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(recommandation de Johanesburg)

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Présentation au sujet: "(recommandation de Johanesburg)"— Transcription de la présentation:

1 (recommandation de Johanesburg)
Global Water Partnership Comment faire un plan GIRE ? (recommandation de Johanesburg) [No clicks] WSSD target can help advance not just sustainable management and development of water resources, but also many key development goals… BUT ONLY IF countries approach it as an opportunity to take a more strategic look at their water resources.

2 Progrès Progrès dans plusieurs pays pour atteindre l’objectif.
Mais beaucoup doivent accroître leurs efforts. Bons progrès Quelques progrès [1 click - 2nd point on your click] Démarrage.

3 Pourquoi les progrès ne sont pas plus importants?
Incertitude sur: Ce que la GIRE signifie et comment elle contribue au développement durable social et économique Ce qu’est une stratégie GIRE et son rôle dans les réformes Comment procéder pour développer une stratégie [4 clicks - one line per click] 3 main reasons countries are stalled at the initial stages of strategy development: uncertainty over…. To address this uncertainty, the GWP has put together a handbook for those directly engaged in strategy development. And an accompanying policy briefing, aimed at mobilizing high-level support for the process.

4 Fournir des orientations
Le manuel du GWP Objectif: Fournir aux pays les outils et connaissances dont ils ont besoin pour atteindre la cible du SMDD. [1 click - 2nd point on your click] A contribution to the 2005 Water Resources Alliance—an initiative by the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), UN-HABITAT, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Bank and the Global Water Partnership to coordinate and strengthen their support to developing countries to achieve the IWRM 2005 target. Made possible by support from Norway’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

5 Un Manuel pour le changement
Le manuel couvre: Concepts – La signification de la GIRE – le rôle de la stratégie GIRE et Efficacité de l’eau Contenu – Comment décider sur le contenu de la stratégie Processus – Etapes du développement d’une stratégie et comment éviter les écueils Action – Conseils pour assurer la mise en oeuvre effective [4 clicks - one bullet point per click] Offers lessons and recommendations collected through: the GWP’s world-wide network of partners, and through a number of specially convened workshops, which brought together representatives engaged in preparing strategies from countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. Stakeholders and professionals representing a wide range of water and development expertise also contributed through an inclusive process of consultation and review. Focused on the initial steps needed to get countries moving towards more sustainable and efficient ways of managing their water resources. Aimed at helping developing countries, but also useful for developed countries.

6 Signification de la GIRE
[No click] Means different things to different people, which is OK. IWRM is a flexible tool founded on the Dublin principles. It is not a rigid framework or a recipe that has to be followed to the letter. It should be adapted to local circumstances. BUT there is a tendency to privilege some aspects of IWRM and forget about others that are equally important for sustainable water management.

7 Les bases de l’intégration
Plus de coordination entre les secteurs dans les prises de décisions … [1 click - “and scales.” + pyramid on your click] Scales aspect of IWRM is often forgotten. But it is necessary in order to: Put into practice the 2nd Dublin Principle: Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels. Achieve more efficient use of limited water resources Ensure decision-making is taking place at the lowest appropriate level. And that decisions made at local and river-basin levels are in-line with, or at least do not conflict with, the achievement of broader national objectives, and in turn, that national objectives reflect local needs. In some countries means more decentralized decision-making. E.g. In Thailand, where IWRM approach used to improve the responsiveness of water management to local conditions and to resolve conflicts that had arisen during phase of centralized water management. In others, means bumping some types of decisions up to the river basin or national level – for example decisions on water allocation frameworks.

8 Malentendus La GIRE demande une complète intégration
Les prises de décisions sectorielles doivent être totalement abandonnées. [3 clicks - one bullet point per click + click for “No” symbol Often get this from people who are looking for reasons to reject IWRM and prevent change instead of looking for ways to use IWRM to promote positive change.

9 Risques d’une approche sectorielle
Impacts négatifs sur l’environnement et les autres secteurs Utilisation inefficace des resources naturelles et financières Approche Intégrée Approche Sectorielle [2 clicks - 1 bullet point per click]

10 Risques d’une approche intégrée
Se noyer dans la complexité. Pas le meilleur usage de l’expertise des spécialistes. Approche Sectorielle Approche Intégrée [2 clicks - 1 bullet point per click]

11 Rechercher un équilibre
En fonction de la situation sociale, politique et hydrologique, chaque pays doit décider où l’intégration est la plus pertinente. Approche Intégrée Approche sectorielle [No clicks]

12 Pas seulement les ressources physiques
- La GIRE, pour la gestion des ressources physiques (terres, eau, forêts, pêches, bétail)… …mais aussi, une réforme de systèmes humains pour permettre aux populations (femmes et hommes) de tirer profit équitablement et durablement de ces ressources. [1 click – first give opening half of sentence with visuals 2.5 seconds to unfold; then on your click “…it is also about reforming human systems to enable people—women as well as men—to reap sustainable and equitable benefits from those resources”; give 2nd set of visuals 2.5 seconds to unfold] GWP definition: An IWRM approach promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximize the resultant economic and social welfare in an equitable manner without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems. In the end, success of IWRM measured in benefits to a country’s citizens.

13 Quel est le rôle d’une stratégie?
[No click]

14 Catalyseur pour le changement
Une stratégie GIRE peut être un catalyseur pour l’action et en définitive pour un changement positif. [No clicks] Fundamentally, about catalyzing change in water governance, i.e., the range of political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place to develop and manage water resources and deliver water services, at different levels of society.

15 Une approche cohérente du changement
Une stratégie devrait conduire à l’action, en fournissant une approche cohérente et mesurée pour changer la gouvernance . Rôles institutionnels Stratégie Environnement favorable [2 clicks - 1st click) strategy visual; 2nd click) remaining visuals] To do this [catalyze change], strategies need to encompass changes in the enabling environment, in institutional roles, and in management instruments. Enable countries to approach this change within the context of achieving larger goals, and lay out a well thought-out sequence for change. Considers: What changes must happen to achieve agreed-upon goals? Where is change possible given the current social, political, and economic situation? What is the logical sequence for change? What changes need to come first to make other changes possible? Instruments De gestion

16 Pas seulement un nouveau “Plan”
Différences entre une stratégie GIRE et un plan traditionnel: Dynamique plutôt que statique— fournit un cadre pour un processus continu et adaptable d’ actions stratégiques et coordonnées Implication de multiples secteurs—par ex. santé, énergie, finance, tourisme, industrie, agriculture, environnement. [3 clicks - one point with visual per click; (will appear as one with next slide) ] Chosen to use the word “strategy” rather than “plan” to emphasize dynamic and change-oriented process that we feel is called for. Unlike a water plan, which lays out a definitive sequence of actions and decisions, an IWRM strategy aims at laying down a framework for a continuing and adaptive process of strategic and coordinated action. While a water plan is usually designed and implemented by a water agency, an IWRM strategy requires input and buy-in from all sectors that impact and are impacted by water development and management—for example, health, energy, finance, tourism, industry, agriculture, and environment. Need to get the message out that it is not just about water. Other sectors have a stake too, and as competition for water increases along with population, climate change and pollution of useable supplies, policymakers in other sectors should be taking an active interest in how water decisions are made, as well as how their own decision-making impacts their country’s water resources.

17 Pas seulement un autre “Plan”
Différences entre une stratégie GIRE et un plan traditionnel: Vision plus large : eau en relation avec d’autres éléments nécessaires, afin d’atteindre des objectifs de développement plus larges ou relever les défis de l’eau. Plus de participation intensive des acteurs + ? [3 clicks - 1)click to “broader focus…” (give visuals 2.5 seconds to unfold); 2)click to erase; 3)click “more extensive…” (give 1.5 seconds to unfold)] Whereas water plans tend to be driven principally by water issues alone, an IWRM strategy looks at water in relation to other ingredients needed to achieve larger development goals or meet water challenges. Because it calls for change—and therefore buy-in—at multiple levels, strategy development requires broader and more extensive participation from stakeholders than a traditional planning process. Core stakeholders to engage in formulating a strategy may include government ministries and related institutions involved in such areas as domestic water supply and sanitation, irrigation, agriculture, energy, health, industry, finance, transport, fisheries, environment, and tourism; and water utilities, agencies and related bodies. Other stakeholders will need to be involved at key stages of the process, including communities and civil-society and private-sector organizations. All stakeholders—from policy makers to the farmers in the field—need to understand how the strategy process benefits them and how it addresses their concerns and challenges, as well as the larger goals of the society. = Buts

18 Première étape Equité Durabilité Efficience Une stratégie est une première étape importante, pas une fin en soi. Stratégie [no clicks; give visuals 1 second to unfold] What we DO NOT want to see happen is that countries produce ambitious strategies that look great on paper, but that do not result in concrete actions—a danger with any kind of strategy. Main ways to avoid: Ensuring high-level commitment and broad-based support and participation Being realistic in terms of what can be accomplished given the current socio-economic, institutional, and political context.

19 Comment les pays peuvent développer une stratégie?

20 Approche de développement dans une stratégie
Approche ciblée – centrée sur des problèmes spécifiques liés à l’eau, qui empêchent d’atteinte des objectifs. Approche large – en considérant les différentes manières par lesquelles le développement et la gestion des ressources en eau peuvent favoriser l’atteinte des objectifs de développement ou les entraver. [2 clicks - 1st click) Targeted approach (give visuals 2 seconds to unfold); 2nd click) Broad approach] In theory, a comprehensive approach that seeks to optimize water’s contribution to sustainable development across the board should have a greater impact. In practice, starting with concrete issues may yield better results. According to the GWP’s informal survey, countries that have made the most progress towards more integrated and sustainable approaches to water have often started by focusing on specific water challenges associated with development goals. Ex. South Africa developed one of the most progressive approaches to water in the world, by focusing first on the challenge of providing every citizen with access to good quality drinking water. This type of “problem-based” approach more readily leads to an action strategy based on tangible and immediate issues and can help win broad public support. However, it can also lead to a dead-end or to the same kind of myopic decision-making found in more sectoral approaches. The keys to avoiding these dangers are to ensure that the strategy is firmly linked to larger sustainable development goals and that the objective is not simply to solve a particular problem but to take the opportunity to put into place processes that will facilitate better water development and management decisions on an on-going basis.

21 Points d’entrée possibles
Atteindre les OMD Aborder un problème récurant gênant le développement national — ex. réduire la vulnérabilité aux sécheresses et inondations [2 clicks - each point with visuals will appear on your click; this slide will appear as one with next 2]

22 Points d’entrée possibles
Remédier à des situations non durables et atténuer le coût environnemental des politiques passées [1 click - 1st click) “Sharing transboundary…”] Partager les ressources en eau transfrontalières

23 Points d’entrée possibles
Développer des liens entre gestion des eaux douces et gestion des ressources cotières. [No clicks] Particularly important for Small Island Developing States

24 Idées fausses Le développement d’une stratégie nécessite de “partir de zéro”. Les stratégies demandes des changements immédiats et à large échelle. [2 clicks - each point with visual on your click] While adopting a more sustainable and integrated approach to water management and development does require change in many areas and at many levels, does not mean that major initial reforms are essential. First steps that can easily be implemented are enough to catalyze the process. A well-thought out set of changes—the kind embodied in a strategy—will produce more sustainable results than either an attempt to completely overhaul the whole system or an ad hoc approach to change.

25 Construire sur l’existant
La stratégie GIRE peut se construire à partir de plans “Eau” existants ou en incorporant l’eau dans des stratégies nationales de développement. [2 clicks - each point with visual(s) on your click] Elle peut aussi se construire à partir de cadres et de planifications existants et mettre en oeuvre les changements au bon moment.

26 Liaison entre plans et autres stratégies
Une stratégie doit relier les stratégies et plans nationaux et régionaux entre eux. Exemples: Stratégies nationales pour atteindre les OMD Document de stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté (PRSP) Plan National ou Stratégie de développement durable Plan d’Action et Stratégie Nationale pour la Biodiversité Plan National pour combatte la désertification Plan National de Développement du Rôle des femmes [no clicks – give text 4 seconds to unfold]

27 Ce qui est nécessaire? Processus et résultats peuvent différer d’un pays à l’autre mais les éléments basiques sont identiques: Haut niveau de leadership et d’implication Large appui Outils, capacités, connaissances [3 clicks - each bullet point with visual(s) on your click] Without strong political support from the top leadership of a country, as well as from local government, it is difficult to even get the strategy development process off the ground. Without continuing commitment at these levels, implementing the changes needed to move towards integrated approaches is next to impossible. On the other hand if the process does not take care to establish a broad base of support and relies entirely on political will to move it forward, it may be completely derailed by a change in political regime. And without the participation and buy-in of stakeholders at all levels, implementation will not be possible. Tools, capacity, knowledge also key ingredients—adding section to the Toolbox particularly to support strategy development with tools, links to other organizations and resources, and opportunities for knowledge-sharing.

28 Conclusions Les stratégies peuvent prendre diverses formes — avec divers point de départ, différents buts et différents degrés et rythme de changement. Toute stratégie devrait : Servir de catalyseur d’un changement positif de la gouvernance. Etablir un cadre pour plus de coordination dans les prises de décisions sur une base an on-going basis. Etre traduite en actions réalisables — prendre en compte la situation du pays sur le plan politique, social et tenir compte de ses capacités. [5 clicks – each point/sub-point on your click] The action target set by the WSSD can result in a huge step towards sustainable and efficient use of our natural and financial resources, or it can be just a paper exercise. In the end, a strategy’s success or failure depends on its ability to catalyze change. This is what matters—not the specific process, not the form of the strategy document, but whether or not it results in positive action.

29 Merci

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