Vector data are stored as a series of x,y coordinates Good for discrete data representation points: wells, town centroids lines: roads, rivers, contours polygons: enumeration areas, districts, town boundaries, building footprints

52 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Raster Data A raster image is a collection of grid cells - like a scanned map or picture Raster data is extremely useful for continuous data representation elevation slope modeling surfaces Satellite imagery and aerial photos are commonly used raster data sets

53 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector vs Raster or Discrete vs Continuous River Vector Raster x1,y1 xn,yn

54 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Raster-Vector conversion (vectorization)

55 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector data + image (raster)

56 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector: Points, lines, polygons Set of geometric primitives: pointslinespolygons node vertex x y

57 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector Structure Spaghetti Topology Spaghetti Topology

58 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spaghetti File No Topology = raw file or spagehetti file Lines not connected; have no intelligence

59 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example of Spaghetti data structure Poly coordinates A (1,4), (1,6), (6,6), (6,4), (4,4), (1,4) B (1,4), (4,4), (4,1), (1,1), (1,4) C (4,4), (6,4), (6,1), (4,1), (4,4) A BC

60 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Topology Data structure in which each point, line and piece or whole of a polygon : knows where it is knows what is around it understands its environment knows how to get around Helps answer the question what is where?

61 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Topology: Spatial Relationships Adjacency Connectivity Containment Left Polygon = A Right Polygon = B Node 1 = Chains A,B,C Chain A is connected to chains B & C Polygon B Contained within polygon A

62 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Example of Topological data structure A BC Node X Y Lines I 1 4 1,2,4 II 4 4 4,5,6 III 6 4 1,3,5 IV 4 1 2,3, IIIIII IV Poly Lines A 1,4,5 B 2,4,6 C 3,5,6 From To Left Right Line Node Node Poly Poly 1 I III O A 2 I IV B O 3 III IV O C 4 I II A B 5 II III A C 6 II IV C B O = outside polygon

63 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Encoding Topology (not): CAD

64 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Encoding Topology: GIS

65 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Comparison Spaghetti Topology -Set of independent objects - Representation of heterogonous objects within the same model -Appropriate to CAD -Pre-calculation of topological relations -Maintenance of topological constraints - correspondence with exchange formats Advantages:

66 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 …cont. Spaghetti Topology -Spatial Relationships calculated - Risk of incoherence (duplication of common boundaries) -High cost of up-to-date -Many levels of indirections for complex objects -Maintenance Disadvantages:

67 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Some well known Topological models TIGER: Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (Census Bureau of the USA) Line is the principal element to which are related points and area features ARC/INFO model: ESRI Point, Line, Polygon

68 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 TIGER Data: Polygon Counties MCDsCensus Tracts Block Groups Voting Districts Zip CodesCities

69 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 TIGER Data: Line StreamsStreetsRailroads

70 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 TIGER Data: Point Key LocationsLandmarksPlace NamesZip+4 Centroids

71 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Recapitulation on spatial models Transformations between models: vectorization of raster images (costly) topology toward spaghetti (easy) spaghetti toward topology (possible but costly) The vector model most used, essentially topology; its useful to integrate raster and vector

72 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial Analysis select features by their attributes: find all districts with literacy rates < 60% select features by geographic relationships find all family planning clinics within this district combined attributes/geographic queries find all villages within 10km of a health facility that have high child mortality Query operations are based on the SQL (Structured Query Language) concept

73 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Examples (query): What is at…? Features that meet a set of criteria

74 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial Analysis (cont.) Buffer: find all settlements that are more than 10km from a health clinic Point-in-polygon operations: identify for all villages into which vegetation zone they fall Polygon overlay: combine administrative records with health district data Network operations: find the shortest route from village to hospital

75 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Modeling/Geoprocessing modeling: identify or predict a process that has created or will create a certain spatial pattern diffusion: how is the epidemic spreading in the province? interaction: where do people migrate to? what-if scenarios: if the dam is built, how many people will be displaced?

76 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 is nearest to Point/point Which family planning clinic is closest to the village? Point/line Which road is nearest to the village Same with other combinations of spatial features

77 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 is nearest to: Thiessen Polygons

78 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 is near to: Buffer Operations Point buffer Affected area around a polluting facility Catchment area of a water source

79 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Buffer Operations Line buffer How many people live near the polluted river? What is the area impacted by highway noise

80 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Buffet Operations Polygon buffer Area around a reservoir where development should not be permitted

81 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 is within: point in polygon Which of the cholera cases are within the containment area

82 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Problem: We may have a set of point coordinates representing clusters from a demographic survey and we would like to combine the survey information with data from the census that is available by enumeration areas. Solution: Point-in-Polygon operation will identify for each point the EA area into which it falls and will attach the census data to the attribute record of that survey point.

83 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Polygon Overlay

84 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 overlaps: Polygon overlay

85 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Data Layers

86 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial aggregation Example of Spatial aggregation: fusion of many provinces constituting an economic region

87 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial data transformation: interpolation Example 1: Based on a set of station precipitation surface estimates, we can create a raster surface that shows rainfall in the entire region

88 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS capabilities: Visualization

89 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Implementing a GIS Consider the strategic purpose Plan for the planning Determine technology requirements Determine the end products Define the system scope Create a data design Choose a data model Determine system requirements Analyze benefits and costs Make an implementation plan Source: Thinking About GIS, Third Edition Geographic Information System Planning for Managers

90 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS: Enables us to handle very large amounts of data Example: census data – thousands of EAs – hundreds of variables – many complementary data layers (roads, rivers, public facilities) Example: remote sensing – satellites send huge amounts of data that need to be processed, interpreted and stored

91 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 GIS: Helps to make data re-usable and useful to many more users Census geography – EA maps do not have to be redrawn every time, only updated – census information can be used for many more applications – data sharing among agencies

92 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 In Conclusion GIS for inventory/visualization GIS creates maps from data pulled from databases anytime to any scale for anyone GIS for database management GIS for spatial analysis/modeling GIS a tool to query, analyze, and map data in support of the decision making process.

93 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 What is Not GIS GPS – Global Positioning System …not just software! …not just for making maps! Maps are an input data to and a product of a GIS A way to visualize the analysis

94 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Literature related to Census Mapping & GIS US National Research Council: Tools and Methods for Estimating Populations At Risk David Martin (1996) Geographic Information Systems: Socioeconomic Applications Longley and al, Wiley (2005) Geographic Information Systems and Science, second edition ESRI Press: Unlocking the Census with GIS Mapping the Census 2000

95 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Contact Information: Demographic Statistics Section UN Statistics Division New York Merci pour votre attention

96 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Compromise projections

97 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector to Raster Conversion: Polygons c b a

98 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Vector to Raster Conversion: Lines

99 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Raster to Vector Conversion: Polygons

100 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Raster to Vector Conversion: Polygons

101 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial Operations adjacent to connected to near to intersects with within overlaps etc.

102 Atelier regional sur lorganisation et la cartographie des recensements, Rabat, Maroc, novembre 2007 Spatial relationships Logical connections between spatial objects represented by points, lines and polygons e.g., - point-in-polygon - line-line - polygon-polygon


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